Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study of in vivo Plant and in vitro Callus Extracts of Centratherum punctatum Cass

K. Mercy Madhumitha, J. Anbumalarmathi, S. Aruna Sharmili, G. Nandhini, G. Shanmuga Priya

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i330195

The present study aims at comparative study between plant and callus extract, with respect to analysis of phytochemical constituents, antioxidant, antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity properties of Centratherum punctatum using aqueous medium and different solvents such as, methanol and ethyl acetate. In vitro studies in MS media supplemented with BAP 4.5 mg/L + Kn 4.0 mg/L has shown the high callus induction percentage of 92.33% with a maximum callus weight of 1.08 g. The phytochemical analysis of aqueous, methanol and ethyl acetate extract of C. punctatum in vivo plant and in vitro callus showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols and carbohydrates. The aqueous extract of both plant and callus showed the presence of tannins, proteins and steroids whereas the methanol extract showed the presence of tannins, amino acids and terpenoids. The ethyl acetate extract showed terpenoids and protein. FTIR analysis of plant and callus aqueous extract had a maximum characteristic band at 3399.87 cm-1 and 3412.73 cm-1 respectively indicating the presence of N-H stretching. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 11 different compounds in ethyl acetate extracts of plant and the callus extract revealed the presence of 15 different compounds which was absent in the plant extract. Plant extract exhibited maximum total phenol content than callus extract. The in vitro callus extract showed higher DPPH radical scavenging activity with lower inhibition percentage than in vivo plant extract. A maximum zone of inhibition was observed in methanol extract of in vivo plant and in vitro callus (15 mm and 14 mm respectively) against Bacillus subtilis. The ethyl acetate extract of in vivo plant and in vitro callus had a zone of 14 mm and 12 mm against E. coli. A maximum zone of inhibition (12 mm and 11 mm respectively) was observed in both methanol and ethyl acetate of in vivo plant and in vitro callus against Staphylococcus aureus. Antiproliferative analysis revealed that in vivo plant has inhibitory percentage of 23.6 whereas callus exhibited 28.5% against HeLa cells.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fungal Diversity in the Rhizosphere and Rhizoplane of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Moench. in Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria

C. N. Onaebi, A. C. Okoro, E. Anyaogu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 14-22
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i330196

Aim: The growth and development of economically important crops are usually affected positively or negatively by the microbes present in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane. Based on this, the study was carried out to determine the fungal diversity in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of okra plant.

Methods: Okra seeds were purchased from an agricultural shop in Nsukka main market and were planted at Botanic garden, Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Physicochemical properties of the soil sample were evaluated prior to planting and as the plant aged. Rhizosphere and rhizoplane samples were collected at two weeks interval and dilution plate method was used in fungi isolation after which they were identified. The frequency of occurrence and the colony forming unit per gram of the sample (cfu/g) were evaluated.

Results: The Physicochemical properties of the soil samples fluctuated as plant aged at two weeks intervals. The pH was slightly acidic to neutral which is ideal for most plant to grow. The water retention capacity, moisture content and organic matter content increased from 11.47-27.90 ml/g, 5.03-21.07% and 2.35-3.68% respectively at two weeks interval but fluctuates at subsequent weeks. A total of eleven (11) fungi were isolated from the rhizosphere and were identified as, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus bertholletius, Fusarium oxysporum, Galactomyces candidum, Helminthosporium solani, Rhizopus stolonifer, Mucor racemosus, Penicillium citrinum and Trichoderma viride. All fungi were present in the rhizoplane except Aspergillus bertholletius and Penicillium citrinum. Rhizosphere had a greater number of fungi than the rhizoplane. Aspergillus species were predominant in both the rhizosphere and rhizoplane. A. niger had the highest frequency of occurrence of 58.67% on the 6th week and 65.79% on the 4th week in rhizosphere and rhizoplane respectively. The colony forming unit (cfu/g) of Aspergillus niger was significantly different from all other isolates at P≤0.001 followed by Mucor racemosus and Fusarium oxysporum with significant differences at P≤0.05 and P≤0.01 respectively.

Conclusion: The rhizosphere and rhizoplane of okra plants has been shown to be rich in fungal diversity and a greater number were obtained from the rhizosphere. The data obtained from this work could be exploited by microbial ecologist to ascertain ecological associations and biomass increase by the fungal communities which also forms part of ecosystem. The fungi had no pathological effect on the plant which suggest positive effect on the growth and development of okra plant as the plant aged.

Open Access Original Research Article

Neuroprotective Effect of Nilotinib on Cortical Pyramidal Cells, Histological, Morphometric and Biochemical Study

Ahmed S. Ahmed

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 23-33
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i330197

Introduction: Death of neuronal cell and gliosis are the two main pathological hallmarks induced by nervous tissue stress like conditions such as status epilepticus. Previous studies have mentioned that neuronal cell death occur as a result of different mechanisms, namely, necrosis and apoptosis. Although more recent studies have explained the cell death on the basis of autophagy. Many antiepileptic drugs are marketed, taking into consideration the antioxidant role of nilotinib and support its use as a favorable antiepileptic drug. The aim of the present study is to assess the neuroprotective effect of antiepileptic drug nilotinib on cortical tissue in rats.

Materials and Methods: Sixty adult male rats were divided into three groups: (1) Control group, (2) pentylenetetrazol group (injected with pentylenetetrazol 60 mg/kg, subcutaneously), (3) nilotinib and pentylenetetrazol group (pretreated with nilotinib, 25 mg/kg daily for seven days prior to pentylenetetrazol administration). Latency of seizure and level of either oxidant or antioxidant enzymes in the cortical tissue was assessed. The histopathological changes in the cerebral cortex were studied also using hematoxylin and eosin stain.

Results: Nilotinib increased the latency period of convulsions, increased the antioxidant enzymes levels with regain of the normal histological features.

Conclusions: Nilotinib proved to promote the antioxidant, antiapoptotic pathways, anti-inflammatory and inhibiting autophagy which favor its use as an anti-epileptic drug.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Liver Enzyme (AST, ALT & ALP) Levels of Adult HIV Patients on HAART in UPTH

Chinwe F. Anyanwu, Eric O. Aigbogun Jr., Tosin O. Joseph

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 34-41
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i330198

This study evaluated the liver enzyme levels of HIV-infected adult patients on highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) for not less than 1 year. The study was designed as a randomised cross-sectional study that evaluated the differences in the aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alanine transaminase [ALT] and alkaline phosphatase [ALP] of 129 (46 males and 83 females) HIV-infected adult patients. Before the study, ethical clearance (Ref: UPH/CEREMAD/REC/19) was obtained from the University of Port Harcourt Ethics Committee. Venous blood samples were obtained and the liver enzyme levels were analysed using Clinical Chemistry Analyser (VS10) manufactured by Vitro Scient. Values were further categorised into; normal or abnormal. SPSS version 21 (IBM® Armonk, USA) and Graph Pad Prism (Version 8.0.2) was used to analyse the data. T-test compared the sex differences in mean, while Chi-square analysis tested the sex differences in the categorised data. From the result, the mean AST (27.65±17.93 IU/L) and ALP (135.13±10.87 IU/L) values for males were higher than females AST (27.25±18.93 IU/L) and ALP (132.65±9.96 IU/L) values, while ALT was higher in female (34.66±22.29 IU/L) than males (33.75±18.14 IU/L); however, the differences were not significant (p>0.05). Generally, abnormal AST, ALT and ALP levels were 31%, 34% and 82% respectively; with no sex-associated differences (p>0.05). 45.7% of the patients (males: 25 [54.3%] and females: 34 [41.0%]) had cholestatic abnormality, while 8.5% (5; 10.9% males and 6; 7.2% females) had hepatocellular abnormality, 18.6% (6; 13.0% of males and 18; 21.7% of females) and mixed abnormality (AST/ALT/ALP). In conclusion, cholestatic abnormalities were observed in more than 80% of the patients as opposed to hepatocellular abnormalities, which were less than 35%. More females were associated with mixed abnormality when compared to males with independent (ALT/AST) abnormality. This study, therefore, suggests the need for a randomised case-control study to highlight the extent of deviation from normal values.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Ethno-Veterinary Management Practices among Sheep and Goat Farmers in Southwest Nigeria

A. O. Adekunmi, A. Ajiboye, A. O. Awoyemi, F. O. Osundare, F. M. Oluwatusin, S. O. W. Toluwase, K. A. Abdu-Raheem

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 42-51
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i330199

The study assessed the determinants of the use of Ethno-Veterinary Management (EVM) practices among sheep and goats farmers in southwest, Nigeria. A validated interview schedule was used to source information from one hundred and twenty farmers for the study. Data were collected on selected farmers’ socio-economic characteristics, various EVM practices and constraints encountered on the use of various EVM practices. Descriptive statistics such as frequency count, percentage, means, standard deviation and ranking were employed to summarize the data. Binomial logit regression analysis was employed to assess the determinants of the use of EVM practices among sheep and goats farmers. The study revealed that the mean age of the respondents was 32.7 years with 58.3% males. Also, 91.7% were able to read and write and the mean household size was 4 while 40% received information on EVM practices. The common diseases and pests of sheep and goats in the study area were foot rot, mastitis, pneumonia, conjunctivitis, trypanosomiasis, ticks, fleas and mites. Common EVM practices employed by the farmers were: the use of spent engine oil, kerosene, oil extracts of palm oil vernonia conferta leaves etc. Age and sex had negative relationships with the use of EVM practices at 5% level of significance while educational level, household size, farming experience, sources of information on EVM practices had positive significant relationships with the use of EVM practices. Insufficient fund was the major constraint hindering the rearing of sheep and goats in the study area. It was concluded that small ruminants’ farmers did manage their stocks employing some EVM practices and sensitize farmers on the efficacy of some EVM practices. Government should encourage veterinary practices which will integrate western medicines and EVM practices together for the use of small ruminants’ farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Heavy Metals in Water and Some Selected Fish Species in River Ofin, Ado-Ekiti

Idowu Eunice Opeyemi, Olorunfemi Omotolani Olatunde

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 52-62
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i330200

This study investigates the physico-chemical parameters of water and quantification of heavy metals (zinc, copper, lead, chromium and cadmium) in the gill, liver and flesh of Oreochromis niloticus, Hemichromis fasciatus, Sarotherodon galilaeus and Oreochromis aureus in River Ofin, fortnightly at two sampling points (Point 1- upper stream and Point 2- downstream) from October to December, 2019, using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer by the calibration plot method. Three processes were involved; standard preparation, equipment calibration and sample analysis Mean values of the parameters were; Temperature; 27.18±0.15°C, pH; 7.06±0.10, Turbidity; 9.0±0.94 Ntu, Conductivity; 236.10±0.53 µs/cm, DO; 6.67±0.16 mg/l and BOD; 6.87±0.81 mg/l.  Mean values of the concentration of the heavy metals in the water were; Zn; 0.31±0.01 mg/l, Cu; 0.26±0.01 mg/l, Pb; 0.13±0.01 mg/l, (Pb in water was higher than the highest value 0.12±0.003 (P≤0.05) recorded in fish) Cr; 0.12±0.01 mg/l and Cd; 0.002±0.001 mg/l while the concentration of heavy metals in fish varies from species to species as it displayed species differences.  Heavy metal concentration in water is in this order: Zn>Cu>Pb>Cr>Cd. The presence of Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr and Cd were confirmed in all the fish species expect Cd that was discovered only in the gill of S. galilaeus. Metals in fish gills is in the order of Zn>Cu>Pb>Cr>Cd for the four species, for liver and flesh/muscle in O. niloticus and H fasciatus it is Cu>Zn>Cr.  Pb was detected only in the gill of O. niloticus, the liver and flesh lack Pb. Other fish species parts showed different Pb concentrations with the highest value (0.12±0.003) recorded in the gill of O. aureus. This study showed that Cd, Cr, Zn, and Cu were in the maximum acceptable limit range (Cr; 0.44, Zn; 5.04, Cu; 1.37 and Cd; 0.20) while Pb in water and fish was slightly above the maximum acceptable limit range (Pb; 0.04) by FAO/WHO. Lead poisoning is ranked among the most common environmental health hazard even at low levels. Periodic monitoring by relevant regulatory authorities is recommended to ensure safety of the water and fish consuming populace.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Algal Bio-fertilizers on Fruit Lignification Time Interval, DNA Concentration and Agro-Morphological Characters in Okra (Abelmoschus Esculentus Moench)

Joyce F. Akpan, Godwin M. Ubi, R. N. Njoku

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 63-73
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i330201

Experiment was set up in May to September, 2019 to evaluate the impact of algal bio-fertilizers on fruit lignification time interval, total genomic DNA contents, growth attributes as well as the yield components of three okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) (NHAE-47-4, NHAe-54-4 and Agwu early) genotypes sourced from NIHORT, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. The bio-fertilizers used for the study were a combination of cow dung + algae, poultry droppings + algae, Green Compost + algae and only soil as control. The test crops were sown into 50 x 30 x 25 cm3 perforated plastic buckets containing 5 kg of sterilized sandy loam soil and applied with the bio-fertilizers at 500 g each. The bio-fertilizers were prepared by using a combination of algae and organic manures. The experiment was a 3 x 4 experiment set up in completely randomized design (CRD) with 3 replications. Factor one was the Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) genotypes with three levels (NHAe-47-4; NHAe-54-4 and Agwu early) while factor two was the different bio-fertilizers used with four levels (Cow dung + Algae; Polutry droopings + Algae; Green compost manure + Algae and soil as control). This gave a total treatment combination of 12 which was replicated thrice to give a total of 36 experimental units. Data for yield components were collected at maturity for days to flower initiation, number of seeds per pod, number of pods per plants and fresh fruit weight. Data generated from the study were collated and subjected to statistical analysis using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedures and significant treatment means were further separated using the Fishers’ least significance difference test at 5 percent probability level. The results shows that genomic DNA contents varies from 134.100 ng/µl in Agwu early in control plot to 175.600 ng/µl in NHAe -54-4 treated with Poultry droppings +Algae. Fruit lignification time interval  was significantly (p <0.05) influenced by the bio-fertilizers and varied between 3 days 6 minutes in Agwu early in the control plots to 8 days and 23 hours in NHAe 47-4 treated with Poultry dropping + Alage. Plant height varied (p <0.05) significantly and ranged from 14.13 cm in Agwu early in control plot to 44.34 cm in NHAe-47-4 treated with Poultry droppings + Algae while number of fruits per plant also varied        (p <0.05) significantly and ranged between 12.57 fruits per plant in Agwu early in control plots to 24.30 fruits per plant in NHAe-47-4 treated with Poultry droppings + Algae. Hence, the study advocated for the use of poultry droppings + Algal bio-fertilizer in prolonging the fruit lignification time in okra for planned harvesting, increased income and mechanization of okra harvesting.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cardiac and Hepatic miRNAs Altered Expression in Rat Embryo after Bisphenol-A (BPA) Exposure and Their Histopathological Impact (In vivo Study)

Ahmed S. Ahmed

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 74-86
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i330202

Introduction: Plastic compound are widely used in modern life. Bisphenol-A is an essential component in high quality plastic containers such as bottles and food boxes. Beside its hormonal agonist and antagonist effects, Food and drug administration (FDA) had reported it is transmitted from mother to fetus through placental circulation causing mi-RNAs mutation. mi-RNAs regulate cellular morphology and functions through its essential role in genetic expression. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of exposure of BPA on maternal [placenta, body weight & blood pressure] and fetal [liver, heart & miRNAs expression] and the impact of miRNAs expression disorders on multiorgan development, namely cardiac and hepatic development.

Materials and Methods: 60 healthy pregnant females’ rats were picked up since day one of gestation and divided into three groups (n=20). (c) control group gained access to drinking water containing only the vehicle (tween-80) 0.1/ml for three weeks.(10-BPA) group, gained access to drinking water containing 10 mg/L of BPA for three weeks.(20-BPA) group, gained access to drinking water containing 20 mg/L of BPA for three weeks. Placenta, liver and heart samples were collected and histopathological changes were recorded and mi-RNAs expression was investigated.

Results: Histopathological changes were noticed in BPA related groups if compared to control group. mi-RNAs expression was found in same groups with variable extent. A significant increase was noticed in body weight and blood pressure of pregnant rats.

Conclusion: Our data examined the impact of BPA exposure on different organs and their related miRNAs expression which showed a non-neglectable effect especially on the placenta of the mother and fetal heart and liver.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of Poverty Status among Crop and Fish Farmers in Southern Nigeria

I. O. Ettah, E. Agbachom Emmanuel, Ajigo Ikutal, Godwin Michael Ubi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 87-96
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i330203

The research study was carried out to determine the poverty status and their determinants among crop and fish farmers in Itu Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. A two-stage sampling technique was adopted to select crop farmers and fish farmers’ households in the study area. The data used for this study were obtained from primary sources. Data were obtained through validated structured questionnaires. The determinant of poverty among crop farmers and fish farmers was analyzed using logistic regression, while poverty indicators were analyzed using the three indicators of poverty as highlighted in the Foster, Greer and Thorbecke (FGT) model. Result of analysis on the incidence of poverty shows that about 52.5% of crop farmers and 62.5% of fish farmers in the area had their per capita income less than the poverty line income. The result also showed that poverty depths of 0.342 for crop farmers and 0.309 for fish farmers in the area. Similarly, the severity of the poverty index was 0.252 for crop farming households and 0.221 for fish farmers’ headed households. On the determinants of crop farmers, gender, age, marital status education, farm size and membership of association were all found to be positive and significant determinants, while education, credit, farm income and experience were the positive and significant determinant of poverty among fish farmers in the area. The following are recommended: credit delivery mechanism which is without or with very minimal stringent conditions (such as the provision of collateral) targeting the poor crop farming and fishing households should be implemented and improved crop farmers/fishermen access to technological information.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis and Categorization of Several Dendrobium Species Based on Morphological Traits

Nhu-Hoa Nguyen, Tuan-Loc Le, Huyen-Trang Vu, Kım-Dınh Tran, Hop Tran, Hoa-Xo Duong, Hoang-Dung Tran

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 97-114
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i330205

Dendrobium Sw. is the a highly diversified Orchidaceae genus with at least 100 identified species in Vietnam. Classification and description of this genus in Vietnam suffered from a number of setbacks such as lack of synchronization and photographic illustrations, which rendered identification and researches of Dendrobium samples a daunting task. Therefore, this study constructed the database of morphological descriptions along with sample images of forty Dendrobium samples in Vietnam. Based on this database, species in the Dendrobium genus were analyzed and categorized to create a clear-illustrated information resource which is easy to use by non-specialized users.

Open Access Original Research Article

Foods Causing Highest IgG Immune Response in Saudi Arabia

Abdulhameed F. Alkhateeb

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 115-127
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i330215

Background: Type III hypersensitivity caused by immunoglobulin G (IgG) to food has elicited plenty of scholarly attention in recent years. Opinions continue to be divided regarding the linkage between IgG reactivity to food and chronic inflammatory diseases.

Objective: To identify foods that cause the maximum amount of IgG immune reaction in patients throughout Saudi Arabia from a standardized food panel and to identify any difference caused by age or gender.

Methods: We used a pre-existing database for patients who participated in the standardized panel of 268 foods ELISA-based IgG to conduct a food allergy test referred to as ImuPro™ Complete. The data in the database was prepared by the database provider through the utilization of established procedures from R-Biopharm AG using standard ELISA plates. Meanwhile, the samples were processed in ELISA Washer and Reader machines. Readings were analyzed using R-Biopharm’s standard ImuPro™ software and then fed into the database used by us.

Results: A total of1644 patients (913 males and 731 females=55.5% male, 44.5% female) were tested. IgG reactivity was predominant in eight foods (3%) in at least three-quarters of the studied population. These included Oats (82.5%), Barley (79.1%), Rye (76.1%) Cow’s Milk (75%), Wheat (74.9%), Kamut (74.6%), Spelt (74.6%) and Gluten (73.9%). The IgG immune response of males and females to each food type was found to be almost the same. Children have a significantly different IgG food profile in comparison to adults (p-value =0.024). Cow's milk was found to induce the highest IgG immune response among children below five years of age (95.74%), followed by oats (92.2%).

Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the largest studies to have been conducted worldwide that involves the IgG immune response of patients to food. The top-most foods were ‘mainstream’ foods consumed almost daily, which include gluten and dairy products. No significant difference was found between males and females. A clear difference can be seen between children and adults when it comes to the IgG immune reaction to different food items. Further investigations are recommended to determine the food characteristics and eating habits that cause these IgG immune responses.