Open Access Minireview Article
Xylanases are enzymes with a wide variety of biotechnological applications, such as in the bioconversion of lignocellulosic materials, improvement of feed digestibility, and bleaching kraft pulps to increase pulp brightness. Many studies have been conducted and published over the years on cellulose pulp bleaching due to the need to search for more sustainable tools and thus reduce environmental pollution. Thus, in this review, we focus on analyzing the biochemical properties of xylanases produced by mesophilic and thermophilic fungi that have been used in the bleaching processes of kraft and non-wood pulps. Eucalyptus kraft pulp is still one of the most used raw materials in the production of pulp and paper, while straw and bagasse are alternative sources of non-wood pulps. Thermophilic fungal xylanases show optimum enzymatic activity at high temperatures and a shorter treatment period when compared to mesophilic xylanases in the bleaching step. However, mesophilic fungal xylanases exhibit a longer period of enzymatic treatment but achieve a satisfactory brightness and kappa number. Hence, these approaches will contribute to future applications of these xylanolytic enzymes in pulp and paper industries.
Open Access Original Research Article
Aim: Aims of this study were to assess the pattern of malocclusion in Erbil City, Kurdistan region- Iraq.
Methods: A retrospective study includes 1212 patients (589 males and 623 females) that attended orthodontic department at the khanzad polyclinic teaching center / Erbil city, Iraq, aged 11-17 years old with a mean age of 13.49 ±1.02 years that randomly selected. The normal occlusion, malocclusion, overjet, overbite, spacing, crowding, cross bite, midline shifting and midline diastema were examined.
Results: Study demonstrated that 309 (25.5%) of patients had normal occlusion. Class I malocclusion was found in 655 (72.5%), class II was found in 176 (19.5%), and class III malocclusion 72 (8.0%) patients of all examined. Crowding and midline shifting were observed more frequently in females, however, normal bite and posterior open bite were observed more frequently in males and normal crossbite more frequently in both genders.
Conclusion: Results of this study showed class I molar relationship was the most prevalent type of occlusion in Erbil City, Kurdistan Region-Iraq area and the most prevalent malocclusion was crowded.
Open Access Original Research Article
Background: Lavender oil, Eruca sativa oil and Aloe vera oil contain different types of fatty acids in addition to minerals, vitamins and other compounds which have anti-tumour action and antioxidant properties also it has cure properties against many other diseases. Sodium carbonate is alkaline material that affecting tissue PH and somewhat affecting on breast cancer through changing PH of the tissue making the medium not appropriate for breast cancer induction.
Aim: Is studying the effect of Eruca sativa oil, Sodium carbonate, Lavender oil and Aloe vera oil on lipid profile, Tumor markers of breast cancer and thyroid hormones.
Materials and Methods: Six groups of animals, five rats in each were used for this experiment and divided into negative control, positive control, sodium carbonate group, Eruca sativa oil group, lavender oil group and Aloe vera oil group. We induced cancer in all rats by MCF7 breast cancer cell line except negative control. Then all groups (Except positive and negative controls) were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with 2 mg /rat of adryadox (adryamycin chemotherapy), the remaining three groups except sodium carbonate group are supplemented with 1 ml. of the oil. Then rats are sacrificed and blood is centrifuged to obtain serum and analysis of lipid profile and breast cancer tumour markers.
Results: Eruca sativa oil and Aloe vera decrease cholesterol and triglycerides, where Eruca s. oil, Lavender oil and Aloe vera oil increase HDL more than sodium carbonate, Erucas. oil, Lavender oil and Aloe vera oil decrease LDL. Eruca s. oil decrease VLDL, sodium carbonate decreases alpha-fetoprotein and Ca15-3.
Conclusion and Recommendation: Based on the findings of this study, we recommend the use of lavender oil, Eruca sativa oil, Aloe vera oil and sodium carbonate administered at low doses as a helper in cure chemotherapy in treatment of breast cancer because it has useful effect in decreasing tumor markers and lipids and improve heart properties.
Open Access Original Research Article
Aims: The study examined the farming households’ food demand in Nigeria by, identifying the socio-economic characteristics of the farming households, assessing the monthly expenditure share of various categories of food in the total households’ food budget, analyzing the expenditure elasticities of the food classes and examining the factors influencing food demand.
Methodology: A questionnaire was used as research instrument to elicit primary data from 120 farming households randomly selected through a multi-stage sampling method. The data analyses were done through the use of descriptive statistics and Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System (QUAIDS) model.
Results: The results show that 61.7 percent of the household heads were men while the mean age was 45.7 years. Most (92.5%) of the household heads were educated with mean household size of 7 persons and mean monthly income of N19, 435.20. The analysis of average monthly expenditure share of various food classes demanded for by the households reveals that roots and tubers food class had the largest (48%) share of households’ total food expenditure while flesh foods and dairy products came last with just 2 percent. In addition, expenditure elasticities of the six classes of food considered indicate that demand for roots and tubers, starchy food, fruits and vegetables and fats and oil food classes were inelastic while that of Flesh foods and dairy products and protein grains were elastic. Also it was revealed that farm households with small household sizes consume more proteinous foods. The determinants that had the expected sign and cut across all food classes were the price of individual food category and household income.
Conclusion: The study analysed the farming households’ food demand and its determinants and in order to improve the farm households’ demand for food, it is recommended that policies to prevent upward or downward swings in the prices of foods in the economy should be put in place.
Open Access Review Article
Reproduction in teleosts is regulated by a series of hormones including gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs), gonadotropins (GTHs) and steroid hormones. To contribute better understanding of steroid hormones in reproduction and GnRH-a in gonadal maturation, this literature review is concerned with the changes of steroid hormone levels in relation with sex inversion, reproductive behavior and gonadal development as well as the application of GnRH-a for inducing maturation of marine fish. The results revealed that in many species of teleost, steroid hormones E2, 11-11-KT and DHP are abundantly produced in gonadal tissues under the control of pituitary gonadotropins, and are essential for critical steps of gametogenesis. Plasma steroid levels have been used as indicators for both of the sex of the fish and its stage in the seasonal reproductive cycle, particularly with regard to induction of spawning. Determination of plasma steroid levels in relation with the sexual status of the gonads over several reproductive seasons might provide valuable information on the mechanisms of sex inversion in ambisexual fish species. In addition, changes of plasma steroid levels in correlation with gonadal development, number of spawning, fecundity, were described clearly in many marine species. The review also indicated that exogenous administration of GnRH-a triggered for final maturation of brood stock of some teleosts. In summary E2, T, 11-KT and C21 steroids are in relation with sex inversion, reproductive processes and GnRH-a is successful for inducing gonadal maturation in some fish species.