Open Access Original Research Article

Screening of Mungbean Genotypes under Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Induced Drought Stress Condition

Abdullah All Imtiaz, Saleh Ahmed Shahriar, Md. Abdullahil Baque, Most. Nurjahan Khatun Eaty, Maliha Rahman Falguni

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i230184

Sixteen advance genotypes of mungbeans under 5 different concentrations of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) were studied to find out the better cultivar against drought stress condition. The experiment results revealed that germination, seedling production and water-related behavior of mungbean genotypes differed significantly under different PEG (drought inducer) concentrations. The mungbean genotype BINA Mung-6 (V8) is proved as highly tolerant against drought stress condition among all other tested genotypes. The results of the investigation revealed that BINA Mung-6 (V8) genotype consistently scored the highest value for all parameters except for the root shoot ratio and water retention capacity that was statistically comparable to genotypes BARI Mung-4 (V2) and BINA Mung-5 (V7). Consistently poor performance were recorded from IPM-02-03 (V16) genotype which is statistically similar as genotypes BMXK1-09015-2 (V13) and BMXK1-09015-6 (V10). The maximum percentage of germination (98.12%), shoot length (139.40 mm), root length (99.07 mm), shoot dry weight (22.32 mg), root dry weight (6.88 mg), relative water content (94.78), water retention capacity (24.98), germination co-efficient (22.27) and vigor index (233.90) were reported from BINA Mung-6 (V8) at a concentration of 0 percent PEG. The minimum percentage of germination (28.22 percent), shoot length (31.17 mm), root length (16.50 mm), shoot dry weight (2.21 mg), root dry weight (0.97 mg), relative water content (25.55), water retention capacity (3.08), germination co-efficient (6.06) and vigor index (13.45) were reported from IPM-02-03 (V16) mungbean advance lines at 0 percent PEG. Maximum (0.92) root shoot ratio was recorded from both BARI Mung-8 (V6) and BMX-08011-2 (V11) mungbean genotypes at 20 percent PEG concentration and minimum (0.22) at 0 percent PEG concentration from BARI Mung-5 (V3) genotype. Maximum water retention capacity (74.45) was recorded at 20 per cent PEG concentration from IPM-02-03 (V16) genotype and minimum (5.22) was at 0 per cent PEG concentration from BINA Mung-6 (V8) genotype.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Characterization of Two Catfish Species (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and Chrysichthys auratus) from the Cross River, Nigeria, Using Ribosomal RNA and Internal Transcribed Spacers

Edak Aniedi Uyoh, Valentine Otang Ntui, Oju Richard Ibor, Chioma Marylyn Adilieje, Mfon Udo, Charles Opara, Godwin M. Ubi, Daniel Ama-Abasi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 13-24
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i230185

Studies were conducted on Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and C. auratus from the Cross River, Nigeria. The objective was to document intra- and inter-specific variations in molecular structure among four populations of the genus in the river. DNA was extracted from caudal fin and primers designed for the ribosomal RNA and Internal Transcribed Spacer Region were used for amplification. Molecular characterization yielded a fragment containing partial sequences of 18S rRNA, ITS-1, ITS-2 and 28S rRNA genes and a complete sequence of 5.8S rRNA. The 5.8S rRNA was the only gene amplified consistently in all samples indicating that it is more conserved among the samples studied. The percentage of GC contents fall within the range observed in other catfish species. They were generally higher in C. auratus than in C. nigrodigitatus and also higher than the AT contents in both species. The high GC content could be an adaptation to warmer climates. Alignment of the nucleotide sequences of the two species from the two regions showed that the rRNA and ITS genes are highly conserved with >99% nucleotide identity. However, a total of 284 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were observed in these genes in the two species, made up of deletions (0.35%), single base insertions (11.27%), multiple base insertions (14.39%), single base transition substitutions (29.93%), single base transversion substitutions (33.8%) and multiple base substitutions (11.27%). The overall ratio of transition to transversion polymorphisms was approximately 1: 1 indicating a low level of genetic instability in Chrysichthys spp. The indels were responsible for length variations in the sequences. Sequence information for the ITS region of these fishes is reported for the first time. This study has provided an insight into polymorphism patterns of these genes in Chrysichthys spp across the four populations studied which could form the basis for further genomic characterization and mapping of these species.

Open Access Original Research Article

Selection Criteria and Selection Environment for Drought Tolerance of Egyptian Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Landraces

Ahmed Medhat Mohamed Al-Naggar, Mohamed Abd El-Maboud Abd El-Shafi, Mohamed Helmy El-Shal, Ali Hassan Anany

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 25-40
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i230186

Strong correlations between wheat traits and drought tolerance (DT) associated with high heritability and high genetic advance from selection would allow plant breeder to use such traits as selection criteria. The objective of the present investigation was to determine the optimum selection criteria and selection environment for drought tolerance via estimation of correlation coefficients (r) among 13 agronomic, grain yield and quality traits and DT of 20 wheat landraces, broad-sense heritability (h2b) and genetic advance (GA) from selection for such traits under well-watered (WW) and water stressed (WS) environments. A two-year experiment was carried out using a split-plot design with four replications. Results concluded that the best selection criterion for drought tolerance in our study was grain yield/plant (GYPP), followed by a number of grains/spike (GPS), grain filling period (GFP), grain starch (GSC) and protein (GPC) content, plant height (PH) and days to maturity (DTM), since they showed high (r), high h2b and high GA estimates. The best selection environment was WW for days to anthesis, PH, spikes/plant, GPS, spikelets/spike, GYPP, GPC and WS for DTM, GFP, GSC and thousand-grain weight traits. This information could help future breeding programs in selection for improving drought tolerance of wheat.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-mutagenic Action of Ruta chalepensis against Rat Sperm Cell Abnormalities-induced by Potassium Bromate

Nagat S. Elhaddad, Eman M. Efkerine, Hoda A. Khatab, Ibrahim S. Eldurssi, Eman M. Belkasem

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 41-51
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i230187

Aims: The aim of current study was to investigate the genotoxic damage of potassium bromate on sperm cell morphology and the potential defense role of Ruta chalepensis (Rue) against the potassium bromate effects.

Study Design: Fifty rats (Strain: Rattus norvegicus) were randomly divided into five groups (10 rats/group) as follows: (Control group) received distilled water daily for 4 weeks, (KBrO3 group) treated with KBrO3 (100 mg/kg/b.w) for 4 weeks, (Rue group) received Rue orally in a daily dose (0.5 g/animal) for 4 weeks, (treatment group) were first provided with oral doses of KBrO3 daily for 2 weeks and then treated orally with KBrO3 in association with Rue for an additional 2 weeks Finally (protective group) was administered with Rue orally for 2 weeks and then administered oral doses of Rue in association with KBrO3 for an additional 2 weeks.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Zoology and Department of Botany, University of Omar Almukhtar, between July 2018 and September 2019.

Methodology: Sperm suspensions, filtered and smears were made according to the standard protocol for sperm morphology assay. The smears were fixed, allow to dry and stained with hematoxylin and then washed under slow running water until the excess stain is removed and were putted in eosin dye.

Results: The results were showed that potassium bromate has the ability to cause mutations in the morphology of sperm cells. The highest mutation rates of head, tail and neck reached 16.60, 5.200 and 3.200 respectively in animals. Several types of sperm abnormalities such as hock free, banana type, amorphous, hummer shape after the administration of potassium bromate comparing with the negative control animals that treated only with potassium bromate. On the other hand, the oil extract of Ruta chalepensis significantly inhibited the mutations by declining the abnormality rates of head, tail and neck to 2.600, 1.600 and 0.400 in protective group. Thus, potassium bromate has to be considered as a conceivable line regarding human health.

Conclusion: Potassium bromate clearly caused a wide range of sperm cell abnormalities and Rue oil extracts have a good anti-mutagenic effects against potassium bromate by decreasing the sperm cell abnormalities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Cariogenic and Erosive Potential of Some Beverages Consumed in Enugu Metropolis, South East Nigeria

C. Uzoamaka Maduakor, F. Ngozi Onyemelukwe, N. Innocent Okonkwo, C. Nkiruka Azubuike, O. Cornelius Ogu, I. Paul John Chukwu, N. Sam Maduakor

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 52-60
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i230188

Dental caries is a global infectious disease and the most common oral cavity disease. Among the theories which explain caries is the activity of acids produced by bacteria resulting from dietary fermentation of carbohydrates (sugars). Modernization has led to change in our diet and life style and the beverage industries are having a field day. Though people are aware of the harm caused by these beverages and fruit juices on the dental hard tissues, they still choose to guzzle them. The study was an in vitro analysis of cariogenic and erosive potential of different beverages mostly consumed in Enugu metropolis, South Nigeria. Seventeen samples were analyzed physically and chemically using the following parameters, pH, titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solid content (TSSC), reducing sugars (RS), non-reducing sugars (NRS) and total sugars (TS). Standard analytical techniques were used including potentiometry for endogenous pH, Association of Official Analytical Chemists approved method for titratable acidity, Brix refractometry using Abbe refractometer for TSSC and Fehling’s method for sugars. Coke pressented the highest pH (2.83) followed by La casara 2.92 and the least was Bobo strawberry 4.6. California and Holladia recorded the least and highest TA values of 0.04% and 0.26% respectively. Bobo strawberry had the least TSSC (6.81oBrix) and the highest was Hollandia yogurt (16.34oBrix). Seven Up presented the highest reducing sugar 20.45g/100ml. Mirinda and Bobo strawberry had the highest total sugars 68.90g/100ml each. For non-reducing sugars, the values ranged from 0g/100ml (Chivita apple) to 65.45g/100ml (Bobo strawberry). There were significant differences among the samples for reducing sugars (P<0.05). These beverages showed low endogenous pH that were below the critical value for enamel demineralization (pH<5.5). They are potentially hazardous to the teeth and should not be consumed regularly because of their low pH and high sugar content.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Characterization of DNA from Root Tubers

O. G. Dawodu, O. R. Agbeni, V. Iwu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 61-67
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i230189

This study reports a modified SDS extraction technique for isolation of DNA from root tubers namely Dioscorea (yam), Manihot esculenta (cassava) and Colocasia esculenta (cocoyam). DNA extraction in many plants is very difficult because of secondary metabolites that interfere with DNA isolation procedure. Young fresh leaves were collected from the selected tubers and DNA extracted using SDS-extraction protocol, the DNA isolated from the extracted leaves was subjected to gel electrophoresis for determining their purity and concentration and PCR amplification was carried out on the extracted DNA, afterwards gel-electrophoresis was performed for molecular weight determination of the samples. DNA sequencing were performed on both reverse and forward using Sanger sequencing method which gave the nucleotide bases of the samples. DNA isolated by modified SDS protocol method was pure and highest level of purity was obtained from Manihot esculenta, Colocasia esculenta and Dioscorea which are 1.77, 1.72 and 1.20 with concentration of 537.7 ng/µl, 992.4 ng/µl and 149.8 ng/µl respectively.

The DNA isolated from root tubers was pure and of good quality, and the isolated DNA was characterized by sequencing. The isolated DNA was successfully sequenced which coded for marker genes of the respective root tubers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Diversity Based on Morphological Traits of 19 Maize Genotypes Using Principal Component Analysis and GT Biplot

A. M. M. Al-Naggar, M. M. Shafik, R. Y. M. Musa

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 68-85
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i230191

Among the phenotypic, biochemical, and molecular methods employed in assessment of genetic diversity, the phenotypic method has proven efficient for the assessment, description and classification of germplasm collections to enhance their use in maize breeding. The objectives of the present study were: (i) to assess the extent of genetic diversity in a collection of Egyptian commercial maize hybrids and populations, through field evaluation under water and N stressed and non-stressed conditions, using morphological data based on Principle Component Analysis (PCA), (ii) to measure the genetic distance among these genotypes using UPGMA cluster analysis and (iii) to assess the relationship between grain yield and yield-related traits of maize genotypes using GT-biplot analysis. A two-year field experiment was conducted in a split-split plot design with 3 replications, where 2 irrigation regimes, three N rates and 19 maize genotypes occupied the main plots, sub plots and sub-sub plots, respectively. The germplasm was assessed for 21 agronomic traits. Highly significant differences (P ≤ 0.01) were observed among the maize hybrids and populations for all measured traits.  Results of the GT biplot in the present study indicated that high values of 100-Kernel weight, ears/plant, kernels/plant, kernels/row, plant height, nitrogen use efficiency, nitrogen utilization efficiency, and grain nitrogen content and short ASI could be considered reliable secondary traits for improving grain yield under stressed and non-stressed conditions. The highest genetic distance was found between G9 (SC-2055) and each of G15 (American Early Dent), G18 (Midland) or G19 (Ried Type). The Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering based on phenotypic data assigned the maize genotypes into five groups. The different groups obtained can be useful for deriving the inbred lines with diverse features and diversifying the heterotic pools.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Sub-acute Toxicity Profile of Vitex doniana (Sweet) Leaf Fractions on Albino Rats

O. S. Onwukwe, J. N. Ukwuani, A. O. Onyemelukwe, N. C. Azubuike, A. C. Onuba, O. C. Ogu, O. F. Odo, P. U. Achukwu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 86-95
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i230192

Aim: To evaluate the sub-acute toxicity profile of fractions of Vitex doniana using adult albino rats.

Study Design: An experimental study that lasted for 28 days.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences and Animal House Unit, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria Enugu Campus, between January 2019 and March 2019.

Methodology: Methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane fractions of V. doniana were orally administered to 6 groups of animals at doses of 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg body weight for each fraction, for 28 days. At the end of the administration, the animals were sacrificed. Body weight changes, Relative Organ Weights (ROW), haematological analysis, serum biochemical assay and histopathological changes of vital organs were used to evaluate the potential toxic effects of the fractions after treatments.

Results: The fractions had no adverse effects on the body weights, ROW and gross appearance of the tissues. There were no significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters of the treated animals compared to the controls. Histological assessment of the excised organs also showed no overt pathological changes apart from thickened alveolar septa in the lungs of the animals that received methanol and ethyl acetate fractions.

Conclusion: The polar fractions of V. doniana at the doses tested did not induce any toxic changes in the treated animals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Helminth Parasites among School Children Attending Two Community Schools in Auta Balefi, Karu, Nasarawa State

Maikenti, James Ishaku, Chinonso Praise Onyeacho, Amos Zamfara Koggie

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 96-106
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i230193

Aim: To determining the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth parasites among school children attending two community schools in Auta-balefi, Karu. Nasarawa State.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted between July and August, 2019 in two community schools in Auta-balefi, Karu Local Government Area, Nasarawa State, Nigeria.

Methodology: Microscopic examination of faecal sample from 288 pupils (143 males and 145 females) from ages 5 years and above was carried out using formol-ether concentration technique. Questionnaires were also administered and only pupils whose parents gave their consents were enrolled in the study.

Results: This study recorded an overall prevalence of 45.1% gastrointestinal helminth infection. The study however, identified the following parasites in descending order: hookworm (30.76%), Ascaris lumbricoides (25.4%), Schistosoma mansoni (17.7%), Strongyloides stercoralis (13.8%), Proglottids of tapeworm (10.78%), Fasciola hepatica (1.5%). Males (51.0%) were more infected as well as children between the ages 11-15 years with (48.3%). Risk factors such as: The educational status and occupation (higher education and unskilled job) of the parents, use of water closet and use of well water and contact with soil were found to contribute to the prevalence of intestinal helminths infection in the study. This is because of the significant association of present of parasites and the prevalence of the parasites (P > 0.05).

Conclusion: The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths parasite at the end of the study was (45.1%) which is considered to be high compare to previous study carried on the related subject matter and also certain risk factors were considered to be the reason for such high observation. The prevalence in this study is one to be worried about considering the harm these parasites has on the health and livelihood of children who need to be healthy to carry out their everyday functions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hematoprotective and Gastroprotective Effects of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (Linn)-Supplemented Diet in Male Wistar Rats

Samuel A. Onasanwo, Olusegun G. Adebayo, Omeje U. Nicodemus, Abayomi M. Ajayi, A. Wadioni, I. Wopara

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 107-118
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i230194

Aims: Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (CA) is a plant known to possess very high phenolic compound. The study evaluated hematological indices, anti-oxidative properties and gastroprotective potentials of CA leaf-supplemented diet.

Methodology: Male Wistar rats weighing between 80-100 g were divided into 5 groups of n=18. Group 1 animals were fed with normal diet and groups 2-5 were fed with diets supplemented with 1%, 2.5%, 5% and 10% of C. aconitifolius powdered leaves continuously for 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Hematological indices were examined in the whole blood plasma Malondialdehyde (MDA), Glutathione (GSH), Catalase (CAT) were investigated, and changes in stomach architecture were also examined via histology.

Results: There was a progressive increase in weight gain at different weeks of feeding with Cnidoscolus aconitifolius-supplemented diet (CAD). Malondialdehyde level decreased (p<0.05) significantly in 1% CAD at 8 weeks of feeding when compared to normal diet group. Glutathione at the 8th and 12th weeks of feeding with 1% CAD and 10% CAD significantly (p<0.05) decreased when compared to the group fed normal diet. Catalase activity increased (p<0.05) significantly in 1%, 2.5% and 5% CAD groups when compared to the group fed normal diet at 4 weeks of feeding. There was increase in haematological indices across all the groups during the weeks of feeding. The microscopic examination of the stomach epithelial layer reveals improvement with no serious damage across all the groups.

Conclusion: Cnidoscolus aconitifolius-supplemented diet moderately improves blood anti-oxidant against oxidative stress and the hematological indices with time. The diet also maintains the structural integrity of the stomach wall without causing any damage.