Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Morphological and Biochemical Characteristics of Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench] Varieties in Response Salinity Stress

Wilton Mbinda, Musa Kimtai

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v33i130110

Salinity is among the most severe and widespread environmental constrains to global crop production, especially in arid and semi-arid climates and negatively affecting productivity of salt sensitive crop species. Breeding and selection of salt tolerant crop varieties is therefore necessary for sustainable plant productivity. Given that germination and seeding phases are the most critical phase in the plant life cycle, this study aimed to evaluate seed germination potential and associated traits under salt stress conditions as a simple approach to identify salt tolerant sorghum varieties [Gadam, Sc Sila and Serena] which are adaptated to various agroecological regions. Salinity stress was applied by addition of NaCl at three different levels of stress [100, 200 and 300 mM NaCl], while plants irrigated with water were used as control. Evaluation of tolerance was performed on the basis of germination percentage, shoot and seed water absorbance, shoot and root length, leave water content, seedling total chlorophyll content and morphologic abnormality. Our results showed that salinity stress significantly impacts all features associated with germination and early development of seedlings. Our results indicated that salinity stress substantially affects all traits associated with germination and early seedling growth, with the effect of salinity being dependent on the variety used and level of salinity stress applied. Among the tested sorghum varieties, Gadam was established to the most salt tolerant variety, suggesting its potential use for cultivation under salinity stress conditions as well as its suitability for use as germplasm material in future sorghum breeding programmes. For a greater insight into comprehensive mechanisms of salinity tolerance in sorghum, we suggest further research on genomic and molecular analysis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of Bovine Growth Hormone (BGH) Gene Polymorphism Using PCR-RFLP Method in Buffalo Bulls

M. I. S. Hazlan Shah, M. S. Salisi, H. Wahid, M. S. Yahaya, Y. Rosnina, M. Zamri-Saad, M. Ariff Omar, A. Punimin, H. A. Hassim, Hafandi Ahmad, M. I. Nur Mahiza

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v33i130111

Growth Hormone (GH) is a single polypeptide chain synthesised and secreted from anterior pituitary gland by somatroph cells. The product of GH gene hastens metabolism and promotes the growth of many organs and tissues especially bone, muscle and visceral organs. It also regulates growth, mammary gland development and lactation. Polymorphism in this gene is associated with increase in growth and development of many tissues in the body.

Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the polymorphism of bovine growth hormone (bGH) gene in buffalo bulls (Bubalus bubalis) using the PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism) technique.

Design: Genomic DNA was extracted from a total of 10 bulls, consisting of Murrah – Swamp crossbred and pure Swamp buffalo bulls. A The 446 segment of the bGH gene was amplified. The DNA amplicons were detected in 2% agarose gel following 45 minutes of electrophoresis. They were thereafter digesting with AluI endonuclease restriction enzyme, and the digested DNA were detected in 2% agarose gel following electrophoresis for about 45minutes in all samples

Results: Similar bands of approximately 300 and 146-bp each, with no variation, were detected in 2% agarose gel following electrophoresis in all the animals tested.

Conclusion: Based on the Alu1 digestion result, all samples produced the same allele of the gene, with no polymorphism detected.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of the Habitat on Marine Macroalgae Toxicity

Sergio Alvarez-Hernández, Cruz Lozano-Ramírez, Mónica Rodríguez-Palacio

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v33i130113

Macroalgae synthesize molecules that may be toxic to other organisms. These molecules are synthesized as a defense strategy against herbivores. It has been proven that the synthesis process is directed by several physiological, chemical and even spatial-temporal variables. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the complexity of the habitat influences on the expression of marine macroalgae toxicity. Algae of 31 species (39 samples) were collected in localities with different habitat morphology: a coral reef in the Mexican Caribbean, three myxohaline localities in the Yucatán peninsula and six rocky intertidal localities, four of these in the Mexican Pacific and two in the Gulf of Mexico. Results identified 19 strongly toxic species from the reef, followed by algae collected in the rocky intertidal area, and the least number of toxic species in the myxohaline environments. The results support the hypothesis established by several researchers worldwide regarding the complexity of coral reefs, which promotes the synthesis of toxic substances as a defense against herbivores. These substances have been employed as molecules that are useful in the fight against diseases or as synthesis matrices of other compounds with pharmacological potential.

Open Access Review Article

Some Chemical Carcinogens for Leukaemia Induction and Their Animal Models

Abdullahi Aliyu, Mohd Rosly Shaari, Noordin Mohamed Mustapha, Nurul Syahirah Ahmad Sayuti, Mohd Farhan Hanif Reduan, Shanmugavelu Sithambaram, Khozirah Shaari, Hazilawati Hamzah

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v33i130108

Animal models have been providing invaluable contributions to the better understanding of mechanisms of cancer (including leukaemias) development and effectiveness of most of the treatments. Chemical carcinogens are generally used to study the biology of cancers including leukaemias in many animal models, including rats and mice. The studies in most cases are aimed at the development and evaluation of cancer treatments and preventions. Some of the most common chemical carcinogens used in animal models for leukaemias include N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU), N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). This review provides highlights on different animal models of leukaemia induced by the chemical carcinogens mentioned earlier, at the same time discussing the contributions of these models to the leukaemia diagnosis in laboratory animal models for subsequent development of treatment.

Open Access Review Article

Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification LAMP, Simple Alternative Technique of Molecular Diagnosis Process in Medicals Analysis: A Review

T. Uwiringiyeyezu, B. El Khalfi, J. Belhachmi, A. Soukri

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v33i130109

The Medical diagnostic process requires more various methods to cover all sorts of clinical demands. Those methods depend on the types of samples and the requested analysis. The Medical diagnostic is considered as a process until making a clinical decision about a physiopathology or infection through medicals analysis. Nucleic acid amplification methods continue to play a role in these medicals analysis processes, but, many gold conventional standard Methods are time-consumers, less sensitive, technically challenging. It is that reason why recently, after the development of the PCR technique; the real-time PCR became a frequently requested tool to diagnose the virus, bacteria, fungal and parasites infections in different pathologies, especially in developed countries. However, its availability remains a big problem in resource-limited countries like Africa continent. It is because of the issue due to cost, technology, human resource constraints and the remote areas with limited access to laboratory facilities which stays also a major problem.

Nucleic acids amplification methods remain to be expensive, not accessible for all laboratories. In addition to this, they are easily inhibited and contaminated by the other biochemical reagents time-consumer, for this reason, other methods of nucleic acid amplification under isothermal conditions have emerged each with its  particularities. Despite their successes, molecular biology should have a method that combines many of the advantages and accessible everywhere. So, in 2000, the LAMP method was developed and offered many advantages such as speed, specificity, high sensitivity and the cost of very low equipment. In this review, we present the different studies to confirm the advantages of LAMP that we consider as an alternative to PCR in molecular  diagnostics with a wide range of use on clinical samples and in scientific research and also, the method to save the Africans patients from the high cost and time consuming of other amplification methods.

Open Access Review Article

Application of Veterinary Cytogenetics in Domestic Animals: A Review

Muhammad Sanusi Yahaya, Mohd Shahrom Salisi, Nur Mahiza Md. Isa, Abd Wahid Haron, Innocent Damudu Peter

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v33i130112

Cytogenetics is the study of chromosomes; their structure and properties, chromosome behavior during cell division, their influence on traits and factors which cause changes in chromosomes.  Veterinary cytogenetics is the application of cytogenetics to clinical problems that occur in animal production. It has been applied to understand problems such as infertility and its types, embryonic and fetal death, abnormality in sexual and somatic development and hybrid sterility and also prenatal sex determination and other forms of chromosomal abnormalities. These are achieved through conventional and banded karyotyping techniques and molecular cytogenetic techniques. Although conventional techniques are still useful and very widely applied, the nature of cytogenetics has gradually changed as a result of advances achieved in the molecular cytogenetic techniques for example fluorescent in situ hybridization and array-based techniques. These changes are evident in both molecular diagnostics and basic research. The combination of conventional and molecular cytogenetics has given rise to high resolution techniques which have enabled the study of fundamental questions regarding biological processes. It enables the study of inherited syndromes, the mechanisms of tumorigenesis at molecular level, genome organization and the determination of chromosome homologies between species. It allows the ease with which animals are selected in breeding programs and other important aspects of animal production. In this paper we discussed a number of techniques employed in cytogenetics and their methodologies, and recommend where future focus should be for the benefits of animal production.