Open Access Original Research Article

Retracted: Comparative Functional Studies on Two Diploid Cotton Genomes Reveals Functional Differences of Basic Helix-loop-helix Proteins in Arabidopsis Trichome Initiation

Anh Phu Nam Bui, Vimal Kumar Balasubramanian, Thuan-Anh Nguyen-Huu, Tuan-Loc Le, Hoang Dung Tran

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v34i230146

Background: The cultivated tetraploid cotton species (AD genomes) was originated from two ancestral diploid species (A and D genomes). While the ancestral A-genome species produce spinnable fibers, the D- genome species do not. Cotton fibers are unicellular trichomes originating from seed coat epidermal cells, and currently there is an immense interest in understanding the process of fiber initiation and development. Current knowledge demonstrates that there is a great of deal of resemblance in initiation mechanism between by Arabidopsis trichome and cotton fiber.

Methodology: In this study, we performed comparative functional studies between A genome and D-genome species in cotton by using Arabidopsis trichome initiation as a model. Four cotton genes TTG3, MYB2, DEL61 and DEL65 were amplified from A-genome and D-genome species, and transformed into their homolog trichomeless mutants Arabidopsis ttg1, gl1, and gl3egl3, respectively.

Results: Our data indicated that the transgenic plants expressing TTG3 and MYB2 genes from A-genome and D-genome species complement the ttg1 and gl1 mutants, respectively. We also discovered complete absences of two functional basic helix loop helix (bHLH) proteins (DEL65/DEL61) in D- diploid species and one (DEL65) that is functional in A-genome species, but not from D-genome species. This observation is consistent with the natural phenomenon of spinnable fiber production in A- genome species and absence in D-genome species.

Retraction Notice: This paper has been retracted from the journal after receipt of written complains. This journal is determined to promote integrity in research publication. This retraction is in spirit of the same. After formal procedures editor(s) and publisher have retracted this paper on 11th  July-2020. Related policy is available here:

Open Access Original Research Article

Side Differences in the Skull of Sheep: An Assessment by Geometric Morphometrics

P. M. Parés-Casanova, A. Tolić, R. Carnicero

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v34i230147

Effects of perturbations during development can be due to environmental and/or genetic factors, resulting in increased developmental instability which in turn can be expressed as fluctuating asymmetry (FA), defined as the non-directional deviation (right-left differences) from bilateral symmetry. However, other asymmetry types can appear, such as and directional asymmetry (DA), characterized by a distribution skewed to one side (right or left) at the, which is originated as a response to external stimuli that affect differentially on both sides of the organism. In order to describe asymmetric patterns in the ovine skull, we studied 165 specimens from animals belonging to the sheep breed “Navarra” from North Spain, using geometric morphometric methods. On digital pictures, we analyzed two midline and 8 bilateral two-dimensional landmarks on skull dorsal aspect. Results showed that FA accounted for a reduced amount of total variation, while DA explained most of it. We suggest that the presence of side differences due to lateralized muscular function (mastication) is the most important factor in skull asymmetry. Obtained results should provide a basis for relating asymmetries to the mechanics of cranial skeletum in sheep.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate Composition, Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidant Activity of Flaxseed

Omer Adam Omer Ishag, Ayat A. Khalid, Amina Abdi, Ibrahim Yaagoub Erwa, Awadalla Babiker Omer, Azhari H. Nour

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v34i230148

Aims: The aims of this study were to investigate the proximate composition of flaxseed; physiochemical properties and antioxidant activity of flaxseed.

Study Design: Using standard analytical methods to determine the proximate composition of flaxseed, extraction of flaxseed in different trials under the same conditions using two different solvents and investigating their physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in the laboratory of department of applied and industrial chemistry, International University of Africa, University of Medical Sciences and Technology and National Centre for Research, Khartoum – Sudan, during June 2019.

Methodology: The prepared sample of flaxseeds was tested for proximate composition and then extracted with petroleum ether and n-hexane. The extracted oil was then subjected to physicochemical analysis, GC-MS analysis and antioxidant activity test.

Results: The oil yield of flaxseed was high 21.95% and 28.29% with n-hexane and petroleum ether respectively. The results obtained for proximate composition were: moisture (8.50 ± 0.49%), ash (1.96 ± 0.00%), fiber (20.23 ± 3.47%), protein (21.00 ± 0.74%),fat (43.17 ± 0.99%) and carbohydrate (5.14 ± 2.73%).The physicochemical properties of n-hexane and petroleum ether extracted flaxseed oils were: density (0.92 ± 0.00 g/cm3), refractive index (1.47 ± 0.00 and 1.48 ± 0.01 at 28°C), acid value (0.76 ± 0.10 and 0.75 ± 0.20 mg KOH/g), peroxide value (4.67 ± 1.00 and 2.69 ± 0.55 meq O2/kg), saponification value (185.61 ± 0.56 and 187.83 ± 2.08 mg KOH/g oil), unsaponifiable matter (5.57 ± 0.64 and 2.83 ± 0.23 mg KOH/g oil) and iodine value (97.24 ± 0.86 and 97.44 ± 2.93 g/100 g) respectively. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the means of the two data sets of physicochemical properties of flaxseed oils extracted with the two solvents used at 95% confidence level. The GC-MS spectrum of flaxseed oil extracted with n-Hexane revealed presence of 27 fatty acids, the predominant were linoleic acid (46.53%), palmitic acid (18.04%), stearic acid (12.23%), linolenic acid (11.63%) and oleic acid (4.24%). While for petroleum ether extract a total of 28 fatty acids were identified the major were: linolenic acid (42.39%), linoleic acid (26.17%), palmitic acid (12.89%), stearic acid (10.73%) and  methyl erucic (1.24%.). The oils also, showed good antioxidant activity in relation to control; 28 ± 0.09 (DPPH) for n-Hexane extract and 26 ± 0.05 (DPPH) for petroleum ether extract.

Conclusion: Based on the results obtained flaxseed and flaxseed oil had good potential for human consumption and can be used for other application.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ex-vivo Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activities Assay of G. asiatica and G. tiliaefolia (Tiliaceae) Leaves

Md. Kamrul Islam Joy, Nazma Akhter, Rawnak Reza, Mst. Sayma Rahman Antara, Md. Shariful Islam, Celia-Vargas de la Cruz, Md. Rakibul Islam

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v34i230149

Aims: Our study was carried out to appraise acetylcholinestrase (AChE) and butyrylcholinestrase (BChE) inhibitory activities of Grewia asiatica and Grewia tiliaefolia leaves extracts.

Study Design: For the purpose of these experiments the extracts were subjected to an ex-vivo study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out between June 2018 to December 2018 in the Department of Pharmacy, Southeast University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Methodology: In this study, cholinesterase inhibitory activities of different fractions of crude ethanol extract of both plants were examined using swiss albino mice at 300 mg/kg b.w. dose. We determined anti-acetylcholinestrase (AChE) and anti-butyrylcholinestrase (BChE) activities using slightly modified Elman coupled enzyme assay.

Results: The highest inhibition of bovine brain acetylcholinesterase and human blood butyrylcholinesterase were exhibited by PEF and CLF of G. asiatica with the IC50 values were found to be 55.88 μg/ml and 26.14 μg/ml respectively whereas the highest inhibition of bovine brain acetylcholinesterase and human blood butyrylcholinesterase were exhibited by CLF of G. tiliaefolia.

Conclusion: The result of the present study on various fractions of these plants has a considerable anti-acetylcholinesterase and anti-butyrylcholinesterase activities which suggest its effectiveness against various neurodegenerative disorders.

Open Access Original Research Article

Validation of a Commercial ELISA Kit for Screening 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone, A Furazolidone Antibiotic Residue in Shrimp

A. Y. K. M. Masud Rana, Md. Maruf Billah Prince, Darmin Chakma, Hedayetul Islam, Mahamodun Nabi, A. S. M. Saifullah

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v34i230150

Furazolidone, a banned nitrofuran antibiotic, is still illegally used in aquaculture and livestock husbandry. A commercial Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) from Europroxima, The Netherlands is described, and validated for the screening of 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ), metabolite of furazolidone antibiotic in the muscle of shrimp. Research works was conducted at Veterinary Drug Residue Analysis Laboratory, Institute of Food and Radiation Biology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Savar, Dhaka-1349, between July 2018 and December 2019. Validation was done in accordance with the European Commission (EC) decision 2002/657/EC in terms of specificity, detection capability CCβ, selectivity, ruggedness, and stability. Homogenized sample was subjected to acid hydrolysis for releasing of tissue bound metabolite AOZ, and derivatized with o-nitrobenzaldehyde followed by ethyl acetate/n-hexane extraction and detection by ELISA reader. The detection capability CCβ of the method was lower or at 0.3 µg/kg accepting 0% false compliant result. Cut-off factor Fm and the positivity threshold value T was 0.716 and 0.982, respectively. Mean OD of blank sample B was1.225. The assay was valid because T was greater than Fm and smaller than B. The kit was stable even after ten months of storage at recommended temperature and showed good sensitivity. From the practical point of view, the kit studied has good reliability, and could be used in the routine application for the control of illegal use of the drug.