Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of the Seed Oil, Leaf Extract and Fractions of Annona muricata as Repellent and Larvicide against Anopheles gambiae

Ubulom, Peace Mayen Edwin, Umohata, Idongesit Augustine, Thomas, Paul Sunday, Ekpo, Ndifreke Daniel, Jamabo, Rosemary Tamunosaki

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v34i130141

Vector control has proved to be a successful strategy for reducing incidences of mosquito borne-diseases. This study evaluated the repellent and larvicidal efficacy of A. muricata against An. gambiae. Oil was extracted from the seeds using the solvent extraction method. For the repellency test the oil (0.38 ml) was topically applied on the right arms of 10 human volunteers to evaluate its effect against adult female An. gambiae. The left arms of the volunteers were treated with 1 ml of 20% acetone (control). Ethanol leaf extract was used for phytochemical screening and preparation of n-hexane, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions. These were used for larvicidal assays. From the stock solution (5 g each in 100 ml of water), 0.15, 0.30, 0.45, 0.60 and 0.75%w/v concentrations were obtained. In the control experiment, larvae were exposed to 100 ml tap water and nutrients only. Test concentrations and controls had 5 replicates each. Each larvicidal experiment consisted of 20 third instar larvae of Anopheles gambiae. Repellency and larvicidal experiments were carried out at the Malaria Vector Research Laboratory and Insectary, University of Uyo and National Arbovirus and Vectors Research Centre, Enugu, Nigeria, respectively. Repellency of the oil reduced with increased exposure time, in each case. The number of mosquito landings on the control arms was higher than landings on the treated arms. Mosquitoes that landed on the treated arms could not bite, suggesting that A. muricata oil could possess feeding deterrent property. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of some plant metabolites. The ethanol leaf extract and aqueous fractions had no larvicidal activity at the highest concentration. However, n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions were larvicidal. N-hexane fraction was the most potent with 48hLC50 value of 0.41%w/v, while ethyl acetate fraction had 48hLC50 value of 0.79% w/v. Results suggest that A. muricata has promising repellent and larvicidal potentials against An. gambiae.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Physicochemical and Bacteriological Study of the Three Sites in Ain Sebaa-Zenata Region after the Installation of the Anti-pollution Station of the East Coast of Grand Casablanca

Jalal Hdia, Bouchra Elkhalfi, Chaimaa Wina, Meryem Aboudaoud, Laila Targhalline, Brahim Boucherif, Abdelaziz Soukri

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v34i130143

The Moroccan coastline has been subjected exceptionally to the growth of urban agglomerations as well as to the negative effect of various industrial activities, together with the contributions of watersheds, wadis and streams that dump their sewage and the waste generated by cities and their periphery.

Aim: First of all, we carry out an evaluation of the Physicochemical, bacteriological state of the bathing water sample of the beaches of Ain Sebaâ-Zenata through the search of the bacteriological and chemical contaminants in three sites by reinforcing them to the national norms and standards which govern the quality of the bathing water, on the other hand, we compare these results with those found before the inauguration of the anti-pollution station East of Greater Casablanca.

Study Design: Study of the seawater quality of three swimming beaches.

Place and Duration of Study: Seawater was collected on 15/04/2017 from 3 sites in the Ain Sebaa- Zenata (Douar Abdellah Belhaj Beach, El Nahla Beach, Zenata Beach) region of the city of Casablanca after the installation of the anti-pollution station.

Methodology: Our job articulates on two axes: On the one hand, the study and the analysis of the physicochemical, bacteriological quality of the seawater after the installation of EST Casablanca anti-pollution station at the level of three sites (Douar Abdellah Belhaj Beach, El Nahla Beach, Zenata Beach). On the other hand, the comparison of these results with others already carried out before the development of this station via the same characteristics: Physico-chemical, bacteriological.

Results: In the light of the acquired results, a correlation was pointed out between the Physicochemical and bacteriological examination in comparison with the standards in the three studied sites, which were previously recognized as heavily contaminated bathing areas before the installation of the station. It supports the conclusion that this anti-pollution system has a beneficial and advantageous effect and confirms its cleansing role.

Conclusion: The current physico-chemical and bacteriological results of seawater in the Ain Sebaaa - Zenata region after the installation of the anti-pollution station show a significant improvement in the quality of this bathing area as well as the beneficial effect of this plant, which performs a very considerable purification function.

Open Access Original Research Article

Retracted: Similarities between Initiation Mechanism between Cotton Fiber and Arabidopsis Trichome: Prospects in Improving Cotton Fiber Yield

Anh Phu Nam Bui, Binh-Nguyen Ong, Thuan-Anh Nguyen Huu, Hoang-Dung Tran

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v34i130144

Cotton fiber is the fundamental material for a textile industry, and currently there is an immense interest in understanding the process of fiber initiation and development. Cotton fiber, also known as seed trichome, is differentiated from the seed coat epidermal cells similar to Arabidopsis leaf trichome, which is differentiated from the leaf epidermal cells. Despite functional characterization of individual cotton fiber initiation genes, currently there is not a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism behind cotton fiber initiation. Since the resemblance in initiation to cotton fiber, the Arabidopsis trichome has been successfully employed as a model system for functional characterization of cotton fiber initiation genes. Knowledge gained from the initiation mechanism of Arabidopsis trichomes will facilitate, as a comparative model system in understanding of the cotton fiber initiation mechanisms.

Retraction Notice: This paper has been retracted from the journal after receipt of written complains. This journal is determined to promote integrity in research publication. This retraction is in spirit of the same. After formal procedures editor(s) and publisher have retracted this paper on 11th  July-2020. Related policy is available here: http://goo.gl/lI77Nn

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of Vietnamese Paphiopedilum Species Using Vegetative Morphology

Huyen- Trang Vu, My-Huyen Bui, Quoc-Luan Vu, Thanh-Diem Nguyen, Hop Tran, Huu-Trung Khuat, Ly Le

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v34i130145

Background: Discrimination of Paphiopedilum species using floral morphology has been used effectively and commonly due to distinct features of their reproductive parts. Most classification references also focus on description of flower morphology and structure. Nevertheless species preservation meets great problems when illegal trading plants are mostly at non-flowered or plantlet stages. Molecular approaches have been applied and obtained highly precise results but spent time and could not rate 100% of resolution over the genus. Thus, quickly identification using only vegetative characteristics would be an efficient support for other distinguishing methods and a remarkable contribution to the detection and prevention of Paphiopedilum ilicit sales.

Aims: In this research we aimed to describe in details leaf features of Paphiopedilum species in Vietnam serving for quick and easy discriminating species without flower present or laboratory techniques.

Study Design:  Observed variables based on qualitative features of leaf shape, color, vein feature, thickness, toughness and quantitative features of leaf size were saved and organized using Microsoft Excel 2010.

Place and Duration of Study: Tay Nguyen Institute for Scientific Research, Agricultural Genetics Institute, between November 2018 and November 2019.

Methodology: We minutely analyzed the leaf morphology of nineteen species and two variants which belongs to Vietnamese Paphiopedilum population in an order manner from parameters that easiest to be realized to the less clearly traits for the most efficient recognition even to the one who is not botanist.

Results: 16 out of 20 species were identified using leaf morphology. This rate was up to 100% when combining morphological and molecular methods without the present of their flowers. An artificial key to genus Paphiopedilum using the vegetative details was first time established.

Conclusion: Leaf morphology can be effectively used as the first step for identifying Paphiopedilum species. Our results provided useful tool in severally or in combination with molecular methods in biodiversity and commercial management of these valuable species.

Open Access Review Article

Bioinformatics Analysis on DNA Barcode Sequences for Species Identification: A Review

Huyen-Trang Vu, Ly Le

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v34i130142

Classification of organisms is the primary step in management of biodiversity, breeding, conservation and development of populations and distinguishing adulterant objects. There are many approaches in taxonomic identification, from morphological, PCR-based to sequence-based techniques. Molecular methods give more accurate results than morphological comparisons and are independent of plant stages. PCR-based methods are low-cost but their limited information gives less reproducibility and can only distinguish samples among determined groups. In contrast, in sequence-based methods each nucleotide site is considered as genetic information hence a sequence of nucleotide represents large data, which is highly specific and more stable than PCR bands. Establishment of worldwide DNA library for barcoding is essential. There were previous reviews on screenings and applications of barcodes in different taxa. In this review we discussed common bioinformatics analyses as well as some new improved techniques relying on barcoding approaches.