Open Access Original Research Article

Combined Effects of Temperature and Salinity on Hatching and Larval Survival of Commercially Important Tropical Sea urchin, Tripneustes gratilla (Linnaeus, 1758)

Md. Shamim Parvez, M. Aminur Rahman, Md. Jahidul Hasan, Md. Habibur Rahman, Nawshin Farjana, Md. Habibur Rahman Molla, Sang-Go Lee

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i530219

The combined effects of temperature and salinity on percent hatching, normal larval rate at hatching, and survival of fasting larvae after hatching (survival activity index; SAI) of the commercial species of collector sea urchin, Tripneustes gratilla were investigated in a captive laboratory condition. The study was conducted by setting different levels of temperatures (24°C to 36°C) and salinities (38‰ to 23‰). Within the range of temperature from 24 to 36°C and at 32‰ salinity, hatching and normal larval rates, and SAI values were highest at 24 and 27°C. The highest hatching and normal larval rates were found at 35 and 38‰ within the salinity range of 23-38‰; however, SAI value was the highest at 26‰. The results of the experiments in each level of temperature (24, 27 and 30°C) with each salinity (32, 35 and 38‰) indicated interactive effects of temperature and salinity, and within the experimental protocols of 24°C at 38‰ gave an optimal combination for highest hatching and survival of T. gratilla. The findings obtained from the present research would not only be immensely helpful towards the understanding of the suitable temperature-salinity interactions but also facilitate the development of captive breeding, larval raising and mass seed production of this high-valued sea urchin for commercial aquaculture.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nanotechnical Production and Optimization of Biofuel (Biodiesel) from an Edible Seed Oil (Palm-Olein)

Edmond Moses, Balan Adamu Thliza, Buba Usman Shanu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 20-31
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i530222

The synthesized calcium oxide nanoparticles of 24 nm size from domestic chicken eggshell was used for production of liquid fuel (biodiesel) to test its catalytic behavior, whereas the yield of liquid fuel was also ascertained and it shows varying percentage yields base on different conditions used for the production. The highest yield was found to be 80% at catalyst concentration of 1.75 ww % and temperature of 60°C, followed by 69% yield at catalyst concentration of 0.5 and temperature of 60°C, whereas the lowest yield was found to be 58% which was found to be at the exact catalyst concentration of 0.5 and temperature of 60°C.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Dynamic System Toward Governor Policy of Nusa Tenggara Timur about Quota of Beef Cattle Export (Case Study in Plantation Agroecosystem of Timor Island)

Rudy Priyanto, Jefirstson Richset Riwukore, Ahmad Yani, Bagus Priyo Purwanto, Luki Abdullah, Asnath Maria Fuah, Fellyanus Habaora

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 32-41
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i530223

The purpose of this research is to analyze the influence of the policy of the Governor of Nusa Tenggara Timur regarding the quota of beef cattle exports to areas of a national beef consumer toward the development of the Bali cattle population on Timor Island, East Nusa Tenggara. Determination of the location by purposive sampling based on physical criteria (land area), biology (availability and population of Bali cattle), and socio-culture (policy) so that the sampling locations representing the agroecosystem of plantations in Kupang district. The material used was 57 Bali cattle and involved 107 respondents of Bali cattle farmers. Respondents were interviewed using a questionnaire of reproduction status of Bali cattle. In addition to interviews, field observations were also conducted to measure the response of Bali cattle production. This research uses primary and secondary data. Data analysis is done by building a dynamic system using Powersim and interpreting simulation results for the next 30 years.The results showed a significant decrease in the population of Bali cattle over the next 30 years due to the high mortality of calves and female parent, low reproductive status of the female, and the export of cattle from uncontrolled agroecosystems. The results of this study indicate that the beef cattle export quota currently determined by local governments needs to be reviewed. The strategy to improve the quality of Bali cattle production in plantation agroecosystems to support cattle export quotas from Timor Island namely (1) farmers and local governments in striving to increase the population of Bali cattle in the agroecosystem of plantation can be done with a technical approach including prevention of death of cattle to the lowest level (<5% per year) and limitations on cattle exports according to the ability of the region; (2) improving the reproductive quality of Bali cattle through artificial insemination or controlled mating management so that it is more efficient; and (3) the government and stakeholders need to review the policy to determined cattle export quotas and improve the reproductive status of cattle in good breeding practice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphological and Genetic Diversity Studies of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus from the Cross River, Nigeria, Using Microsatellite Markers

Chioma Marylyn Adilieje, Edak Aniedi Uyoh, Valentine Otang Ntui, Daniel Ama-Abasi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 42-52
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i530224

Morphometric and genetic diversity studies were carried out on Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus sampled from middle and lower Cross River. The aim was to provide information on variations between these two populations and also augment the limited information currently available on genetic diversity in this species. A total of 79 fish samples were used for the morphometric analysis out of which 30 were used for the genetic study. Genomic DNA was extracted from caudal fin using a modified cetyltrimethylammonium bromide method and amplified using microsatellite markers.Twenty-three morphological features were studied from each fish sample out of which 19 showed significant differences (P<0.05) between the two populations. Principal Component Analysis identified head length, head width, caudal peduncle depth, standard length, preventral distance, snout length and anal fin length as key contributors to variation. Genetic analyses indicated low variability in the populations studied as evidenced by low Shannon`s information index (mean of 0.944 – 1.034), and positive coefficients of inbreeding (FIS) across both populations suggesting the presence of greater homozygosity in this species. Gene flow of 3.507 was observed between the lower and middle Cross River indicating the possibility of free mating between the two populations. The low levels of genetic diversity call for urgent management and conservation strategies to ensure long term survival of the species.

Open Access Original Research Article

Possible Impact of Select Trace Mineral Deficiency in HIV Seropositive Pregnant Women with/without Malaria Co-infection in NAUTH, Nnewi, Nigeria

Ikechukwu U. Chukwuagwu, Nkiruka R. Ukibe, Innocent S. Ogbu, Victoria O. Agu, Joseph C. Awalu, Friday A. Ehiaghe, Obiageli B. Onyema-Iloh

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 53-62
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i530225

Aims: To evaluate the impact of HIV and malaria on serum Zinc (zn), Selenium (se) and Magnesium (mg) in HIV seropositive pregnant women in Nnewi, Nigeria.

Study Design:  This is a case-control study.

Place and Duration of Study: Prevention of Mother to Child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV  Clinic of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, (NAUTH), Nigeria, between December, 2017 and April, 2018.

Methodology: We included 122 consented female participants; 32 HIV seropositive pregnant women with malaria parasitaemia, 30 HIV seropositive pregnant women without malaria parasitaemia, 30 Malaria infected pregnant women, 30 pregnant women without HIV or malaria parasitaemia, aged between 18 and 42 years. Screening for HIV antibodies and malaria parasite was double screened using National algorithm, rapid detection technique (RDT) and Giemsa staining microscopy technique respectively. Micronutrient levels were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS).

Results: When the mean zn, sel and mg levels were compared between the test and control groups, significant decreases in serum zn (37.34 ± 6.7, 36.70 ± 4.39), sel (29.93 ± 6.02, 28.00 ± 5.04) and mg (2.41 ± 0.46, 2.33 ± 0.14) were observed in HIV seropositive pregnant participants with/without malaria co-infection when compared with their corresponding controls Zn (45.1 ± 7.83, 50.36 ± 8.73); Sel (31.46 ± 6.19, 31.96 ± 6.81); Mg (2.62 ± 0.30) and (P < .05 respectively). Body mass index (BMI) was significantly decreased while diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were significantly increased in HIV seropositive pregnant women with malaria compared with their seronegative counterparts (P < .05 respectively).

Conclusion: The significant loss in BMI with derangement in serum zn, sel and mg levels in HIV seropositive pregnant women with/without malaria co-infection indicates high degree of malnutrition while the increased blood pressure suggests high blood pressure which might predispose the pregnant mothers to pre-eclampsia if not properly managed. Adequate micronutrient supplementation and effective anti malaria agent is strictly advocated in the routine management of HIV infected mothers during pregnancy to reduce the severity of the co-infection and adverse pregnancy complications especially in areas of malaria endemic transmissions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diversity and Distribution of Vascular Epiphytic Flora in Sub-temperate Forests of Darjeeling Himalaya, India

Preshina Rai, Saurav Moktan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 63-81
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i530226

Aims: This communication deals with the diversity and distribution including host species distribution of vascular epiphytes also reflecting its phenological observations.

Study Design: Random field survey was carried out in the study site to identify and record the taxa. Host species was identified and vascular epiphytes were noted.

Study Site and Duration: The study was conducted in the sub-temperate forests of Darjeeling Himalaya which is a part of the eastern Himalaya hotspot. The zone extends between 1200 to 1850 m amsl representing the amalgamation of both sub-tropical and temperate vegetation. The study was conducted during the year 2018-2019.

Methodology: Process of random sampling collection was followed. Host trees with CBH >30 cm were identified and percentage of distribution of epiphytes in the host tree was analyzed and divided into two zones depending on the abundance of epiphytes. Data for the epiphytic plant specimens were collected in the field. Exsiccates were made with the collected voucher specimens and were deposited at the Calcutta University Herbarium (CUH) following the conventional methodology. Study on the taxa are based on their host tree distribution, micro-habitat and phenological status. The location and altitude of the study sites were recorded by global positioning system.

Results: A total number of 115 species under 70 genera and 31 families have been identified with 65% other vascular angiosperms (basal angiosperms and eudicots) and 16% monocots. Orchidaceae among the monocots represented 36% with 41 species and 18 genera. Ferns and lycophytes include 25% of the diversity with 29 taxa under 6 families. Most favorable host trees were Ficus auriculata Lour., Ficus neriifolia Sm., Saurauia nepalensis DC., Erythrina variegata L., Macaranga denticulata (Blume) Müll. Arg., Cryptomeria japonica (Thunb. ex L.f.) D. Don and Engelhardia spicata Lechen ex Blume.

Conclusion: The other vascular angiosperms preferred wet monsoon for flowering whereas spring season was most favourable for Orchidaceae. Although a healthy number of vascular epiphytes have been identified, a number of threats are still prevailing in the regions which are mostly anthropogenic. Proper collaborative strategies have to be maintained for its conservation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Divergence in Corn Genotypes for High and Low Phosphorus in Pará, Brazil

Weder Ferreira dos Santos, Lucas Carneiro Maciel, Benício Lourenço Duarte Júnior, Joênes Mucci Peluzio, Layanni Ferreira Sodré, Osvaldo José Ferreira Júnior, Magno de Oliveira, Rafael Marcelino da Silva, Adriano Silveira Barbosa

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 82-90
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i530227

Aims: The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic divergence between ten corn genotypes in the 2017/18 crop, under high and low phosphorus.

Study Design: The experimental design used in each test was randomized blocks, the treatments were: ten genotypes in two levels of phosphorus and three replications.

Place and Duration of Study: Sítio Vitória, municipality of Santa Maria das Barreiras, state of Pará, Brazil, in the 2017/18 crop.

Methodology: The experimental plot consisted of four lines five meters long, spaced with 0.90 m between the lines, with approximately 55,000 plants per hectare in the harvest. The genotypes used: 2B655, AG 1051, AG 8088, AL BANDEIRANTE, ANHEMBI, BR 206, BRS 3046, CATIVERDE, ORION e PR 27D28. The following agronomic characteristics were evaluated: plant height, ear height, ear diameter, ear length, number of grains per row, yield per plant and grain yield. Genetic divergence was estimated from Mahalanobis distances and genotypes were grouped by Tocher optimization methods.

Results: Genetic dissimilarity measurements, at each dose of phosphorus, showed a high magnitude (D2= 9.72 to 1484.87). Cluster analysis separated the genotypes into four groups at low phosphorus and two groups at high phosphorus. The characteristics that most contributed to genetic divergence, in the two levels of phosphorus, were yield per plant and grain yield.

Conclusion: There was a higher genetic divergence between genotypes AG 1051 and BANDEIRANTE in the low phosphorus assay and between the genotypes ANHEMBI and AL BANDEIRANTE in the high phosphorus assay. With this, these crosses are promising to obtain lineages in both tests.

Open Access Review Article

Role of Military Termites (Pseudocanthotermes militaris) in Improving Soil Productivity in Tropical Agroecosystems

Samuel Obeng Apori, Murongo Marius Flarian, Emmanuel Hanyabui, Gideon Kalii Muli, Beatrice Wamuyu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 14-19
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i530221

Military Termites have been considered as a major pest causing significant reduction to crop productivity in tropical regions of the world. The termite destroys many plants (domestic and wild) at any stage of development from the seedlings to maturity. Crops such as cotton, wheat and ground nuts, upper land rice and eucalyptus trees are highly susceptible to termite damage. They destroy huge amounts of organic materials especially those used as mulches in plantation farming. However, there are beneficial termite activities such as organic matter decomposition and nutrient dynamics that are essential components in the soil ecosystem as they aid in maintaining long-term soil productivity and also in restoring barren soils. The review sought to establish the contribution of military termite activities to soil productivity. The result from the review showed that termite activities such as burrowing, chewing of plant litter, excavation activities in search of food, and construction of termitaria leads to improved soil structure, soil aeration, water infiltration via soil porosity, plant nutrient (calcium, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium) and soil organic matter which will eventually result to improved yields of crops. Also, termite mound has been suggested to be very effective for bulking agent for compost preparation and soil amendment.

Open Access Review Article

Changes in the Pulmonary Functions of Individuals with Sickle Cell Disease: A Scoping Review

Uchenwoke Chigozie Ikenna, Ede Sunday Stephen

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 91-113
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i530228

Background: Individuals with sickle cell disease (ISCD) are often subject to various changes in crucial health profiles with a consequent need for reduced physical activities, which could be as a result of their declining pulmonary functions. Few studies have systematically attempted to examine the changes in the pulmonary function of ISCD comprehensively.

Objective: The purpose of this review is to explore the changes in pulmonary functions of ISCD.

Methods: A scoping review comprising 36 studies was conducted to identify and examine the literature related to changes in the pulmonary functions of ISCD, and to compare how they correlate with their health profile.

Results: Most common changes cited were demographic factors (26 papers), followed by haematological indices (18 papers) followed by pulmonary complications (16 papers), and anthropometric values (13 papers), with the most common themes overall being age while FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC where the most outcome measures examined.

Conclusion: With current advances in medicine, the life expectancy of ISCD is on the increase. We conclude that an evidence-based therapy for pulmonary functions maintenance will be a valid and valuable care for ISCD. Further research must be done, mainly to focus on each health profile holistically.

Open Access Review Article

Epidemiology, Treatment and Microbiological Surveillance of SARS-CoV-2

Manikant Tripathi, Shailendra Kumar

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 114-121
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i530230

Coronaviruses (CoV) belong to Coronaviridiae family that cause deadly diseases in humans or animals. These viruses are enveloped and have single stranded positive-sense large RNA genome. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes deadly pandemic coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) in humans. It is affecting every aspect of humans’ daily life. The symptoms of COVID-19 include fever, loss of smell, shortness of breath, cough, muscles pain, chest pain, and kidney failure that occurs in severe conditions. The virus has spread throughout the world.  In India, the estimated number of infected people is more than 1.5 lakh with less fatality rate 2.87% on May 27, 2020 as per the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare data. The studies suggest that virus has been considered descended from the previous viruses as severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome virus (MERS) human and bat corona viruses. Currently, vaccine developments are under clinical trials. The management of emerging infectious diseases is a challenging task. It requires much improved microbiological surveillance system to track and predict the virus infections. The proper study and predictions based on screening of various sources of infection may help us to manage the challenging infections in future. The present review summarizes the characteristics of virus, disease symptoms, epidemiology, transmission, treatment and microbiological surveillance of pandemic COVID-19.