Open Access Original Research Article

A Substrate Made from Açaí Berry Waste Used in the Production of Aroeira (Myracrodruon urundeuva) Seedlings

Roldão Carlos Andrade Lima, Adriana de Sousa Freitas, Andressa Layane Ferreira Linhares, Bianca Pinheiro da Costa Neiva, Brunna Tavares da Silva Brito Sousa, Kaio Lucena Vidal, Dalton Henrique Angelo, Wilson Araujo da Silva

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v33i430126

The açaí berry processing activity generates a large amount of waste that is a problem in several cities, mainly in the Amazon region of Brazil, due to the large production of açaí juice. This study aimed to reuse the waste from açaí berry’s processing as a substrate in the production of aroeira native seedlings, studying the effects of its application and evaluating the morphological parameters results. The experiment was carried out in the greenhouse in the city of Imperatriz - MA, with waste collection carried out in 2015. After collection, part of the waste was charred and transformed into the substrate through grinding and sieving. Subsequently, the substrates were mixed with the local soil in different proportions. Thus, the 9 treatments were obtained. To test the substrate the native aroeira species was used. The effects of different treatments were evaluated 15, 30, 45 and 60 days after germination, by plant height (H), neck diameter (ND) and leaf number (NL). The results showed that the use of this residue is not promising as a substrate because they do not have good performances for the parameters evaluated in the seedlings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effectiveness Test of Orchid Mycorrhizal Isolate (Ceratorhiza and Trichoderma) Indonesia and Its Role as a Biofertilizer

Mahfut ., Budi Setiadi Daryono, Ari Indrianto, Susamto Somowiyarjo

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v33i430127

Aim: The existence of Orchid Mycorrhizal Fungi (OMF) has a role to stimulate growth and support the supply of orchid nutrition as a biofertilizer agent. This study aimed to determine the association of mycorrhizal with Phalaenopsis amabilis (L.) Blume which was carried out through the effectiveness test of two Indonesian orchid mycorrhizal isolates i.e. Ceratorhiza and Trichoderma.

Study Design: This study consisted of 4 treatments. Each treatment was repeated 3 times, each repetition of 5 plantlets, so that the total plantlet used was 60.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Plant Biotechnology, Department of Biology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia, between June 2017 and April 2018.

Methodology: The method of inoculating orchid mycorrhizal by placing a plantlet in a petri dish containing orchid mycorrhizal for 1, 2, 3, and 4 days. Then plantlets are grown on sterile moss growing media and acclimatized in a greenhouse. Observation of each treatment is carried out every day for the next month. Observation variables include the number of initial and final roots, the number of live and dead roots, and the number of living and dead plants.

Results: The results of the orchid mycorrhizal induction test showed that the Ceratorhiza inoculation treatment showed a fluctuation in the mean increase in the number of final roots, live roots, dead roots, and dead plantlets that were higher than the Trichoderma inoculation treatment. The results also showed that the best inoculation time on Ceratorhiza and Trichoderma was day 3 and 4. The adaptation process had the effect of increasing the number of dead roots in weeks 1 and 2. The adaptation process stopped at the beginning of week 4 with the number of new roots appearing a lot.

Conclusion: Orchid mycorrhizal Ceratorhiza shows the value of effectiveness test compared with Trichoderma. The results of this study are expected to be basic information in efforts to cultivate natural orchids in Indonesia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation between Morphological Architecture of Rice Seed and Transmission of Fungal Pathogens

Arju Akter, Md. Rasal-Monir, Nabila Sultana Dola, Meer Rifath Jahan Usha, A. Q. M. Bazlur Rashid

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v33i430128

A total of ten rice (Oryza sativa L) seed samples of variety BR 28 were collected from the farmers of (Salakandi, Boira) Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Prevalence of fungi was recorded as Bipolaris oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium moniliforme, through blotter test. Statistically B. oryzae was recorded as the highest prevalent fungus in all the seed samples of various architectural categories of seeds such as large (14.5%), medium (9.5%), small (11.5%) followed by (14.5%) and (4.5%), respectively in shriveled and chaffy seeds. While in large, medium and small seeds F. moniliforme was recorded significantly as the least prevalent pathogen. The effect of colour on the transmission of B. oryzae was recorded as the highest in number in case of bright seeds (8.5%) and spotted seeds (dark brown) (17.5%). The effect of smooth and rough surface on the prevalence of fungal pathogen B. oryzae was recorded as the highest in number in case of awnned seed (21.5%), smooth surface (12.25%) and rough surface seeds (18.5%). The regression equations of the fungal pathogens indicate that the morphological architecture of the seeds shape & size, colour and smooth and roughness significantly correlated with the transmission of pathogens Statistically, the highest germination of seeds was recorded in the medium sized (83.5%). The highest germination of seed was recorded in the spotted seed (69.5%). The minimum germination of seed was recorded in the bright colour seed. The highest germination of seed was recorded in the awnned seed (59.5%) followed by smooth surface (37.5%) and rough surface (53.5%). These results obviously indicate the tangible effect of the seed architecture at the transmission of the fungal pathogens affecting the planting value as well as germination of the rice seeds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modeling and Molecular Docking Studies on Alangium salvifolium (Alanginaceae) as a Target for Anti-oxidant Enzyme

Mohammad Nadeem Khan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v33i430129

Objectives: The present studies pursue at retrieve and draws the active phytocompounds structure of Alangium salvifolium and assessing its simulation anti-oxidant enzyme activities.

Methods: Retrieve/draws of the compounds were carried out using chem.-sketch software. The 3-D structures of the Phytocompounds were visualized based upon the UV, NMR spectral data along with their energy simulation studies. The antioxidant and enzyme simulation activity were evaluated in-silico using the ACD labs,PyRx, RASMOL,PYMOL,Aragslab and Discovery 3.1 studio.

Key Findings: Phytochemicals structure drawing of A. salvifolium resulted in the structured and recognition of four phytochemicals. The plant phytochemicals showed significant anti-oxidant enzymes activity enhancer and ROS eliminator through binding to its metal domain receptor.

Conclusion: Phytochemicals were drawing from A. salvifolium. To the best of our knowledge, among these phytochemicals, were studied anti-oxidant enzymes metals binding domain to increase the ROS scavenging activity for the foremost time from mimic with molecular docking. Moreover, study of phytochemicals simulation was for the first time from this plant. The plant revealed auspicious increase the antioxidant activities virtual screening. This gives thinking to some of its pharmacological properties and suggests additional antioxidant effects, for as a scavenger as well as anti-oxidant enzyme stimulator, which have not been reported yet.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Influence of Harmful Substances on the Pigments of Leaves of Decorative Trees

Halmatov Musliddin Muhammatovich, Ismoilxodjayev Bokhodixodja Sharibxodjae, Sulaymonov Sharifjon Аbdumanabovich, Latibov Shohruhbek Mahamatyusup

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v33i430130

Republic of Uzbekistan the composition of the atmospheric air on the main streets, the level of traffic on these streets, the selection of resistant species of phenol trees for growing ornamental trees, and the laws of changing the amount of pigments in these trees depending on the streets and season. At the same time, the types of ornamental trees and their resistance to pollution from the pollution of carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide are mainly represented by atmospheric air pollution.