Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of a Hexaploid Wheat Collection (Triticum aestivum L.) under Drought Stress Conditions Using Stress Tolerance Indices

Alireza Daneshvar Hosseini, Ali Dadkhodaie, Bahram Heidari, Seyed Abdolreza Kazemeini

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v34i630168

Wheat is the most important crop in the world which faces the global problem of drought. Its production is affected by water deficit after pollination in arid and semi-arid regions. An experiment was conducted to assess tolerance of 39 bread wheat genotypes to end-season drought. The experimental design was Randomized Complete Block in three replications and the drought tolerance indices (SSI, STI, TOL, MP and GMP) were calculated for grain yield. The cultivar Cambin produced the highest grain yield under normal irrigation by 369.19 g m-2 while Arina had the highest yield (223.35 g m-2) under drought stress conditions. Stress tolerance (TOL) introduced Hindukesh, Iran2355 and Iran6476 as drought tolerant genotypes. Also, results showed that grain yield under stress and non-stress environments were highly correlated with the mean productivity (MP), the geometric mean productivity (GMP) and tolerance index (TOL). These genotypes could be further used in crosses for genetic studies and breeding programs for improvement tolerance to drought.

Open Access Original Research Article

Foliar Application of Nutrients Solution (Macro and Micro) on Local Chilli (Capsicum sp.) Gremplasms

Md. Shah Newaz Chowdhury, Md. Nasir Hossain Sani, Rezowana Nizam, Tania Sultana, Shahnaz Sarkar, A. F. M. Jamal Uddin

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v34i630170

A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the morph physiological attributes, growth, quality and yield performance of five local chilli germplasm viz., Akashi (V1), Kajoli (V2), Deshi kacha morich (V3), Bogra morich (V4), Dongfou (V5) with liquid (macro & micro) nutrient solution viz. S0 (Control), S1 (Solution-1), S2 (Solution-2) were exploited on the experiment. Major characters of growth and yield such as plant height, days to first flower bud initiation, number of flowers/plant, number of fruits/plant, individual fruit weight, fruit length, fruit diameter, yield/plant, protein, and vitamin C content were influenced by amalgamation of germplasm with foliar nutrient solution. However, In amalgamation, maximum number of fruit per plant (327.0) from V2S1 and 1000 seed weight (3.8 g), yield (803.9 g/pant), fresh yield (19.6 t ha-1) obtained from V1S1 whereas lowest number of fruit from V5S0 (72.3/ pant) and 1000 seed weight (2.6 g), yield (116.2 g/ pant), fresh yield (10.4 t ha-1) obtained from V4S0     

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Conventional Cultivars and Hybrid Rice Varieties by Their Morpho-physiological Performance during Aman Season

Ariful Islam, Nasima Akhter, Md. Saidur Rahman, Md. Mofizur Rahman

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v34i630172

Aims: The objectives of the research work were to evaluate the morpho-physiological characteristics of selected local and high yielding varieties (HYV) of rice. 

Study Design: The research used randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications.

Place and Duration of Study: Central research field of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka-1207 during June to December 2017.

Methodology: In this research we used seven conventional rice cultivars (Kanchancni, Chinisagar, Sunashail, Ranjay, Lohadang, Haldijan, Kohabinni) and three high yielding rice varieties (BR11, BRRI dhan46 and BRRI dhan51) where different morpho-physiological data were taken for evaluation their performance. Obtaining data were analyzed by using analysis of variance technique and subsequently, least significance difference (LSD at 5%) for comparing the treatment means by MSTAT-C software.

Results: The morpho-physiological characters showed the considerable variation during the experimentation. Among the different growth parameter, the highest plant height and flag leaf area was found from Lohadang, number of leaves hill-1 and number of tillers hill-1 from Ranjay, crop growth rate and absolute grain growth rate from Sunashail, flag leaf dry weight from Kanchancni and SPAD value of flag leaf and specific leaf weight from BRRI dhan51. Meanwhile, the minimum days to anthesis, days from anthesis to maturity and life duration from germination to maturity were recorded from BRRI dhan46 and Kanchancni, respectively.

Conclusions: The results showed that among the conventional rice cultivars Kanchancni and the HYV varieties, BRRI dhan46 exhibit better morpho-physiological performance than others.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dust Pollution Reduced Stomatal Conductance and Photosynthetic Pigments of Selected Medicinal Plants Growing at Lokpa Ukwu Quarry Site in Abia State, Nigeria

C. E. Ogbonna, F. I. Nwafor, N. O. Nweze

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v34i630173

Aims: We investigated the influence of dust pollution on stomatal conductance and photosynthetic pigments in some medicinal plants growing at Lokpa Ukwu quarry site, Abia State, Nigeria.

Place and Duration of Study: Samples were collected from Lokpa Ukwu, Abia State while laboratory analyses were carried out in the Department of Pharmacognosy and Environmental Medicines, University of Nigeria, Nsukka between February and April, 2019.

Methodology: A total of nine (9) plants were sampled for the study. Leaf epidermises were prepared by clearing method and stomata were observed and studied quantitatively. Stomatal conductance was estimated from the anatomical variables following standard procedures. Total chlorophyll and β-carotene contents were also analysed and compared with control groups.

Results: We observed some physiological changes in the plants from dust-polluted site such as stretched epidermal cells, deformed stomata and plasmolysed guard cells. It reduced the potential conductance indices (PCI) of the plants by 87.4% in Aspilia africana and 67% in Chromolaena odorata. The least reduction in PCI was observed in Celosia trigyna (7.2%). Operating conductance (gop) and maximum conductance (gmax) were reduced by 69.2% and 72.3% in C. odorata and A. africana respectively. Celosia trigyna was least affected with percentage reductions of 18.3% and 1.4% for gop and gmax respectively. Reduction in PCI and gmax followed the order: C. trigyna ˂ C. papaya ˂ P. discoideus ˂ D. oliveri ˂ T. rhomboidea ˂ T. orientalis ˂ V. doniana ˂ C. odorata ˂ A. africana. Total chlorophyll and β-carotene contents were reduced the most in V. doniana (45.73%) and C. odorata (40.31%) respectively and least reduced in T. orientalis by 19.54% and 13.24% respectively.

Conclusion: Our findings validate previous reports of negative effects of dust pollution from quarry industries on both humans and plants alike.

Open Access Review Article

Mushroom Production Benefits, Status, Challenges and Opportunities in Bangladesh: A Review

Jannatul Ferdousi, Zabid Al Riyadh, Md. Iqbal Hossain, Satya Ranjan Saha, Mohammad Zakaria

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2019/v34i630169

Compacted information on mushroom cultivation in relation to production, performance, problems and prospects is very important for developing this sector. So, the aim of the review paper is to compile information on mushroom cultivation in Bangladesh. Mushroom production is increasing due to high demand of domestic market and export potentiality. In Bangladesh 40000 MT mushrooms are produced during 2018-19. Oyster, Reishi, Milky, Button, Straw and Shiitake mushrooms are most preferable species and cultivated by the farmers; but the maximum cultivation is confined to oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp.) which are grown throughout the year. Mostly young aged educated people and rural women are adopting mushroom farming as commercial basis in Bangladesh. The study revealed that mushroom production is easy work because it requires only a little technical efficiency and a highly profitable agribusiness as evident for its lucrative benefit cost ratio (BCR 1.55-4.25). Although mushrooms production increased, there are some problems confronting by the mushroom growers during cultivation and marketing including lack of cultivation house, unavailability of good spawn, capital shortage, lack of equipment’s, lack of available market and promotion in local level, lack of storage facilities etc. which are needed to be addressed for further development of this sector. There is enormous opportunity of expanding mushroom farming throughout the country. Considering the country’s limited land, over and unemployed population, strengthening the production of mushroom could be one of the sustainable options for the development of rural economy. Development of this sector would also improve the diversified business and employment opportunities both in the rural and semi-urban areas.