Open Access Original Research Article

Exomorphic Characters of Seeds of Some Species of Capparaceae Family in Taif, KSA

Hatim M. Al-Yasi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v33i630136

Seed exomorphic characters of six species belonging to four genera of family Capparaceae were studied using light microscope (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in order to determine the importance of seed features as taxonomic evidence. These species are Cadaba farinosa Forssk, Capparis decidua (Forssk). Edgew, Capparis cartilaginea Decne, Dipterygium glaucum Decne, Maerua crassifolia Forssk and Maerua oblongifolia (Forssk.) A. Rich. The diagnostic characters at level of the general and specific level are shape of seed, size, color, texture and seed coat surface. There is a wide range of variations of seed shape among the studied species. LM revealed that the studied seeds are mostly varying from ovate to globose or cardiac- shape. All of the seeds lack wings except Dipterygium glaucum Decne. and most of the seed is coarse texture. There are six main types of seed surface sculptures revealed by SEM investigation at higher magnifications; reticulate, rugose-striate, winding undulate, ribbed and papillate.

Open Access Original Research Article

New Records of Two Non-native Clam Species (Bivalvia: Cardiidae) from the Coastal Waters of Bangladesh

Md. Royhanur Islam, Sadman Sakin Nirob, Md. Habibur Rahman Molla, Kauser Rahman, Md. Mozammal Haque, M. Aminur Rahman, Saleha Khan, M. Zahangir Alom

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v33i630137

Benthic suspension feeders, such as many marine bivalve molluscs, influence the nutrient and organic cycles of benthic and pelagic systems through their ability to filter a wide size range of particles and deposit organic matters that sink to the bottom. They also play important roles in coastal and marine ecosystems by filtering the water and serving as habitat and prey for a variety of sea life. Due to the increasing trends of environmental contaminations in recent years, many bivalves have been using as a potential biomarker for assessing the worse environment. Moreover, the shell of a bivalve is comprised of calcium carbonate, which may support thousands of calciferous organisms into the water body. Mostly, bivalves inhabit the tropics, as well as temperate and boreal waters, and they can survive and even flourish in extreme environmental conditions like Bangladesh. Nowadays, many bivalve molluscs have been identified as a superior source of bioactive compounds and are using for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical purposes as well as other applications. However, until now, few systematic studies on marine bivalve molluscs have been conducted through which a total of 437 marine and brackish water species were identified and recorded in Bangladesh. But still, our knowledge of taxonomy and systematic on marine molluscs are primitive in the context of the country. Here we report two new species of bivalve molluscs, Parvicardium exiguum and Trachycardium procerum belonging to the family Cardiidae, from the Kutubdia Island of Bangladesh. The study added these two bivalve species, which has not been recorded from the coastal zone of Kutubdia Island during the previous studies. To sum up, studies and survey on taxonomy and systematics in marine bivalves will provide new dimensions for further research about these important marine invertebrates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Alleviates Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis Involved in Liver of Hyperthyroid Mice

Maha Abdulrahman Aldubayan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v33i630138

Objectives: Thyroid hormones control the basal metabolic pace of hepatocytes, and can make oxidative harm hepatic frameworks. The reason for this investigation was to investigate how hyperthyroidism-prompted liver danger, oxidative pressure and apoptosis changes could be alleviated with Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE). This investigation assessed some biochemical, histological and immunohistochemical changes in post pubertal hyperthyroidism and its effect on liver capacity and structures. Notwithstanding the enhancing job of Grape seed proanthocyanidin remove (GSPE) supplementation was analyzed.

Materials and Methods: Fifty male Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into 5 groups (G1, Control; G2, GSPE; G3, Eltroxin-induced hyperthyroid mice; G4, Post treated hyperthyroid with GSPE; G5, Self-treated hyperthyroid mice).

Results: Our results revealed that, a significant increase in serum T3, T4, ALT, AST, ALP, liver MDA, P53 levels, injury and P53 expression in hyperthyroid mice when compared to control and GSPE. In contrast; serum albumin, liver catalase, GSH, SOD and Bcl2 were decrease in hyperthyroid mice. Treatment of hyperthyroid mice with GSPE advantages in improving the adverse effect of hyperthyroidism and moreover the histopathological and P53 expression result approves this finding.

Conclusions: GSPE can be used in hyperthyroidism treatment to help propylthiouracil or carbimazole or methimazole therapy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Suppository Effect of Aqueous Root Extract of Moringa oleifera on Alcohol Induce Liver Toxicity in Wistar Rats

Eteng O. E., Grace Ekpo, Joe Enobong, Iwara Arikpo, Saviour Ufot, Kenyoh Abam, Archibong Nsa, Victor Ekam, Eyong Ubana

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v33i630139

Introduction:  Moringa oleifera root is the most underutilized part of the plant and it is rich in many phytochemicals.

Aim of the Study: This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Standardized and characterized aqueous root extract of Moringa oleifera following the administration of alcohol-induced liver damage in albino wistar rats.

Materials and Methods: Thirty (30) experimental rats weighing 100-120 g were randomly divided into 6 groups of 5 rats each. Group 1, the normal control group was given just rat feed and water, group 2, negative control was administered alcohol only (1.5 ml/kg body weight), rats in group 3, 4 and 5 received combined administration of alcohol 1.5 ml/kg body weight and 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg body weight of characterized aqueous root extract of Moringa oleifera respectively, group 6 rats were administered 250mg/body weight of extract only. At the end of fourteen days (14) the experimental rats were then sacrificed and the serum liver enzymes were then assayed.

Results: The results obtained from the laboratory was analyzed using one-way ANOVA and post-hoc test was done afterwards. Rats fed alcohol only produced significant increase in the levels of enzyme markers of tissue damage (AST, ALT and ALP) compared to normal control rats. Rats in group 3, 4 and 5 that were post treated with 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg body weight of extract and they had significant decrease (P<0.05) in the levels of these enzyme markers in a dose-dependent manner compared to the negative control. The extract control group had no significant increase (P<0.05) in the levels of the enzyme markers when compared to the normal control; however, there was a significant increase in the serum activity of ALP of the extract control group when compared with the normal control.

Conclusion: The present study exhibited a potent hepatoprotective effect against liver injury caused by alcohol administration. This suppository effect could be related to the antioxidant’s properties of Moringa oleifera that is rich in flavonoids and phenolic constituents of the extracts may contribute to their enzyme action.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dynamics of a Heterotrophic Dinoflagellate, Protoperidinium divergens, in the South-Eastern Coastal Waters of the Bay of Bengal

Saleha Khan, Roksana Jahan, Moin Uddin Ahmed, M. Aminur Rahman, Md. Mahfuzul Haque, M. Zahangir Alom

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v33i630140

This research is the first attempt to present temporal distribution of heterotrophic dinoflagellate Protoperidinium divergens and their relationship with diatom and environmental factors in the Maheshkhali channel, south-east coast of the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh. The initiation of higher abundances of P. divergens were observed in October and reached its peak in November when diatoms were the most abundant phytoplankton. Protoperidinium divergens preferred comparatively low temperature from 20-22°C and high concentration of phosphate-phosphorus from 31-37 µM. It had insignificant relationship with nitrate-nitrogen. Lower abundances of P. divergens were observed during pre-monsoon and monsoon due to lower abundances of diatom and higher water temperature (>23°C). Protoperidinium divergens, therefore, were mainly controlled by the availability of diatom abundance at comparatively lower temperature and higher concentration of phosphate-phosphorus. This research is important to estimate the potential trophic impact of P. divergens in the Maheshkhali channel.