Open Access Original Research Article

In vivo Toxicity Assessment after the Detoxification of Aflatoxin Compounds – Contaminated Wheat and Corn by Ozone Gas

T. T. El-Sisy, Asmaa A. Salem, Nivin S. Nail, Jehan B. Ali

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v34i330151

Aflatoxins (AFs) are dangerous mycotoxins, which include a great number of lipophilic molecules produced by aerobic microscopic fungi belonging to the genus Aspergillus causes health hazard including death to human and livestock. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of ozone gas treatment on the fungal growth and detoxification of AFs - contaminated wheat and corn grains. Ozone concentration treatments 40 mg / Kg wheat for 1 hour and 80 mg / Kg corn for 2 hours of exposure time respectively were applied to contaminated samples of wheat and corn grains. It was observed that completely inhibition of Aspergillus growth and consequently the total aflatoxin content was decreased. In vivo, the biosafety assessment for 72 male albino rats fed on diet containing 70% wt. of ozone treated AFs – contaminated grains were evaluated comparing to control groups. Results indicated that rats fed on AFs contaminated grains have significantly increased the serum enzymes activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), malondialdehyde (MDA) content as well as the serum levels of creatinine, urea, glucose, total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG). Also, it was observed that a significant decrease in the level of serum total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), reduced glutathione (GSH) and testosterone hormone comparing to control groups.  However, the oral administration of ozonized groups ameliorated the biochemical parameters compared to rats fed on contaminated grains. Moreover, histopathological studies of liver, kidney and testis tissues of rats fed on contaminated grains that revealed different lesions and changes in tissues, inversely to that improving effects in tissues of ozonized contaminated grains – fed rats. It was concluded that ozonization treatment were most effective in reduction of mold count and degradation of aflatoxins content for grains during storage.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Influence of Papaya Leaf Extract to Anthracnose Disease in Papaya Fruit

Sudiono ., Efri ., Muhammad Asep Awaludin

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v34i330152

Aims: The objective of this research was to find out the influence of papaya leaf extract to the in-vitro growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and in-vivo anthracnose disease occurrence at papaya fruit.

Methodology: This research used completely randomized design with seven treatments and four replications. Obtained data were analyzed by using analysis of variance and mean scores were compared and tested with least significance difference (LSD) at 5% and polynomial test at 5%.

Results: The research result showed the significant influence of papaya leaf extract and synthetic fungicide in inhibiting the growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides colony and the disease occurrence at papaya fruit. The polynomial test result of papaya leaf extract showed linier pattern of C. Gloeosporioides colony diameter and disease course progression.

Conclusion: The papaya leaf extract inhibited C. Gloeosporioides colony growth at 2 up to 7 days after inoculation, but it did not inhibit spore germination and its density. The papaya leaf extract also inhibit the disease occurrence at 5 and 6 days after application.

Open Access Original Research Article

Medical History of Meat Handlers and the Occurrence of Zoonotic Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Imo State, Nigeria

I. D. Stan-Ekezie, O. C. Abanobi, C. I. C. Ebirim, Sally Ibe, G. U. Onyeugo

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v34i330153

A study on the medical history of meat handlers and the occurrence of zoonotic Mycobacterium bovis infection in Imo State, Nigeria was carried out using one thousand two hundred respondents. A cross sectional survey was carried out in the three (3) senatorial zones Imo state Nigerian and a multistage sampling technique was used to choose the abattoirs under study. A well structured questionnaire was distributed and the data analyzed. Results showed lack of BCG awareness (OR=0.174; P=0.017) to be statistically significant to the occurrence of bovine TB, on the other hand the range of the various times respondents go for medical checkups was considered; those who often attend medical checkup against those who always go for medical checkup (OR=16.187; P=<0.0001), also those who never go for medical checkup against those that had medical checkup three months ago (OR=1.910; P=<0.001). It was observed in this study that lack of BCG awareness and the care free attitude to medical checkup pose as a risk factor to Mycobacterium bovis T.B among meat handlers. Therefore, there is need to initiate an awareness program on the importance of BCG intake in the fight against Mycobacterium bovis T.B and improve existing diagnostic test to specifically deter early phase of the infection.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study of Parasitic Copepod Infesting Two Freshwater Fish Populations (Cyprinus carpio and Abramis brama) from Beni-Haroun Dam (Mila) North-East of Algeria

Houda Berrouk, Mounia Tolba, Moundji Touarfia, Chahinez Boualleg

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v34i330159

Copepods are one of the main fish ectoparasites, commonly known among the parasitism world, due either to their special adaptive capacity or to induce stress in aquatic organisms, as well as the parasitism result is overall a physiological rate affecting the survival of host. This study was, therefore, aimed to investigate the ectoparasite copepods, infesting 277 fishes including 135 of Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758) and 142 of Abramis brama (Linnaeus,1758), collected from Beni-Haroun dam (Mila, northeast Algeria). The fishes were subjected to some morphometric measurements and gill dissections and the harvested parasites were afterwards stored and identified. The parasitic indices were determined to examine the effect of size, sex, season and microhabitat on the parasitic infestation by using χ2 test. The gill examination of individuals of the two host fishes led to harvest 135 copepods, including 127 individuals from Cyprinus carpio belonging to five species (Ergasilus sieboldi, Ergasilus briani, Neoergasilus japonicusNeoergasilus longispinosis and Lernaea cyprinacae) and 8 individuals from Abramis brama belonging to the two species: Ergasilus sieboldi and  Ergasilus briani, and hence Cyprinus carpio is the most infested species than Abramis brama. This study also revealed that the parasitic index values were high in C. carpio (P=53.00%; A=3.7; I=6.93) compared to A. brama (P=12,0.5%, A=0.12, I=1.00) during autumn, since no effect on infestation was noticed during winter. The statistical analysis has revealed the effect of season on parasitic copepod infestation in the two fish species (χ2Obs =30,959 > χ20.05 = 7,815, ddl =3), Since there was no effect due to the microhabitat and sex.

Open Access Review Article

Geographic Distribution of Global Economic Important Mahogany Complex: A Review

Jones Abrefa Danquah, Mark Appiah, Adam Osman, Ari Pappinen

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-22
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v34i330154

Mahogany is the collective international trade name for the high-value tropical and subtropical timber tree species of the family Meliaceae. Mahogany species are noted for their deep red-brown heartwood and are widely used in the construction, boat building, interior decoration (particularly paneling and floor tiles), and in the manufacture of furniture. Across their natural geographical distribution range, many rural communities depend for their livelihoods on the genetic resources of the species as they provide natural products and services. However, mahogany populations across their native range are threatened by deforestation, habitat fragmentation, excessive logging and genetic erosion. In addition, climate change may bring about a shift in the distributional range of the native species. To safeguard the rich diversity of mahogany requires a conscientious effort in policy formulation and the enforcement of existing laws in regard to the management and conservation of the species. In addition, it is imperative that mahogany is used as an integral component in agroforestry systems and in reforestation efforts, as well as in the restoration of degraded forest ecosystems in order to protect the genetic resources of the species. The aim of this review was to highlight the threats to the sustainability of the species. We conducted literature review to examine the geographic distributional range of a mahogany complex (Khaya spp, Entandrophragma spp, Cedrela spp, Toona spp, Swietenia spp) at global, regional and ecosystem scales. We used maps as annotated diagrams to show the probable geographic global distribution range of the mahogany complex. The Khaya spp. and Entandrophragma spp. are native to Africa, Cedrela spp. and Swietenia spp. are native to Central and South America, whereas, Toona spp. are found primarily in southeast Asia.