Open Access Method Article

Cell Membrane Stability and Relative Water Content of Cymbopogon citratus (Lemon Grass)

H. M. Maishanu, A. M. Rabe

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v33i230114

In this research the cell membrane stability (CMS), relative water content (RWC) and effect of different water interval on Cymbopogon citratus (lemon grass) was assessed. The cell membrane stability and relative water content of the plant shows the physiological activity of the plant. The plant sample was subjected to three different watering regimes viz: one, two- and three-days intervals with a control sample irrigated daily for a period of twelve months. Uniform stalk of lemon grass plants were planted into a depth of 7.5 cm composted soil, each treatment was made in triplicate. The evaluated growth parameters where height of the plant, number of leaves and tillers, which were taken weekly for period of twelve months (year). The height shows a significant difference from first to twelfth month after planting. The height of the plant increases simultaneous with the age of the plant. First month after planting show significant difference in height of sample watered daily and treated samples.  The results shows that the RWC (07.14%) and CMS (52.58%) was low in samples under water stress respectively when compared to well-watered samples (55.41%). No significant difference was observed between samples under one, two and three days interval. The number of leaves differs significantly in the first MAP except in the samples watered daily and three days interval. Maximum number of leaves was achieved at twelfth MAP under one day interval (137.33) followed by samples watered daily (126) and two days interval, while three days interval has the least number of leaves (leaf number). The number of tillers shows significant differences between the means at fifth and sixth MAP, (fifth MAP = 73.33 and sixth MAP = 126) and the treatments under one day intervals (fifth MAP = 18.33 and sixth MAP = 35.67). In the research, samples watered daily and under one day intervals shows high productivity when compared to the remaining treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of in vitro Antioxidant Activities of Ethanol Extracts of Datura innoxia Mill. Leaves and Seeds Harvested in Mali

Issiaka Togola, Abdramane Ansoumany Dembélé, Fatoumata Tounkara, Nouhoum Diarra, Mamadou Abdoulaye Konaré, Moussa Karembé, Seydou Zibba Maïga, Doulaye Dembélé

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v33i230115

Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activities of Datura innoxia Mill. leaves and seeds harvested in Mali.

Place and Duration of Study: Collection of plant materials were done at Kolondieba (Mali) in june 2016. Evaluation of polyphenols and flavonoids contents, determination of antioxidant activities were done at Laboratory of Plant and Food Biochemistry and Biotechnology of University of Sciences, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako (Mali) between august 2016 and March 2017.

Methodology: The leaves and seeds were collected in Kolondieba, Mali. The phytochemical screening based on the standard methods of tube reactions has been performed with ethanol extracts. The quantitative estimation of total polyphenols was made by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and that of flavonoids by the use of aluminum trichloride. The in vitro antioxidant activities of the ethanol extracts was determined by three methods: the 1,1- diphenyl - 2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test, the ferric reducing ability power (FRAP) test and the Phosphomolybdate test (PPM).

Results: The phytochemical screening revealed that leaves and seeds of this plant contains alkaloids, polyphenols, flavonoids, coumarins, tannins, triterpenes and saponin. Phenolic contents of ethanol extracts are 30.97 ± 0.33 mg equivalent gallic acid / g in leaves and 14.02 ± 0.15 mg equivalent gallic acid / g in seeds; those of flavonoids are 15.13 ± 0.2 mg equivalent of quercetin / g in the leaves and 4.93 ± 0.41 mg equivalent of quercetin / g in the seeds. The three tests showed that the leaves have a higher level of antiradical activity in vitro than seeds.

Conclusion: The results of this work showed that Datura innoxia Mill. has a good antioxidant activity which would justify its use as a potential source of natural antioxidants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Mutagens on Some Mineral, Phytochemical and Proximate Composition of Two Red Pepper Varieties

N. E. Abu, J. O. Omeke, E. O. Ojua

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v33i230116

Aim: This research was designed to evaluate the effects of different levels of three mutagens on two pepper varieties with a vision of choosing mutants with high values in biochemical contents that may possibly be valuable in breeding improved varieties of the plant.

Methods: Seeds of pepper were exposed to varying doses of gamma rays 60Co (50, 100, 150, and 200Gy), X-ray doses (40, 60, 80, and 100KV) and sodium azide (0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04%). The treated seeds and the controls were grown in the Botanic Garden of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka using a Completely Randomized Design.

Results: The result showed that vitamin C and β-carotene ranged from 5.89 – 26.88 and 2.62 – 11.35 mg/100 g, Fe and Ca (14.70 and 13.78 mg/100 g) were highest in Shombo at 100Gy. Values ranging from 0.36-2.00 and 3.96 – 18.82 mg/100 g were recorded for flavonoid and alkaloid content across all treatment combinations. The result also revealed that at 100Kv and 150Gy, ash content increased in both varieties. The highest protein concentration of 9.57% was recorded at 100Kv of X-ray in Shombo and 6.96% at 150Gy of gamma irradiation in Tatase variety. Principal component analysis explained extracted five principal axis which accounted for the variability of 72.54%.

Conclusion: This study reveals that biochemical content in pepper could be improved with exposure to mutagens especially gamma irradiation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Patterns of Admission Cardiotocography Decisions and Associated Perinatal Outcomes in a Southern Nigerian Teaching Hospital

J. O. Imaralu, F. I. Ani, A. O. Olaleye, J. O. Sotunsa, A. Akadri, O. O. Adebawojo

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v33i230117

Aims: To determine the patterns of obstetric decisions based on Cardiotocography (CTG) findings and the effect of these decisions on labour outcomes.

Study Design: Retrospective observational audit.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Babcock University Teaching Hospital, Ilishan-Remo. Data were obtained from all intrapartum CTG tracings done from January 2016 to December 2018.

Methodology: A consecutive sampling technique was used and the case files, delivery register and follow up records of all included CTG tracings were used to obtain maternal and perinatal data. Data were analyzed using the SPSS version 21.0. Numerical data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD). The Chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables while the independent T-test was used to compare means of groups studied. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the factors related to maternal and perinatal outcomes. The level of statistical significance was be set at p-value of <0.05.

Results: There were 756 deliveries, but only 436 CTGs met the inclusion criteria. The prevalence of abnormal CTG was 130/436 (29.8%); 93/436(21.3%) were suspicious while 37/436 (8.5%) were pathological. On the basis of CTG; 300/436 (68.8%) of the parturients had intermittent fetal heart tone auscultation, 100/436 (22.9%) had continuous Electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) while labour was stopped in 36/436 (8.3%). The 5th minute APGAR score did not depend on the admission CTG finding (0.55), the decision to stop or continue labour (p=0.26) or the use of continuous EFM (P=0.66). Maternal near miss (MNM) was not a consequence of the decision to stop labour (P=0.98) or the use of continuous EFM (P=0.19). The mode of delivery outcome was however a consequence of decisions to continue or stop labour (P <0.001, AOR=0.202, 95%CI=0.153-0.265).  Pregnancy risk was a consistent determinant of maternal outcomes; occurrence of MNM (P <0.001, AOR=0.002, 95%CI=0.000-0.032) and mode of delivery (P <0.001, AOR=0.015, 95%CI=0.005-0.043).

Conclusion: Decisions based on admission CTG was associated with a high rate of operative deliveries, without any significant effect on fetal or maternal outcomes. CTG in labour should be restricted to pregnancies adjudged as high risk based on obstetric factors and CTG should be used as an adjunctive triaging instrument.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Identification of Symbiont Microorganisms from Bioluminescent Marine Life

Delianis Pringgenies, Kartika Dewi, Pramita Apriliyani

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v33i230118

Bioluminescence means the ability of animals or plants to naturally produce light. The three known ways by which bioluminescence is produced are through specific cells called photocytes, bioluminescent glands in tissues and symbiotic bioluminescent microorganisms. Bioluminescence in Loligo duvaucelii is known to be caused by the presence of symbiotic microorganisms in bioluminescent sacs. There is a need to compile more information on bioluminescent symbiotic microorganisms on marine life in Indonesia and their potential. This study aims to determine the species of bioluminescent microorganisms on squid and fish, namely Loligo sp. and Loligo edulis from the waters of Jepara and the Bombay duck (Harpadon nehereus) from the Strait of Malacca, Indonesia and their potential.  The samples were collected by isolating the microorganisms from the luminescent organs, after which the bioluminescent microorganisms were used in the research. This research consisted of antimicrobial tests against pathogenic microorganisms which were conducted qualitatively. The bioluminescent microorganisms were identified using biochemical assay and molecular assay (16S rRNA PCR).  Tests results from Loligo sp. symbiotic microorganisms found   two isolates which showed antimicrobial activities against pathogenic Multi Drug Resistant (MDR) microorganisms, namely uncultured bacterium clone 1P-1-G05 against Escherichia coli with 32.59 mm of inhibitory zone and Uncultured bacterium clone 3g10a against Enterobacter sp. with 28.44 mm of inhibitory zone. The bioluminescent symbiont microorganisms in Loligo edulis, which was identified to be Photobacterium phosphoreum, showed antimicrobial activities against Vibrio harveyi, E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus sp. Bioluminescent symbiotic microorganisms on H. nehereus identified Alteromonas macleodii, which showed gamma hemolysis on the blood agar test.

Open Access Original Research Article

Regulation of Integrin β3 Protein Secretion on Implantation Embryo of Mouse (Mus musculus L.) Induced by Oil Atsiri of Purple Nutsedge Tubers (Cyperus rotundus L.)

Hendri Busman, Sutyarso ., Salman Farisi, Yulianty .

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v33i230119

Aims: This study aims to determine the regulation of β3 integrin protein in the period of embryo implantation after being induced by oil atsiri of purple nutsedge tubers.

Study Design: The study employed a completely randomised design using four concentration levels repeated six times.

Place and Duration of Study: Organic Chemistry Laboratory and Zoology Laboratory of Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences University of Lampung, between June 2015 and April 2016.

Methodology: This study used mouse as experimental animals with 24 female mouse, then mated with male mouse with a ratio (1 female: 1 male). After the vaginal plug was found in female mouse, then the essential oil of purple nutsedge tubers was induced orally (force-fed) according to the treatment dose. Each 6 female mice were grouped as a control group, and 3 treatment groups, consisting of controls (C) = 0.4 ml aquabides, treatment 1 (T1) = 4.5 mg/40g body weight, treatment 2 (T2) = 45 mg/40g body weight, and treatment 3 (T3) = 135 mg/40g body weight. After the one way Anova test, Ho is rejected, meaning there are significant differences and the analysis is continued with multiple comparison tests, in this case the Least Significant Difference (LSD) test is used.

Results: The results shown that the induction of essential oils of purple nutsedge tubers can reduce the level of β3 integrin protein in uterus mouse significantly.

Conclusion: It is suggested essential oil of purple nutsedge tubers has potential decrease and can reduce the level of β3 integrin protein in uterus mouse during the period of embryo implantation.