Open Access Original Research Article

The High Water Plants Water Road in Cleaning

Ch. H. Kuchkarova, U. S. Nizamova, Sh Abdullaev, G. A. Madrakhimova

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v33i530131

The ecology of high-water plants such as pistachio, euchronia, azolla forms the basis for improving biological wastewater treatment technology. For the first time in the Andizhan region of the Republic of Uzbekistan, it was found that high-altitude algae can be used by the method of biological treatment of municipal wastewater. the results of the study, we used biological treatment of high-water plant species such as pistia (Pistia stratiotes), Euchornia crassipes Solms, azolla (Azolla coroliniana Willd), with the observations of the dynamics of rapid growth and development at high concentrations. We developed a Pistia stratiotes, which is scientifically grounded in improvement, and was recommended for reproduction under laboratory conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Sickle Cell Disease and Other Haemoglobin Variants in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

Akaba Kingsley, Ofem Enang, Ofonime Essien, Annette Legogie, Omini Cletus, Olukayode Oshatuyi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v33i530132

Background: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the commonest genetic disorder worldwide with a global prevalence of 20-25 million. About 12-15 million affected persons are in Sub-Sahara Africa with Nigeria bearing the highest burden of people living with sickle cell disease. SCD is a disease characterized as an autosomal, recessive, heterogeneous, and a monogenetic disorder caused by an A-to-T point mutation in the β-globin gene responsible for the production of abnormal hemoglobin S (HbS), which polymerizes in the deoxygenated state and results in the sickling of erythrocytes.  Haemoglobin variants are mutant forms of haemoglobin in a population usually occurring as a result of genetic changes in specific genes, or globins that causes change on alterations in the amino acid. They could affect the structure, behavior, the production rate and the stability of the specific gene. Well-known haemoglobin variants such as sick-cell anaemia are responsible for diseases and are considered haemoglobinopathies. Other variants cause no detectable pathology and are thus considered as non-pathological variants.

Aim: The study is aimed at evaluating the burden of sickle cell disease and other haemoglobin variants in Calabar, South-South Nigeria.

Methods: This is a retrospective study done at the haematology laboratory of University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar. Cellulose acetate electrophoresis at alkaline pH was used for the evaluation of haemoglobinopathies. The data were entered into Microsoft Excel 2016 spreadsheet and analysed with the IBM SPSS Version 22. Data were summarized into percentage of different phenotypes.

Results: Results of the total 3648 haemoglobin electrophoresis recorded, 1368 (37.50%) were male while the remaining 2280 (62.5%) females given a male to female ratio of 1:1.7. Five haemoglobin phenotypes were identified as HbAA, HbAS, HbAC, HbSC and HbSS. The overall average values of their prevalence were HbAA 64.78%, HbAS 32.62%, HbSS 2.14%, HbAC 0.33%, HbSC 0.14%. Thus, the prevalence of SCD (Prevalence of HbSS+HbSC) was 2.28%. The highest proportion of SCD was observed in 2011 with least in 2016 and 2017 respectively.

Conclusion: The prevalence of SCD and other haemoglobin variants in Calabar is similar to that of the national prevalence rate. There is need for continuous enlightenment and premarital counselling on the pattern of inheritance of SCD most especially with the increased burden of sickle traits in the environment has reported in this study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Strategic Policies in Expanding Frontiers of Food Security among Cassava-based Farmers in Cross River State, Nigeria

Emmanuel Edet Agbachom, Amalu Melvin, Uzoikwe Amata, Otu Ettah, Godwin Michael Ubi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v33i530133

The research was carried out to identify the possible constraints and development of strategic policies in expanding and improving cassava production and processing amongst cassava value chain actors in Cross River State, Nigeria. Data generated from the research the 150 cassava producers and processors (cassava value chain actors) through the use of well- define structured interview schedule was collated. The Multistage sampling procedure was adopted in selection of farmer respondents. The multivariate analytical technique was used in analyzing generated data employing the statistical application software of Genstat version 12. The eigen value, percentage variations and loading values contributing to low cassava output were used in achieving the objectives. The results showed that the major constraints to cassava production and processing were agronomic, technical/institutional and financial constraints. The major policy strategies should include a global, national, regional and community strategies all geared towards the evolution of industry analysis for improving cassava productivity in the study area through the development of the traditional farming systems, making good planting material accessible to farmers and on time and at lowest possible prices; the provision of credit facilities to the resource poor cassava –based farmers in the area with no collateral; the establishment of cassava product based cottage industries in the area for cassava value chain development; provision of adequate cassava processing equipment and the formation of cassava farmers’ multipurpose cooperative societies to enhance farmers’ access to benefit from world bank assisted programmes; have free access to basic information and production facilities. The study, therefore, recommended that cassava product based cottage industries be established in the study area in order to encourage both producers and processors in the value addition chain. This will also provide employment and likewise encourage the restive youths in the region to venture into agriculture as a business for economic returns, growth and development of the area. The identified constraints with the higher loading values for each of the principal multivariate should be strengthened using appropriate development strategies/policies to ensure food security and increased farm income for cassava – based farmers in the region.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbial Assessment of In-door Air and Equipment Used in Banks within Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

T. O. Olowomofe, T. F. Babalola, O. O. Oluyide, O. Adedayo

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v33i530134

Banking activities which involve the use of counting machines, Automated teller machines, and exchange of naira notes play potential roles in the spread of infectious microorganisms. This study aimed at determining the microbial status of banks within Ekiti State University campus. A total of 96 samples were collected from six different banks’ in–door air, ATM, counting tables and Money counting machines in Ekiti State University campus. The samples were collected both in the morning and afternoon. Bacteria and fungi were isolated from the samples using serial dilution and pour plating methods. The isolates were identified based on morphological and biochemical characterization. Susceptibility pattern of the isolates to different classes of antibiotics (Penicillins, Quinolones, Macrolides, Aminoglycosides, Fluoroquinolones and Sulfonamides) were determined using agar disc diffusion method. There was significant difference (p<0.05) in bacteria counts on all the equipment analyzed in all the banks except Heritage bank. Analysis of variance also revealed significant difference in the bacteria counts from the banks in the morning and in the afternoon (p<0.05). Bacteria and fungi isolated from the samples belonged to the genera Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Escherichia Serratia, Pseudomonas, Proteus Bacilllus, Aspergillus, Alternaria, Mucor and Fusarium where bacteria group dominated with 65% while their fungal counterparts were 35% of the total isolates. Escherichia coli had the highest percentage occurrence of 18.6%, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (15.2%) while Proteus sp. had the lowest occurrence (1%). The isolates exhibited resistance to Augmentin (100%), Erythromycin (100%), Amoxycillin (96%), Cotrimoxazole (96%), Chloramphenicol (86%), Streptomycin (72%) and Gentamycin (58%) while their growths were inhibited by Ciprofloxacin, Ofloxacin, Prefloxacin and Septrin. Plasmid analysis of the resistant strains showed that the isolates lack plasmids. The presence of potential pathogens in the banks and multiple antibiotic resistance displayed by the isolates constitutes risk to the public health. Hence, measures such as thorough hand washing with soap and hand sanitization after using the bank and its facilities should be emphasized.

Open Access Original Research Article

Inheritance Pattern and Association of Qualitative and Quantitative Traits in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) for Sustainable Breeding Goal

Saira Sattar, Bilal Nawaz, Muhammad Ishaq, Razia Sultana, Bilal Bashir, Muhammad Saqlain, Abdul Hannan Kainth, Muhammad Faheem Shahid, Tanwir Ahmad Malik

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v33i530135

Background: Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is the most important fiber crop of the world and commonly known as white gold. It plays an important role in the economy of Pakistan. It provides raw material to the local textile industry and generates considerable amount of foreign exchange. The yield of cotton is lower in Pakistan. Knowledge of association among different traits is important for the development of cultivars with better yield and quality characters.

Materials and Methods: In this research, two parents (PB-38 and Jambo Okra) and their crosses sown in randomized complete block design with three replications to sort out best performing genotypes for these profitable traits (plant height, number of sympodial branches, number of monopodial branches, leaf type, boll size, boll shape, number of bolls per plant, boll weight, ginning out turn, 100 seed weight and seed cotton yield).

Results: Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that parental and their F2 population showed significant differences for all the observed traits. Correlation and inheritance pattern of all characters provides information of association among all traits and percentage of inheritable attributes.

Conclusions: The association and inheritance pattern study provide us useful information for effective selection and sustainable breeding programs. Heritability estimations revealed that heritability of traits fluctuate as following order; monopodial branches> ginning outturn>boll weight>sympodial branches>plant height>yield>number of bolls plant-1 with heritable percentages 99%, 90%, 89%, 64%, 60%, 60% and 55% respectively.