Open Access Original Research Article

Reproductive Biology of Marine Catfish, Arius latiscutatus (Günther, 1864) and Arius gigas (Boulenger, 1911) from the Bays of Guinea

Pierre Koivogui, Yao Aristide Konan, Bakari Coulibaly, Essetchi Paul Kouamelan, Tidiani Koné

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i830254

Background and Objectives: Marine catfish are abundant in the bays of Tabounsou and Sangareah in Republic of Guinea, but the knowledge on their biology is still scanty. The reproductive biology of Arius latiscutatus Günther, 1864 and A. gigas Boulenger, 1911 was studied through monthly sampling, from January to December 2016.

Methodology: Fish were caught using gill nets in several sampling sites. Five gonadal stages were described, based on macroscopic observation of gonad form, size, weight, color and oocyte diameter.

Results: The population was dominated by males (61%) in A. latiscutatus and females (53%) in A. gigas, showing a sex-ratio of 1:1.54 (Chi-square, P < 0.05) and 1:0.88 (P > 0.05), respectively. The length-weight relationship was a positive allometry for A. latiscutatus and A. gigas, and males (35.37 and 35.47 cm, respectively) reached first maturity earlier than females (39.7 and 40.8 cm, respectively). Changes in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and in stages of gonadal development showed that A. latiscutatus spawned between April and October, while A. gigas spawned in May to November. The peak of condition factor was observed in June (0.68±0.05) and July (0.55±0.04) in females of A. latiscutatus and A. gigas, respectively.

Conclusion: Both species, having only one annual breeding season, A. latiscutatus spawns earlier than A. gigas. Coastal fisheries should be restricted in cold season to preserve the ability of broodstock renewal for these species.

Open Access Original Research Article

About the Influences of Some Major Biotic Drivers on the Population Dynamics in Host-parasite Systems: Interpretative Lessons from an Extended Nicholson-Bailey Model

Jean Béguinot

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 14-32
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i830256

Population dynamics within host-parasite systems in insects is governed by a series of factors, both endogenous and exogenous. Among them, five factors may be considered as major drivers: the respective inherent rates of increase of the host and of the parasite, the level of resource available to the host, the respective immigration rates of the host and of the parasite. While only the first two (the inherent rates of increase of host and parasite) are considered in the original Nicholson and Bailey model, an extended version of the model includes also the other three parameters, thus providing a broader (although still schematic) approach to the host-parasite population dynamics. A brief analysis of the respective influences of each of these five driving parameters on the main features of host-parasite dynamics is derived accordingly, based upon this extended model. Finally, specific attention is paid to the major concerns due to the cyclic outbreaks of both the host and the parasite, regarding in particular the amplitude, the periodicity and the conditions of onset of the cyclicity. Both the practical aspects of the cyclic regime and its possible adaptative significance are discussed. As a whole, this approach aims to provide some general clues for the interpretation of various features of the host-parasite dynamics, as reported from field observations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agronomic Behavior of Six Saladette Tomato Hybrids Grown under Shade Mesh

María del Pilar Marín Cortez, Neymar Camposeco Montejo

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 45-52
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i830258

Aims: The objective was to evaluate six indeterminate saladette tomato hybrids in Southeast, Coahuila, Mexico. Under shade house covered with anti-aphid mesh, to determine their performance, commercial quality and adaptability.

Study Design: The experimental design used in each test was completely randomized model with six treatments and three repetitions each. The treatments were hybrids Lubino were Lubino F1, Zopilote F1, Sahariana F1, Raptor F1, Quetzal F1 and RTF-713172 F1.

Place and Duration of Study: The site was Parras Valley Tomatoes in Parras, Coahuila, México. During april to November 2017.

Methodology: The distance between the lines were 1.80 m, between the plantpots 36 cm and two plants per plantpots, with approximately 30,000 plants per hectare calculated. The genotypes used were Lubino F1, Zopilote F1, Sahariana F1, Raptor F1, Quetzal F1 and RTF-713172 F1. The following agronomic characteristics  were evaluates: yield, total number of fruits, average fruit weight, number of fruits per bunch, length between clusters, length of internodes, main stem thickness and commercial quality of fruit.

Results: The results indicate that the highest yielding hybrid was Zopilote with 4.3 kg plant-1, followed by Saharan, the average weight of the product obtained best in Saharan and Quetzal with 122.33 and 118.33 g respectively, the most compact variety was Zopilote due to the shorter distance between bunches, contrary to what was demonstrated by Lubino.

Conclusion: The best variety for the Southeast of Coahuila is Zopilote F1, due to its higher yield and for being a compact plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening of Common Herbal Medicines as Promising Direct Inhibitors of Sars-Cov-2 in Silico

Zahraa Kamaz, Mohammad J. Al- Jassani, Umar Haruna

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 53-67
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i830260

Background: Molecular docking has been used recently in pharma industry for drug designing, it’s a powerful tool to find ligand-substrate interactions at molecules level. Since urgent need to develop anti-viral drug that target new coronavirus main proteins, in silico docking has been used to achieve this purpose.

Materials and Methods: Thirteen herbs are known for their antioxidants and antiviral properties have been selected to investigate their abilities in inhibiting SARS-COV2 spike protein and main protease Mpro. pdb files for RBD (Receptor Binding Domain) region of spike protein and for Mpro and mol2 files for all herbs understudy were uploaded for swiss dock online server, the docking results were analyzed using chimera software. Full fitness energy and hydrogens bonds interactions were considered for docking evaluation.  Pharma kinetic properties for compounds have good binding results were evaluated through AMES and ADMET tests.

Results: All compounds showed negative full fitness energy that means they are able to complex with both SARS-COV2 spike protein and main protease, however some of the herbs form very powerful hydrogen bonding with the RBD site of the spike protein and the catalytic site of Mpro such as coumarylquinic acid, while stigmasterol has strong binding with the spike protein only. Both compounds appear to be safe drugs for human according to AMES test results.

Conclusion: Coumarylquinic acid and stigmasterol have powerful binding in silico, further in vitro studies include using viral infected human lung cells and testing above compounds ability for inhibiting viral entry and replication should be proceed to confirm the study results.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production of Peanut Milk and Its Functional, Physiochemical, Nutritional and Sensory Characteristics

Azhari Siddeeg, Zakaria A. Salih, Al-Farga Ammar, Nahid Salah Mohammed Saeed, Saad M. Howladar, Fatima Omari Alzahrani

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 79-88
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i830262

This study was aimed to investigate the functional properties of peanut seeds, and physicochemical, nutritional and sensory analysis of processed peanut milk. Standard methods were used in this research to determine the functional properties and proximate composition, while minerals were determined by a flame photometer and colorimeter. Firstly, the functional proprieties of the whole and defatted kernel of peanut seeds were studied, and the best results were found in the defatted sample. Peanut milk samples were divided into four samples depends on the percentage of powder milk addition (3, 6, 9 and 12%) as well as the control sample without addition. The pH, total soluble solids, viscosity, and density of samples were (6.2-6.5, 6-16%, 3-8 mPa/s, and 1.01-1.05 g/cm3, respectively), increased with the increasing of milk powder. About the proximate analysis, the highest values of ash, protein, fat, total carbohydrates (0.8, 6.3, 6.3, and 7.5%, respectively) were found in the sample of 12% powder milk. Sodium, potassium, and calcium in the samples (3, 6, 9 and 12%) were found in the range 38-58, 55-89, and 10-18 mg/100 g, respectively. Sensory evaluation results revealed great acceptance for peanut milk made with 3% powder milk addition, while we're not found a significant difference in the color and taste of all samples and control. This study proved the possibility of using Sudanese peanut as a milk substitute which was found to be a good source of nutrients. This study suggested using peanut milk as a milk substitute, and in yogurt manufacture, future work should aim at studying optimum storage conditions and stable packaging requirements.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Transmitted Helminth Infections among Slum Dwelling Women in Dhaka, Bangladesh

Mandira Mukutmoni, Sharmin Musa, Asmaul Hosna

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 95-101
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i830264

Aims: The objective of this trial was to establish the prevalence and risk factors relating to soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections among slum dwelling women in Dhaka city, Bangladesh.

Study Design: Cross sectional study.

Place and Duration of the Study: A total of 100 stool samples were collected from Ganaktuli (Hazaribagh) slum of Dhaka city from March to September 2019. Women aged between 21 to 40 years old were part of this study, and only those who had at least one primary school going child were included.

Methodology: The interviewed women were asked to provide their stool samples in the containers supplied by the volunteers, and to fill up a questionnaire regarding their socio-demographic and behavioral practices. Formal Ether Concentration technique was applied to process the stool samples, and detection of helminth eggs was done by microscopy.

Results: Of the hundred women, 87 (87%) were infected with at least one STH. Ascaris lumbricoides (41.38%) showed the highest prevalence followed by Trichuris trichiura (36.78%). Working as day laborers, irregular nail clipping, irregular use of soap after defecation, walking barefoot, using open and common toilet, irregular consumption of antihelminthic drugs were noticed as significant risk factors.

Conclusion: Soil transmitted helminth infection is still a problem in Bangladesh. Proper drug administration and increase of hygiene practices among the slum dwellers are essential to lessen the high prevalence of soil transmitted helminth infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Parameterization and Forecasting of Childhood Pneumonia Model Using Least Square Approximation, Lagrange Polynomial and Monte Carlo Simulation

Cyrus Gitonga Ngari, Dominic Makaa Kitavi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 102-114
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i830265

Despite a study by [1] proposing a simple model of under five years pneumonia, doubt lingers regarding its reliability, sufficiency and validity. The research question is whether the model is valid for use or not?  The objectives of this study were to: incorporate exit rate from under five-year age bracket in the model, use Kenya data to parameterize the model, taking into account the uncertainties and finally to predict the dynamics of pneumonia. The model was rescaled through nondimensionalization. Data was fitted using theory of general solutions of nonlinear Ordinary differential equations, numerical differentiation using Lagrange polynomials and least square approximation method. Uncertainties due to disparities and round off errors were simulated using Monte Carlo simulation. Predictions of dynamics of pneumonia were carried out using MATLAB inbuilt ode solvers. Excel software was used to predict dynamics of discrete ordinary differential equations and to fit data. The basic reproduction number (  and effective reproduction number ( ) were obtained as  Iteration of uncertainties on R was carried out 1000 times by Monte Carlo simulation. The maximum and minimum R were obtained as 90 and 55, respectively. Using MATLAB software and effective reproduction number, the ratio of infective class to the total population and the ratio of class under treatment to the total population will remain constant at 0.095 and 0.2297 respectively for the years 2021, 2022 and 2023. Research result indicted that it is more effective and efficient to use effective reproduction number ( ) than basic reproduction number (  in mathematical modelling of Infectious diseases whenever study focuses on proportion of population. On basis of large absolute errors in fitting data to model, findings cast doubt on model formulation and/or observed data.

Open Access Review Article

Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP): Comparative Advances over Conventional PCR and Other Molecular Techniques

Yahaya Hassan, Leslie Thian Lung Than

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 33-44
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i830257

Gene amplification technology is essential in the fields of diagnostic medicine. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is central in the molecular studies and provides ways for diagnostic advancement in the areas. However, the requirement for thermal cycler in a dedicated facility for amplification of target genes in the PCR technique has been a bottleneck to many researchers. The limitations associated with PCR include cost implication, strict expertise necessity and relatively higher turn-around time. The emergence of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in the last two decades assists in bridging the undesirable gaps. This review aims to highlight the natural advantages of the LAMP technique over the existing conventional PCR and other isothermal molecular techniques. Available published articles on LAMP techniques reviewed, listed many outstanding advances of the method in comparison to traditional PCR technique. The mentioned advantages include simplicity, affordability, naked-eye result detection and many more. That made LAMP becomes a rapidly accepted method in the field of molecular diagnosis. Other essential features of LAMP in comparison with other emerging nucleic acid amplification techniques were adequately explained and presented in tabular form for research and quick reference purposes. Though LAMP has some few limitations, its advantages outweigh its flaws by filling the gap in the field of molecular biology diagnostics.

Open Access Review Article

Host Preference, Mode of Damage and Succession of Major Insect Pests of Brinjal

Saifullah Omar Nasif, Shafiquzzaman Siddiquee

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 68-78
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i830261

Brinjal is one of the most popular solanaceous vegetables worldwide because of its nutritive and nutraceutical values. In recent decades, brinjal cultivation has been experiencing increased biotic and abiotic stresses due to the climate changes, which had affected the cultivation practices, growers’ profit and consumers’ choice to a larger extent. Amongst different insect pests, brinjal shoot and fruit borer (BSFB) is the major one causing significant reduction in economic yield followed by epilachna beetle, aphid, jassid and whitefly. On the other hand, proper knowledge on nature of damage, host preference, and seasonal abundance of insect pests is a pre-requisite for development and deployment of an appropriate, effective and timely management strategy against the pests.  A pool of literatures on host preferences, damage pattern and succession of major insect pests of brinjal has been reviewed and presented in this paper.

Open Access Review Article

The Moroccan Ichtyoplankton - A General Overview

Diouri Lamia, Soukri Abdelaziz, Abdelouahab Hinde, Malki Mohamed, Baibai Tarik

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 89-94
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i830263

Morocco is one of the most important seafood producing countries. In consideration of its advantageous geographical location in addition to the biodiversity and richness that characterise these halieutic resources, the small pelagic fishes represent 75% of the halieutic harvest, with a domination of S. pilchardus. Regarding the sustainability and protection of the marine species, the study of ichthyoplankton is an essential and crucial step, through the use of classical identification techniques under binocular lenses combined with molecular biology tools based on genetic markers as well as an integrated image analysis system, the ZooScan. The present work is the subject of an overview of the study of ichthyoplankton on the two Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts of Morocco.