Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Biochemical and Histological Parameters of Alcohol Administration in Wistar Rats

O. G. Dawodu, O. A. T. Ebuehi, O. S. Odesanmi, M. O. Olalekan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v32i630102

Animal model development of alcohol administration in rats is of crucial importance as it gives indirect information to effects of alcohol in humans. An indirect assessment of this would be the biochemical and histological data that could arise from such experiments.

20 Male Wistar rats weighing (63.50±3.79 g), were divided into four groups (consisting 15 treated animals and 5 control animals) and administered with varying concentrations of ethanol (5% 15% and 40%) via intragastric intubation for a period of 28 days. Probic evaluations, liver biochemical enzymes and alteration in histology profile of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and viscera organs (namely the liver, kidney, heart and lungs) were determined after experimental duration.

At 40% ethanol administration, the rats showed biochemically significant decrease in serum gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), serum aspartate (AST) and Alanine amino transferase (ALT) when compared to normal study while 5% and 15% ethanol administered rats were comparable with control values i.e. normal study. Probic evaluations such as body weight, water intake and food intake showed percentage decrease in 40% ethanol administrated rat when compared with controls. The photomicrographs of the 5% and 15% ethanol administered rats indicated mild damage in their histological profiles when compared to the normal study while there was more adverse damage occurring in the 40% ethanol administrated rats.

Conclusion: From this study, serum aspartate (AST), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and Alanine amino transferase (ALT), probic evaluation (body weight, food intake and water intake) coupled with histopathological investigation may be used as biomarker for the early diagnosis of ethanol toxicity in human beings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Taxonomical Investigation on Some Species of Genus Allium Based on the Pollen Morphology

Mehdi Heidarian, Seyed Mohammad Mehdi Hamdi, Mohammad Mehdi Dehshiri, Taher Nejadsattari, Seyed Mohammad Masoumi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v32i630103

Aims: The aim of this research was to investigate the morphological characteristics of the pollen grain of some species of genus Allium.

Methodology: The pollen grains were examined by using Light Microscopy (LM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the pollen grains of one species under Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).

Results: The pollen grains were oblate and medium in shape and size. The pollen ornamentation of exine surface, exine ornamentation on sulcus edge, lumina number in the exine surface and the state of pollen grain apex in the examined species were different. Semitectate and columellate ectexine with discontinuous endexine were seen in the pollen wall structure (sporoderm). The dendrogram obtained from the pollen characters in SEM observations by using the numerical taxonomy system (NTSYS) software placed the studied species in two types.

Conclusion: Our palynological dendrogram can be used for segregation the sections and subgenera taxonomical levels in the studied species of genus Allium and confirmed the phylogram of the recent phylogenetic research.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phylogenetic Relationship of Bacterial Species Involved in Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon Polluted Soils

R. B. Agbor, S. P. Antai

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v32i630104

The bio-stimulation of hydrocarbon degrading microbial population in soil using agricultural wastes was carried out. Top soil (0-25 cm depth) from three points were bulked to form composite soil samples, 6 kg each of the composite soil sample was weighed and transferred into 150 plastic buckets with drainage holes at the base. The soil in each plastic bucket was spiked with 300 ml crude oil and amended with different concentrations of agro-wastes and allowed for duration of 30, 60 and 90 days.  The soil samples were then collected and analysed for both total heterotrophic bacterial counts and crude-oil utilizing bacterial counts. Data collected were subjected to a three-way analysis of variance and significant means were separated using Least Significant Difference Test at 5% probability level. The result showed that the application of the amendments increased the bacterial counts in the soil at different treatment levels. However, a higher proliferation rate was observed with bacteria counts exposed to higher waste concentrations compared to their counterparts exposed to lower waste concentrations. The phylogenetic relationship of the hydrocarbon degrading bacterial species shows that the identified bacteria were in two clusters: cluster 1 consist of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus altitudinis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis and Proteus penneri, while cluster 2 consist of Serratia marcescens, Providencia rettgeri and Enterobacter asburiae. The bacterial species obtained shows a greater relationship, this imply that the similarity of the bacterial species could be the reason for their high proficiency in degrading the hydrocarbons in the soil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Power-law Behavior of the Alternative Splicing of Exons in Human Transcriptome

Vasily V. Grinev, Petr V. Nazarov, Eugene A. Klimov

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v32i630105

Aims: To establish the common rules of exon combinatorics during RNA splicing.

Study Design: Inferring a plausible statistical model of exon combinatorics from the annotated models of human genes during RNA splicing.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Genetics (Belarusian State University), Proteome and Genome Research Unit (Luxembourg Institute of Health), Department of Genetics (Lomonosov Moscow State University) and Moscow Center of Experimental Embryology and Reproductive Biotechnologies, between January 2017 and July 2019.

Methodology: We used human mRNA and EST sequences from GenBank (1093522 unique records in total) and linear models of the human genes from Ensembl (58051 genes), AceView (72384 genes), ECgene (57172 genes), NCBI RefSeq (54262 genes), UCSC Genome Browser (58037 genes) and VEGA (54950 genes) to calculate a combinatorial index of human exons. We inferred the most plausible statistical model describing the distribution of combinatorial index of human exons using Clauset’s mathematical formalism. Predictors of the combinatorial index values and functional outcomes of the predefined behavior of exons during splicing were also determined.

Results: Power-law is the most plausible statistical model describing the combinatorics of exons during RNA splicing. The combinatorial index of human exons is defined by more than 90% by the 138 features that have different importance. The most important of these features are the abundance of exon in transcripts, the strength of splice sites, the rank of exon in transcripts and the type of exon. Analysis of the marginal effects shows that different values of the same feature have unequal influence on the combinatorial index of human exons. Power-law behavior of exons during RNA splicing pre-determines structural diversity of transcripts, low sensitivity of splicing process to random perturbations and its high vulnerability to manipulation with highly combinative exons.

Conclusion: Exons widely involved in alternative splicing are a part of the common power-law phenomenon in human cells. The power-law behavior of exons during RNA splicing gives the unique characteristics to human genes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Epidemiology and Clinical Profile of Male Infertility at the Fertilization Centre IRIFIV in Casablanca, Morocco, around 295 Cases

Modou Mamoune Mbaye, Bouchra El Khalfi, Achraf Zakaria, Brahim Saadani, Noureddine Louanjli, Abdelaziz Soukri

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v32i630106

Objective: Male infertility is a scourge of the 21st century. Its management remains a real headache. The objective of this study is to describe the general profile of male infertility at the IRIFIV In Vitro Fertilization Center, Casablanca, Morocco.

Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective and descriptive study of 295 patient files seen in consultation for conjugal infertility of the couple between 2017 and 2018. The parameters studied were clinical elements and paraclinical explorations.

Results: The average age of the patients was 37.5 years. The average duration of evolution of infertility was 5.5 years. Infertility was primary in 70.9% of cases and secondary in 29.1% of cases. Clinically, varicocele was the most common abnormality in 65.9% of patients. The seminogram was disrupted in 72% of cases. The main disturbances were oligozoospermia in 40.20% of cases and asthenozoospermia in 37% of cases.

Conclusion: The general profile of infertility is polymorphic. The causes of male infertility noted are multifactorial. Male infertility usually results in a quantitative and/or qualitative abnormality of the sperm. The improvement of the management of infertility must go through new ways of research including genetic and immunological for a good identification of usually hidden causes of infertility.

Open Access Original Research Article

Floristic Analysis and Phytosociology in an Area of Caatinga, Brazil

Alexandro Dias Martins Vasconcelos, Gabriela Gomes Ramos, Robson José de Oliveira, Maria José de Holanda Leite, Ikallo George Nunes Henriques, Naiara Maria de Araújo Rios Ribeiro, Géssica dos Santos Vasconcelos

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v32i630107

Studies on the composition and structure of vegetation can provide important information for decision-making and the application of forest-management techniques. The aim of this research was to analyse an area of ​​Caatinga using vegetation characterisation and forest inventory in the Rocha Eterna Community, in the district of São João do Piauí, Brazil. Simple Random Sampling was used, installing 17 sampling units of 20 x 20 m. The phytosociological parameters of the horizontal and vertical structure, the floristic diversity of the species and the timber production in the area were evaluated. Fabaceae was the most representative family. The three most representative species in the area were Senna acuruensis (Benth.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby, Sideroxylon obtusifolium (Roem. & Schult.) T. D. Penn. and Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir. The Shannon-Weaver diversity index (H') for the area was 1.74 nats.ind-1. The estimated basal area for the area was 8.68 m².ha-1. The estimated actual volume was 36.56 m³.ha-1. Species diversity in the fragment under study was considered low.