Open Access Minireview Article

Role of Surfactant for the Treatment of Alveolar Cells against Coronavirus (Covid-19)

Sony Ahmed, Md. Shamim Akter, Kallol Roy, Md. Shafiul Islam

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 34-39
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i630233

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the newly discovered coronavirus. Coronavirus affects human lung tissues. Covid-19 should be infection of the lungs, the virus infects alveolar cells resulting in reduced production of pulmonary surfactant. Pulmonary surfactant is a complex of lipids and proteins that line the alveolar epithelial surface and stabilize it during respiration. The surfactant helps to reduce the surface tension on alveoli. The surface-active components of the alveoli are a complex mixture of specific lipids, proteins and carbohydrates, which is produced in the lungs by type II alveolar epithelial cells. As a result, the lungs continue to collapse, reducing its own volume, but the collapse is prevented by the muscles of inspiration, which instead increase its volume. Covid-19 allows the surfactant to maintain the correct amount of surfactant during the acute phase of infection during lung infection and allows time to resume and allow individual surfactant production for type II cells. Surfactant degradation or inactivation may contribute to increased susceptibility to pneumonia and increased susceptibility to infection. Surfactant deficiency in patients with acute respiratory syndrome in adults and surfactant administration may be a useful therapy against Covid-19.

Open Access Original Research Article

Interleukin 3 as an Erythropoietic Marker in Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B Positive Patients in South East Nigeria

Chinenye E. Okenwa, Ijeoma C. Uzoma, Anulika O. Onyemelukwe, Ogechukwu C. Dozie- Nwakile, Hilary Emuebie, Victor C. Edeh, S. A. Ufelle

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i630231

Aim: To evaluate the interleukin 3 levels in some Hepatitis B virus and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive subjects.

Study Design: Cross sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Haematology Department, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu, Nigeria, between June and September, 2019.

Methodology: A total of 86 subjects were recruited for this study; 40 were positive for the human immunodeficiency virus, 30 were Hepatitis B positive and 16 healthy subjects that served as controls. The controls had tested negative to Hepatitis B Virus, Human immunodeficiency Virus and hepatitis C virus infections. Whole blood samples were collected from the Human immunodeficiency Virus positive and control samples. Haemoglobin concentration was analysed using the Orphěe Mythic 22 automated analyzer. Serum samples collected from all 86 subjects were used to assay Interleukin 3 using the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent assay based Finetest human interleukin 3 kit.

Results: A highly significant decrease in interleukin 3 levels was observed in Hepatitis B Virus and Human immunodeficiency virus positive subjects when compared with the apparently healthy control subjects, (P = 0.000 < 0.05). Average hemoglobin levels were also lower in the Human immunodeficiency virus subjects compared with the controls.

Conclusion: A reduction of the interleukin 3 may be part of the synergistic factors responsible for the anaemia usually seen in the viral infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Maize (Zea mays L.) to Deficit Irrigation Combined with Reduced Nitrogen Rate is Genotype Dependent

A. M. M. Al-Naggar, M. M. Shafik, R. Y. M. Musa

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 9-33
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i630232

Deficit irrigation and low nitrogen (N) fertilization rate cause negative effects on maize grain productivity; such effects differ from genotype to genotype. The main objectives of the present investigation were to: (i) identify the drought and low N tolerant genotypes, (ii) estimate the superiority of tolerant to sensitive genotypes and (iii) assess the differential response of maize genotypes to elevated levels of nitrogen. Maize genotypes were evaluated in 2016 and 2017 seasons under three N rates: high; 285.6, medium; 166.6 and low; 47.6 kg N/ha and two irrigation regimes: well-watered (WW) and water stressed (WS) at flowering. A split-split-plot design with three replications was used. Main plots were allotted to irrigation regimes, sub-plots to N rates and sub-sub-plots to genotypes. The tolerant (T) and sensitive (S) genotypes were identified under each stress. Grain yield/plant (GYPP) of T genotypes was significantly (P≤ 0.01) superior to as compared to S genotypes by 109.5%, 39.6% and 141.9% under Low-N, drought, and drought combined with low-N, respectively. Superiority of T over S genotypes in GYPP was associated with significant (P≤ 0.01) superiority in ears/plant (11.5, 13.15 and 11.99%), 100-kernel weight (38.65, 30.46 and 30.99%), kernels/row (22.81, 11.28 and 20.07%), Nitrogen use efficiency (109.49, 39.62 and 141.89%) and shortening in anthesis-silking interval (-44.56, -29.58 and -29.08%), under the three environments, respectively. A significant linear response on elevated levels of nitrogen was shown by 13 genotypes, but a quadratic response was shown by six genotypes. The present study suggested that further investigation should be conducted to identify the optimum N fertilization rate for each newly developed variety of maize.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphological Variability and Taxonomic Relationship of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench Accessions Based on Qualitative Characters

Ika Nugraheni Ari Martiwi, Laurentius Hartanto Nugroho, Budi Setiadi Daryono, Ratna Susandarini

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 40-52
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i630234

Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench is a member of Poaceae family with three agronomic types corresponds to their specific uses namely grain sorghum, sweet sorghum, and forage sorghum. Although sorghum in Indonesia is considered as under-utilized crop, but it has the potential as an alternative resource for staple food in diversification program to support food security. The potential of sorghum as alternative staple food is due to its high nutritional value, and the ability to grow well in marginal lands with maintaining good productivity. The objectives of this study were to assess the extent of morphological variability and to resolve taxonomic relationship of sorghum accessions from Java Island based on morphological characters. Twenty nine sorghum samples were collected from three provinces in Java, namely Central Java, Special Province of Yogyakarta, and East Java. Morphological data observed refers to Descriptors for Sorghum, generating 19 qualitative characters used in cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Cluster analysis resulted in the grouping of 29 accessions into three groups corresponding to the racial classification of sorghum. Results of principal component analysis showed that the main distinguishing characters between groups were inflorescence compactness and shape, glume coverage, presence or absence of awn, presence or absence of grain sub-coat, grain shape, and grain color. Analysis of correlation showed that there were very strong relationship between glume coverage and the presence of awn, and between the presence of grain sub-coat and grain color. Results of this study revealed that sorghum accessions cultivated on Java Island consisted of four races namely Bicolor, Guinea, Caudatum, and Kafir.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Hydraulic Conductivity of Some Nigerian Hardwood Timbers to Four Timber Treatment Chemicals through Quantitative Anatomical Studies

G. C. Ajuziogu, R. C. Njokuocha, N. M. Eze, I. E. Ngele, G. N. Ogbuagu, E. O. Ojua

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 53-59
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i630235

Aim: Hydraulic conductivity following the Hagen-Poiseuille Law is a quantitative approach to determine the treatability of wood by chemicals. The hydraulic conductivities of the ten selected Nigerian hardwood timber species to four wood treatment chemicals were estimated, using Hagen-Peiseuille equation.

Materials and Methods: Ten timber species of marketable size and age were sourced from the forestry Departments of Enugu, Anambra and Abia States of Nigeria. Maceration were carried out following standard procedures. The viscosities in centipoises (cp) of the four wood treatment chemicals were measured in a viscometer test, while the hydraulic conductivities were calculated using the Hagen-Peiseuille equation.

Results: The results obtained show that the different woods responded differently to the chemicals. Treatment with Folithion 200 showed higher conductivity in Triplochiton scleroxylon (9.01 mm-3S-1× 10-5), followed by Mansonia altissima, Milicia excelsa and Terminalia superb. The order of conductivity to treatment with Actellic 25EO was Terminalia superba > Mansonia altissima > Gmelina arborea, > Khaya ivorensis. Ceiba pentandra gave the highest conductivity of 8.58 mm-3S-1× 10-5, followed by Afzelia africana and Canarium schwenfurthii to the chemical Termitox. While Triplochiton scleroxylon gave the highest conductivity of 6.52 mm-3S-1×10-5, followed by Milicia excels and Terminalia superba to the chemical Solignum.

Conclusion: Folithion 200 would be effective on Milicia excels, Mansonia altissima and Gmelina arborea, Actellic 25 EO would be effective on Khaya ivorensis, Terminalia superb and Antiaris toxicaria while Termitox would be effective on Ceiba pentandra, Afzelia Africana and Canarium schweinfurthii.

Open Access Original Research Article

Indigenous Curative Plants Used in the Treatment of Piles from Akinyele Local Government Area, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

O. C. Ariyo, M. B. Usman, U. U. Emeghara, M. M. Olorukooba, O. K. Fadele, C. A. Danbaki, O. E. Olagunju, R. Suleiman, M. O. Ariyo

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 78-89
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i630238

Piles are inflammation of blood vessels which are generally found close to the anal canal. Piles are produce when the anal cushions are disrupted during defecation. The importance of the knowledge of indigenous remedial medicinal plants in curing piles has not been fully acknowledged from rural, folkloric background of Nigerian society. The present study attempt to document indigenous knowledge and curative plants used in the treatment of pile in Akinyele Local Government Area, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Eight villages were purposively selected and respondents stratified into four strata in each of the villages. Semi – structured and open-ended questionnaires was used to obtained information from local herb sellers, hunters, herbalists and aged. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics. The result showed that a total number of 25 plant species belonging to 19 families, were recorded and enumerated along with their botanical, family and local names. Fabaceae sub family of Caesalpinioidea, Mimisoideae and Palpilinoideae contributed the highest number of 4 plant species used in the treatment of pile. The plant part used includes leave, bark, seeds roots, vines, rhizome, bulbs, cobs, and bunch with high frequency of leaves been used. The method of preparation of recipe, mode of administration, dosage and shelf life of the recipe used for the treatment of piles were discussed. Many of the medicinal plants used in the treatment of piles are rare and found in the wild, the study concludes that there is need for domestication and sustainable conservative efforts from the researchers, government and community to safeguard the loss of these important medicinal plants. There is need for further studies on the phytochemical and pharmacological properties of these plants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Phytochemical, Proximate and Some Mineral Composition of the Leaves and Stem Bark of Spondia mombin (L. anacardiaceae)

Enyohwo Dennis Kpomah, Edet Okon Odokwo

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 90-98
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i630240

Aims: Quantitative phytochemical, proximate and some mineral content of the leaves and stem bark of Spondia mombin, a plant commonly found in Southern Nigeria was studied with a view of ascertaining their nutritional potential and justification for their ethnopharmacological uses.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the research Laboratory of the Department of Biochemistry, Federal University Otuoke, Bayelsa State, Nigeria, between        February – March 2019.

Methodology: Proximate composition, quantitative phytochemical, and mineral contents of the samples were studied using standard analytical methods of the Association of Analytical Chemist (AOAC).

Results: Proximate analysis of the leaves and stem bark showed that there was no significant difference (P  between the carbohydrate and protein content of both leaves and stem bark while the stem bark had significantly higher (P values for ash, fat and fibre when compared to the leaves which incidentally had significantly higher (P  moisture content. Quantitative phytochemical analysis revealed that there was no significant difference (P  between the leaves and stem bark with reference to tannin, oxalate and phytate, the stem bark, however, showed significantly higher (P  values for alkaloids, saponin and cyanogenic glycosides when compared to the leaves, although flavonoids and phenols were significantly (P higher in the leaves. Mineral (elemental) analysis of both leaves and stem bark indicated the presence of macro and micro minerals in varying amounts.

Conclusion: These findings indicated that S. mombin contained an appreciable amount of nutrients and minerals which could be included in the diet to supplement our daily nutrients and animal feeds, while the presence of the phytochemical may justify their use in ethnomedicine for the prevention, treatment and management of diverse health challenges, the phytochemicals may also act as lead compounds in the development of new drugs to counteract the present drug-resistant phenomenon.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agronomic Performance of Corn Cultivars as a Function of Phosphorus Use

Lucas Carneiro Maciel, Weder Ferreira dos Santos, Joênes Mucci Peluzio, Osvaldo José Ferreira Junior, Adriano Silveira Barbosa, Rafael Marcelino da Silva, Layanni Ferreira Sodré, Magno De Oliveira

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 99-108
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i630241

Aims: The research was carried out to evaluate the agronomic performance of corn cultivars in contrasting phosphorus environments in the state of Pará, Brazil.

Study Design: The experimental design was randomized blocks with ten treatments and three replications. The treatments were composed of ten cultivars: AG 1051, AG 8088PRO2, BR 206, BRS 3046, PR 27D28, 2B655PW, AL BANDEIRANTE, ANHEMBI, CATIVERDE 02 and ORION

Place and Duration of Study: In the 2017/18 crop, two competition trials of corn cultivars were carried out at Sítio Vitória, municipality of Santa Maria das Barreiras, state Pará, Brazil.

Methodology: Two competition trials of corn (Zea mays L.) cultivars were carried out under contracting conditions of phosphorus: high P (100 kg ha-1 of P2O5) and low P (50 kg ha-1 of P2O5), using simple superphosphate (18% P2O5) as the source. The agronomic efficiency of phosphorus use was obtained by the difference between grain yield in both levels, divided by the difference between doses. The variables evaluated were: ear height, plant height, ear diameter, number of rows per year, number of grains per rows and grain yield.

Results: The mean grain yield of the cultivars ranged from 5,446 kg ha-1 (low P) to 11,486 kg ha-1 (high P), and the means of all cultivars were higher in high P. The means agronomic efficiency ranged from 25.1 kg kg-1 (AL BANDEIRANTE) to 96.6 kg kg-1 (AG 1051).

Conclusion: The highest phosphorus dose (100 kg ha-1 of P2O5) resulted in higher values in the variables studied. The cultivars that stood out the most, under high and low phosphorus, were AG 8088PRO2, AG 1051 and BRS 3046, the last two being agronomically efficient.

Open Access Review Article

Comparative Analysis of Differences and Evolution of Hemorrhoidectomy Techniques

Nayara Lobo Coelho, Rodolpho Cesar Oliveira Mellem Kairala, Bruna Lemos Silva, Afrânio Faria Lemos, Danilo Rocha Chavez Zambrana, Caio Cesar Faciroli Contin Silva, Ana Carolina Arantes, Vergílio Pereira Carvalho, Silvio de Almeida- Júnior, Bruna Lima Daher

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 60-67
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i630236

Aim: To review from the literature, in a narrative way, techniques used for hemorrhoidectomy as well as benefits and criticisms about the procedures.

Methodology: For this purpose, a descriptive literary review was carried out for the construction of the work. In view of what is found, it is possible to assess this according to an epidemiological study conducted in the United States.

Results: Hemorrhoid disease is a very common condition, occurring in 4.4% of adults, with a maximum prevalence between 45 and 65 years. The etiology of hemorrhoids is still unknown. Hemorrhoidectomy is believed to be the best treatment option for symptomatic hemorrhoid disease grade III and IV. The techniques used present advantages and disadvantages for the patient, since it will depend on the surgeon to choose the best approach and surgical procedure.

Conclusion: It is observed that more risk and benefit assessments are needed than the technique used in hemorrhoidectomy, based on randomized studies with a significant number of patients included in the study.

Open Access Review Article

Characteristics of the New Coronavirus Named SARS-CoV-2 Responsible for an Infection Called Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

Modou Mamoune Mbaye, Bouchra El Khalfi, Said El Hafiane, Abdelaziz Soukri

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 68-77
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i630237

The new coronavirus called Covid-19, previously known as 2019-nCOV that has been reported in China, is rapidly spreading around the world at breakneck speed. Covid-19, a virus that was unknown to us before the outbreak in Wuhan (China) in December 2019, remains a major public health problem today. However, a new coronavirus named SARS-CoV-2 has been identified as responsible for this disease. Human-to-human transmission is no longer a matter of debate. In general, 2019-nCOV is an infectious, acute resolved disease, but it can also be very fatal especially with certain comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, cerebral infarction or even chronic bronchitis. The main symptoms of Covid-19 are fever, cough, shortness of breath, chest tightness / pain, respectively. Until now, the source of the virus and the pathogenesis of this disease remain unknown. Considering the speed of propagation, the mortality rate in the world and its economic consequences, it is urgent to find drugs for the treatment even a vaccine in order to cut short the Covid-19. In this article, we will try to detail all the information relating to this virus.