Open Access Original Research Article

Consumption of Traditional Leafy Vegetables (Amaranthus hybridus) and Risk of its Microbial Contamination in Daloa Town (Côte d’Ivoire)

Kouassi Kouassi Clément, Attien Yao Paul, Coulibaly Bakary, Diomandé Siriki, Benie Comoé Koffi Donatien, Konate Ibrahim, Koffi-Nevry Rose

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v33i330121

Aim: It consisted to identify the different species of traditional leafy vegetables consumed, to follow the technical process of production and to specifically evaluate the risk of microbial contamination of Amaranth from urban production in Daloa.

Study Design:  This study focuses on the consumption of traditional leafy vegetables.

Place and Duration of Study: University of Jean Lorougnon Guédé of Daloa, Côte d’Ivoire, Laboratory of Biochemistry and Microbiology, UFR Agroforestry, BP 150 Daloa, between November 2018 and April 2019.

Methodology: On the study site, three planks of amaranth leave constituted a study block (sample). A total of 18 samples were analyzed. Then, mature Amaranth, ready for sale and then consumed, were subjected to microbiological characterization according to the standards.

Results: There are seven main species of leafy vegetables consumed by Daloa populations and Amaranth is one of the most widely consumed leaves. The monitoring of production of these vegetables revealed that many of the actors were adults (> 30 years old), dominated by the female gender (63 %) and illiterate (70 %). The inputs were poultry manure, a mixture of dung and beef purse. In addition, the technical production routes were empirical. Microbiological analyzes of Amaranth leaf from selected areas showed a high level of bacterial contamination. Including indicator of general pollution like mesophilic aerobic germs, yeasts and molds, enterobacteria and indicator of fecal origin were isolated. It has been noticed the presence of pathogenic species such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp in all productions.

Conclusion: Amaranth leaves produced in this area aren’t suitable for human consumption and could create some sanitary risk.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Bio-insecticidal Effects of Three Extracts on the Larvae of the Green Lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Stephen) under the Laboratory Conditions

Fahad Kaoutar, Brhadda Najiba, Ziri Rabea, Gmira Najib, Benssallem Hassan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v33i330122

Aims: To control aphids without the misdeeds of the chemical insecticides. To make sure of the harmlessness of three bio-aphicides.

Study Design: Experimental device in complete random block with three replications.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of bio-insecticidal entomology, Regional Center of Agricultural Research of Kenitra, INRA- Morocco and the Biodiversity and Natural Resources Laboratory of Sciences Faculty, Ibn Tofail kenitra, morocco. The experiments were done between March and December 2017.

Methodology: The present study highlighted the lethal and sublethal effects of three bio-aphicides plants collected from the Gharb region of morocco: Capsicum frutescens, Nerium oleander and Melia azedarach, tested in five concentrations of their plant material against Chrysoperla carnea larvaes. Adding to these concentrations, two controls were used: one without any treatment (blanc) and another treated with a chemical insecticide (Deltamethrine).

Results: The obtained results indicated that the aqueous extract of the Nerium oleander was harmful to the larvae of the Chrysoperla carnea. Indeed, the insecticidal activity of different concentrations increased with the exposure time, reaching about 10; 16 and 20% of mortality, respectively by applying 10; 15 and 20 g/20 ml after three days of exposure. However, low concentrations of 2 and 5 g/20 ml caused no effect whatever the duration of exposure. Also, the corrected mortality rate caused by the aqueous extract of Nerium oleander, at the concentrations tested is much lower than that caused by the insecticide Deltamethrin.

Conclusion: Nerium oleander plant is harmful to the larvae of the Chrysoperla carnea at concentrations of 10; 16 and 20%. At these concentrations, the aqueous extracts of hot pepper and melia are not haurmful to the larvae of the green lacewing, so they can be recommended as a biological insecticide. Moreover, other works on these two extracts are outstanding in our laboratory.

Open Access Original Research Article

Strategies for Mitigating Climate Change Effect on Honey Bee Productivity in Southern Nigeria

Maria, Bisong Onabe, Ajigo Ikutal, Agbachom, Emmanuel Edet, Godwin Michael Ubi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v33i330123

This study aimed at determining the educational requirement of Beekeepers in mitigating Climate Change Effects on bee honey production in Obudu Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria.  The survey research design was used in achieving this. To adequately and appropriately execute the project three objectives were formulated.  From these objectives, research questions were generated and hypotheses formulated accordingly to guide data gathering and analysis. The instrument for data gathering was a four point close ended questionnaire from which 150 farmers and 50 extension agents were selected to respond to items in the questionnaire using the census approach.  Data collected from their responses were subjected to two forms of descriptive analysis.  The first was percentage descriptive analysis which was used to x-ray the biodata.  Second, mean and standard deviation were used to treat the research questions.  The third method used is the independent t-test on the three man hypothesis of the study.  The result of the analysis warranted the rejection of the three null hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance with 198 degrees of freedom using 1.96 as the critical t-value. It was found out that ecological practices of farmers contribute to climate change, climate change has impacted negatively on bee honey production, and farmers should be educated through agricultural extension education in order to become conscious of their practices on natural resources and mitigate climate change effects in bee honey production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ameliorating Effect of Moringa against Liver and Kidney Injury Induced by Monosodium Glutamate

Rehab M. El-Gharabawy, Amira S. Ahmed, Thara I. Al-Adhadh

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v33i330124

Background: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) produces adverse and damaging effects in different organs like liver and kidneys. Moringa has ameliorating effect on kidney and liver injury induced by monosodium glutamate.

Objective: To study the ameliorating effect of moringa against rats liver and kidney injury induced by monosodium glutamate.

Design: Prospective study.

Setting: College of Pharmacy, Qassim University.

Materials and Methods: This study was performed on 20 male rats and equally divided into 4 groups. The first group was control group, second group was moringa group, third group was MSG group and forth group was MSG plus moringa group. We determined liver function, albumin, total protein, kidney function, electrolytes and histopathological examination of tissue.

Main Outcome Results: Moringa has ameliorating effect on kidney and liver injury induced by monosodium glutamate.

Sample Size:  A total of 20 malerats.

Results: There was a significant increase in the levels of serum aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), urea and creatinine. Significant decrease in the levels of albumin, total proteins and sodium levels in rats treated with monosodium glutamate. Kidney sections revealed normal structure of glomeruli and renal tubules as control group, liver revealed good improvements and mild cellular infiltrations were observed in rats treated with MSG and moringa group.

Conclusion: Moringa causes ameliorating effect on kidney and liver injury induced by monosodium glutamate in rats.

Limitation of the Study: Few studies about the protective effect of Moringa against toxic effect of MSG.  So we need to focus on its beneficial effect against toxicity induced by MSG.

Open Access Original Research Article

Path Coefficient Analysis, Character Association and Variability Studies in Selected Maize (Zea mays L.) Genotypes Grown in Southern Nigeria

Godwin Michael Ubi, Maria Bisong Onabe, Success Eni Kalu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v33i330125

The success of any selection process is greatly enhanced by using appropriate selection indices. The knowledge of the relationship among various traits affecting grain yield is imperative to arrive at potentially effective selection index. The study was carried out to unveil the different attributes of genetic variability, the type of interrelationships among the various traits affecting yield. Fifteen local and improved maize inbred lines were crossed to three tester varieties to develop 45 test cross progenies. The parents and crosses (63 entries in all) were evaluated in two different locations with three replications at each location using the Randomized complete block design (RCBD). Data generated was recorded for the quantitative traits evaluated and subjected to statistical analysis for estimation of various variability parameters namely GCV, PCV, heritability and genetic advance alongside computing genotypic correlation coefficients and path coefficient analysis to unveil the direct and indirect effects of the various traits studied. The analysis of variability parameters evaluated revealed the presence of significant variability for all the traits studied. Grain yield, ear length, ear height, 100-seed weight and ear diameter showed high GCV estimates, with high heritability. The genetic advance was higher for plant height, ear length, grain/row and grain yield. The genotypic correlation coefficient revealed that ear diameter, 100 seed weight, ear length, kernel rows/ear and grains/row had highest significant correlation with grain yield. The path coefficient analysis revealed that highest direct effect on grain yield was exhibited by 100 seed weight followed by grains/row, kernel rows/ear, ear length and ear diameter. Most of the traits exerted their positive indirect effects through 100 – seed weight, kernel rows/ear and grains/row. The inferences of the results of the present study and their possible implications in maize breeding have been revealed.

Open Access Review Article

Lipids: Role in Embryonic Development (Review)

Marisol León, A. C. B. Rodrigues, A. O. M. Turquetti, A. D. Cereta, L. F. Melo, L. M. Durand, A. L. J. Delgado, D. Evangelista-Leite, M. A. Miglino

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v33i330120

Aims: We propose to briefly review the specific role of lipids in embryonic structures development.

Results: Lipids are organic substances insoluble in water, divided into several classes, such as fatty acids, glycolipids, phospholipids, ceramides, sphingolipids, and stereo-lipids. They participate in processes of cellular metabolism and embryonic development which are associated with signalling, proliferation and cell migration. They act in developmental processes such as calcification and bone mineralization, pulmonary maturity, cellular differentiation, and neural survival, epithelial cells polarization and muscle formation, in which phospholipids as a major group, work more regularly. Lipids during embryonic development work directly as transport molecules or cell markers. In addition to an imbalance in its enzymatic and protein precursors (such as choline kinase), lipids can increase or decrease lipid concentration in cells, prevent its biotransformation, or affect its synergy with other molecules, leading to failures in the formation of organs such as the heart, brain, and bones. This aims to further the understanding of these processes and highlight its feasibility for future clinical applications.

Conclusion: Lipids maintain cell membrane integrity in blastocysts, transport calcium to nerve and bone cells, facilitate neural apoptosis, and promote pulmonary maturation. These results aid in the understanding and prediction of alterations in lipidic metabolic syndromes in several pathological disorders during organ development.