Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Population Structure and Genetic Diversity of Cirrhinus mrigala among the Different Freshwater Rivers of Pakistan Using Molecular Marker: Study Implications and Its Importance in Aquaculture

Muhammad Naeem, Samrah Masud, Zara Naeem, Ammar Danyal Naeem, Muhammad Khalid, Shoaib Hassan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i730242

Cirrhinus mrigala (Family Cyprinidae) have vast presence in different studied rivers of Pakistan. Present study was designed to formulate the genetic diversity of desired sites in Cirrhinus mrigala populations using nine Random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. Total hundred individuals were used to conduct this study and were collected from three distinct rivers (River Indus, Chenab and Ravi) with four specified sites with wild of Pakistan were used to study. A random Amplified Polymorphic DNA primer analyzes various bands of polymorphic loci. Mean genetic diversity within and between populations found 81.53% and 2.27% respectively by using analysis of molecular variance. Fixation index was found variably and Pairwise Fst analysis showed significant difference between different sites of studied populations. Genetic divergence information would mark essential in order to improve genetic programming its management and conservation of natural inhabitation. In order to quantify the study of population divergence by using these molecular markers is an efficient way to pin point the genetic diversity within and among population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis of Silver Nano Particles from Adansonia digitata Leaf Extract and Its Antimicrobial Properties

A. O. Akintola, A. M. Azeez, B. D. Kehinde, I. C. Oladipo

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 10-22
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i730243

Silver nano particles (AgNPs) were green synthesized using Adansonia digitata leaf extract. The synthesized silver nano particles were characterized in terms of synthesis, size, shape, morphology and capping functionalities by UV-Visible Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Antimicrobial activity of the synthesized silver nano particles was investigated by well diffusion method. The antibacterial activity of the nano particle was studied against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeurigunosa, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumonae while the antifungal activity was studied against Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Penicillum notatum and Rhizopus stolomifer. The synthesized AgNPs was active against all the studied microorganisms. Staphylococcus aureus was the most susceptible bacterium (inhibition zones ranging from 12.00 to 28.00 mm, MIC: 30 µl, MBC: 50 µl) while Aspergillus niger was the most susceptible fungi (inhibition zones ranging from 10.00 to 18.00 mm, MIC: 90 µl, MFC: 120 µl. In conclusion the synthesized silver nanoparticles was found to have antimicrobial activity against the pathogenic bacteria and fungi tested and hence has a great potential in biomedical application for the treatment of microbial infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of Maize Downy Mildew Pathogen in Lampung and the Effects of Varieties and Metalaxyl on Disease Incidence

Cipta Ginting, Joko Prasetyo, Suskandini Ratih Dirmawati, . Ivayani, Paul Benyamin Timotiwu, Tri Maryono, . Widyastuti, Damar Indah Ryska Chafisa, Alim Asyifa, Erisa Setyowati, Ambos Harry Zuisent Pasaribu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 23-35
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i730244

Introduction: Maize downy mildew (MDM) is considered as a major problem in all maize growing areas in Indonesia including the Province of Lampung.

Objectives: The objectives of this study were (i) to identify the species of Peronosclerospora causing maize downy mildew (MDM) in Lampung, (ii) to determine the influence of varieties on the intensity of downy mildew and (iii) to determine the efficacy of metalaxyl to control MDM on some maize varieties.

Methodology: To identify Peronosclerospora causing MDM, the pathogens were observed under light microscope and scanning electron microscope. Maize varieties response against pathogens and efficacy metalaxyl were studied in the field with the test plants exposed to plants showing MDM symptoms as the sources of inocula to mimic natural conditions.

Results: Peronosclerospora sorghi, P. maydis, and P. philippinensis were found to cause MDM in Lampung. On both varieties Pioneer 27 (P-27) and NK-22, AUDPC on F1 plants was greater than that on F2 plants. On P-27, the production of F2 was higher than that of F1 plants, but there was not significant difference in production between F1 and F2 of NK-22 variety. Seed treatment using metalaxyl was not effective to control downy mildew of maize.

Conclusion: Three species of Peronosclerospora were identified as disease-causing pathogen of MDM in Lampung, but these results were tentatively pending for further studies through molecular techniques. F1 plants were more susceptible than F2 plants to MDM in both P-27 and NK-22. Metalaxyl was not effective in controlling MDM.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Ginger Nanoparticles on Hepato-renal Toxicity Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride in Rats

Sanaa Yasser Abd- Elrhman, Hanaa Mostafa Abd El- Fattah, Gehan M. Morsy, Shimaa Elmasry

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 36-55
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i730245

Aims: The current study was developed to investigate the influence of ginger (G), ginger nanoparticles (GNPs) and ginger nano-base (GNB) on hepato-renal toxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats in comparison with silymarin (SM).

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Faculty of Women for Arts, Science and Education, Ain Shams University.

Methodology: Fifty-four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups. Group (1): Rats received distilled water orally and injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with single dose of corn oil (1 ml/kg b.wt). Group (2): Rats were injected with single dose of CCl4 diluted with corn oil (1:1) (1 ml/kg b.wt. i.p.) at the 4th week of experiment. Groups (3), (4) and (5): Rats were orally received 50 mg /kg b.wt./day of G, GNPs and GNB, respectively for 8 weeks and injected with CCl4 as group 2. Group (6): Rats were orally received 100 mg /kg b.wt /day of SM for 8 weeks and injected with CCl4 as group 2. 

Results: Our results documented that injection with CCl4 caused significant increase (p<0.05) in liver function tests [serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities], kidney function tests [serum creatinine, urea, uric acid and cystatin C] and serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), Nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF- α) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β). On the other hand, there was a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC), Hepatic catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes activity, with histopathological changes in liver and kidneys tissues. Oral administration of G, GNPs, GNB and SM caused an enhancement of liver and kidney function, decreasing serum oxidants and inflammatory markers levels while increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, also an improvement of organs histopathological changes was observed.

Conclusion: Our data proved that using ginger in the form of GNPs and GNB are more efficient in ameliorating hepato-renal toxicity induced by CCl4 than using native ginger as evidenced by biochemical analysis and histological examination of liver and kidneys tissues.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Hyptis suaveolens and Moringa oleifera in the Control of Soil-Borne Pathogens

Okoro, Chisom Augusta, Onaebi, Chiemeka Nwakaego

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 56-63
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i730246

Aim: Soil-borne diseases are difficult to control because they are caused by pathogens that can survive for long periods in the absence of the normal crop host and often have a wide host range including weeds. This present study was design to assess the antifungal assay dependent effect of methanolic extracts of Hyptis suaveolens and Moringa oleifera on Phytophthora colocasiae and Fusarium oxysporum.

Methods: The presence of biologically active ingredients (alkaloid, saponin, tannins, flavonoid, terpenoids, tannins, steroids, hydrogen cyanides, phenols and glycoside) in the leaf extracts was investigated using standard procedures. The antifungal activities of the plant extract were tested against Phytophthora colocasiae and Fusarium oxysporum using disc and well diffusion assays.

Results: The results of the phytochemical evaluated showed that H. suaveolens, contained significantly higher alkaloids, saponins, hydrogen cyanide, flavonoids and phenols than M. oleifera, while on the other hand, M. oleifera contained significantly higher terpenoids, tannins, steroids and glycosides. Consequently, H. suaveolens extract similarly recorded significantly (P < 0.05) higher inhibition on the organisms as compared to M. oleifera. The disc diffusion assay method was more sensitive than the well diffusion assay. H. suaveolens at 100 mg/ml using disc diffusion assay method showed higher inhibition on both P. colocasiae and F. oxysporum. While M. oleifera recorded higher inhibition on F. oxysporum at 50 mg/ml and P. colocasiae at 100 mg/ml using the disc diffusion assay method. MIC was lowest with H. suaveolens (12.5 mg/ml) against F. oxysporum.

Conclusion: These results promote the identification of actives substances from these plants for use as lead molecules in the development of new fungicides for the control of Phytophthora colocasiae and Fusarium oxysporum.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical Characteristics of Penicillium crustosum FP 11 Xylanase II and an Assessment of the Properties of Xylanases Produced by the Genus Penicillium

Jorge W. F. Bittencourt, Vanessa C. Arfelli, Jaina C. Lunkes, Carla L. D. Torre, Jose L. C. Silva, Alexandre Maller, Rita de Cássia G. Simão, Marina K. Kadowaki

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 64-75
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i730248


Penicillium crustosum FP 11 produces two extracellular xylanase, which are designated xylanase I and II, and are induced by corn stover. In this work, xylanase II was purified 40-fold with a recovery yield of 9.2% using DEAE-Sephadex and Sephadex G-75 gel filtration, and the biochemical characteristics of the enzyme were compared with other xylanases produced by the genus Penicillium. Xylanase II exhibited a single band on SDS–PAGE, and had an apparent molecular mass of 28 kDa. The optimal temperature and pH of xylanase II activity were 50ºC and 5.5, respectively. Xylanase II had activities of 61, 53 and 55% in the presence of Mg2+, DTT and β-mercaptoethanol, respectively; however, the enzyme was strongly inhibited by 5 mM Cu2+, EDTA, and SDS. Hydrolysis of beechwood xylan released mainly xylose and short-chain xylo-oligosaccharides as final products. Thus, an assessment of the enzymatic properties of xylanase II showed that its biochemical characteristics are best suited for the saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening, Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Root Barks from Acacia macrostachya Reichenb. Ex DC. (Fabaceae)

Adjaratou C. Coulibaly, W. L. M. Esther B. Kabre, Tata K. Traore, Constantin Achatde, Gilchrist L. Boly, Mariam T. Nebie, Noufou Ouedraogo, Martin Kiendrebeogo, Richard W. Sawadogo

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 76-83
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i730249

Aims: Acacia macrostachya Reichenb. ex DC. (Fabaceae) is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of many pathologies including diarrhea, malaria with convulsion and fevers, snake bites, vomiting, nausea, dysenteric syndrome and choleriformis, inflammatory diseases and old wounds. The purpose of this study was to carry out the phytochemical screening, to assess the general acute toxicity, the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the dichloromethane extract of A. macrostachya root barks in order to develop new lower-toxic anti-inflammatory drugs.

Place and Duration of Study: The work was carried out in the Department of Traditional Pharmacopoeia and Pharmacy (MEPHATRA / PH) of the Institute for Research in Health Sciences (IRSS) and LABIOCA from Université Joseph KI-ZERBO in Ouagadougou between March and June 2020.

Methodology: Phytochemical screening was carried out through thin layer chromatography with specific reagents. Acute toxicity assay was carried out according to the "dose adjustment" method from the OECD guideline 423 2001. Analgesic effect was evaluated on the number of abdominal contortions induced by the intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid while the anti-inflammatory activity using the Carrageenan anti-edematous test was determined according to Winter.

Results: Phytochemical profile demonstrated the presence of alkaloids, coumarins, polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, saponosides, triterpenes and sterols. At the dose of 200 mg/kg (bw), the extract inhibited acetic acid-induced pain by 67.08% and carragenaan-induced edema by 74.03%. A. macrostachya dichloromethane extract is slightly toxic with LD50 higher than 5000 mg/kg (bw).

Conclusion:The results of this study demonstrated the interest of A. macrostachya in the treatment of inflammatory pathologies and constitute a scientific basis of its traditional uses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterisation and Anti-diabetic Activity of Phenylquinoline, and Narceine Isolated from Ficus polita Leaf

A. Nasir, M. S. Sule, A. J. Alhassan, A. M. Wudil, A. A. Imam, A. Idi, I. U. Muhammad, A. I. Yaradua, K. I. Matazu, A. M. Kanadi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 102-114
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i730251

The present study was conducted to evaluate anti-diabetic potentials of column chromatography fractions (F1-F6) of chloroform leaf extract of Ficus polita and to detect the probable bioactive compounds present in the most active fraction using spectroscopic techniques. Antidiabetic potential of the fractions (F1-F6) were tested at a dose of 50 mg/kg on wistar rats. Fraction 3 and metformin treated diabetic groups showed significant decreases in fasting blood glucose (FBS) level, ameliorate hepatic and renal damages by decreasing the levels of serum total bilirubin, direct bilirubin AST, ALT, creatinine, urea, potassium and chloride, but increasing the levels of serum total protein, albumin, sodium, and bicarbonate compared to untreated diabetic rats. Fraction 3 also stimulates insulin secretion by β cells. After alloxan administration, the levels of hepatic and renal tissues antioxidant markers such as GSH, SOD and catalase were decreased whereas the level of hepatic and renal tissues MDA was elevated. The levels of these antioxidant markers were brought to normalcy by fraction 3 (F3). Histological studies of the pancreas supported the biochemical findings, and treatment with fraction 3 (F3) was found to be effective in restoring alloxan-induced pancreatic toxicity in rats. FTIR and GCMS and analyses were conducted for the detection of bioactive compound(s) in fraction 3 (F3) and the result revealed the presence of "8-methoxy-4-phenylquinoline and narceine The study concludes that; the anti-diabetic property of the leaf of Ficus polita is mediated by the bioactive compounds " 8-methoxy-4-phenylquinoline, and narceine." through their antioxidant properties and stimulation of damaged pancreas to produce more insulin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Characterisation and Identification of Three Mushrooms Found in the Niger Delta Region

S. B. Chuku, E. O. Nwachukwu, I. O. Agbagwa, H. O. Stanley

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 115-121
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i730253

Mushrooms are a group of fungi that are diverse and in the Niger Delta region; there are various species, some of which share similar morphological features. Over the years, mushrooms have been put to several important uses ranging from food, nutraceuticals, feed for livestock, and more recently bioremediation, hence, the need for an accurate approach of identification is eminent. This study aims to identify three mushroom samples with the potential for crude oil degradation using molecular tools. The molecular identification of the mushrooms was carried out with the ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer) region to analyze their genetic diversity. The three mushroom samples were identified as Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus floridanus and Lentinus squarrosulus. The blast results showed 86.0%, 97.9%, and 88.4% for Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus floridanus and Lentinus squarrosulus respectively for sequence similarity. The samples were assigned unique accession numbers on GenBank The use of molecular characterization gives reliable results to the species level. The results from this study have increased the database of Pleurotus and Lentinus DNA and serve as a basis for the identification of unidentified species by comparing their PCR amplified sequences with ITS primers.

Open Access Review Article

Status, Prospects and Market Potentials of the Sea Cucumber Fisheries with Special Reference on Their Proper Utilization and Trade

M. Aminur Rahman, Saddam Hossain Chowdhury, Md. Jahidul Hasan, Md. Habibur Rahman, Syeda Maksuda Yeasmin, Nawshin Farjana, Md. Habibur Rahman Molla, Md. Shamim Parvez

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 84-101
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i730250

Sea cucumbers belonging to the phylum Echinodermata are important marine invertebrates, generally occur in the sandy substrates and rocky shores near the bottom of sea. This review work has been attempted to make an interlink between biological and socio-economical perspectives of sea cucumber because of the high demand in the present world. The outer body part of sea cucumber (bêche-de-mer) has been recognized for producing secondary metabolites including vitamins and triterpenoid glycoside saponins that have profound ecological and bio-medicinal significance. Sea cucumbers are also used to remove arthritis pain, exert wound healing, and nowadays, are utilized in human health therapeutics and Asian folk medicine. Due to higher pharmaceutical, cosmeceutical and nutraceutical values, sea cucumber has become one of the most essential products, and fetched higher market prices and therefore, provide a significant earning source and employment opportunity to the coastal communities in many countries. The sea cucumber and its product have been considered to be the excellent bioresource in the invertebrate fishery, whose harvestings, transporting, handlings, processing and maintenance are easy, convenient and cost-effective. Historically, bêche-de-mer were harvested from the multi-species capture fishery and stored for long times for selling to the businessmen and traders directly on the site. As like other lucrative and expensive food items viz., fish-maws, shark-fins and abalones, sea cucumbers are taken into the account as the high-valued products in the world seafood markets. Nevertheless, bêche-de-mer product supply in the South-East Asian countries has been decreasing day by day because of unstrained harvesting and overexploitation. On the other hand, the marketing structure in these countries is typically ineffective and the trading networks are multifaceted. Due to the lack of proper information, fishermen are not usually getting proper values and actual prices from the sea cucumber products, whereas other distributors and value-chain members have made complex systems, which have led to high cost of the products. The sea cucumber products will still have higher possibility of trading throughout the world markets, that might eventually contribute to the global economy in a very worthwhile, significant and sustainable manner.