Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular and Morphological Diversity Studies of Five Cola (Schott and Endl.) Species in Ibadan, Nigeria

ThankGod Timipanipiri Wood, Elijah Ige Ohimain

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i930266

Intra- and inter-species genetic diversity study was carried out comparing the molecular and morphological characters of five Cola species namely Cola acuminata, Cola nitida, Cola millenii, Cola lepidota and Cola gigantea collected from five locations in Ibadan, Nigeria. Sixteen Cola accessions were analysed based on 7 quantitative characters, 12 qualitative characters and 8 Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA primers. From the quantitative characters studied, high significant difference across the location and species was recorded as leaf length had the strongest variability while the species obtained from Botany Nursery showed strongest locational effect on the vegetative leaf characters. All quantitative characters analysed were good determinants for delimiting Cola species. Cola lepidota recorded the highest variability compared to the other Cola species. Qualitative characters studied revealed that leaf surface, seed colour, and floral colour are strong characters for delimiting Cola species. Molecular analysis showed that 309 fragments were recorded, of which 28.5% were polymorphic while 8.4% were monomorphic. Genetic similarities ranged from 0.44 to 0.93 for the 16 Cola accessions with a mean value of 0.67. Deductions from the combined effect of molecular and morphological characters showed high variability for the characters analysed and a likely monophyletic relationship for the 16 Cola accessions.  Molecular and morphological determinants observed in this study can help Cola breeders identify species of interest. We recommend further research on the variability of Cola species.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Characterization and Cellulolytic Capacity of Chaetomium globosum Isolates

Eman G. El-Dawy, Yassmin M. Shebany, Youssuf A. Gherbawy

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 14-22
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i930267

Chaetomium species are saprophytic fungi, havethe ability to degrade cellulose with hydrolytic enzymes. Hydrolytic enzymes are a cluster of enzymes, which have the flexibility of breaking down complicated molecules into smaller molecules. The objective of this study was to clarify the genetic diversity among the isolated Chaetomium population by using PCR-based methods, along with the study of their cellulolytic activities. Chaetomium spp. were isolated from twenty-eight samples of Cuminum cyminum and Pimpinella anisum, and identified morphologically and molecularly by ITS1 and ITS4 primers. The sequencing indicated that all the isolates of Chaetomium had a 99% sequence identity with Chaetomium globosum sequences from GenBank. Molecular techniques with Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region sequencing and specific genes random primers polymerase chain reaction (SGRP-PCR) showed the existence of high DNA polymorphism of Chaetomium globosum. All isolates were tested for their ability of cellulases production. Nine of the thirteen isolates of Chaetomium globosumcould produce cellulases. There are variations between C. globosum isolates and the source of the isolates and their habitat do not correlate to their ability to secrete cellulases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cassava Leaf Compost Influences Growth, Yield and Nutrient Uptake of Rice

Nazmul Huq Hawlader, Md. Solaiman Ali Fakir, Masum Ahmad, Habibun Nesa, Md. Mustafizur Rahman, Irteja Hasan, Md. Monirul Islam, Md. Sagirul Islam Majumder

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 23-33
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i930268

The application of compost as alternatives to reduce the use of synthetic fertilizers is considered a feasible agricultural practice to mitigate soil degradation caused by long term application of synthetic fertilizers. Therefore, the study aimed to investigate the effect of cassava leaf compost on growth, yield and nutrient uptake of rice. Six treatments of two rice varieties (BRRI dhan29 and BINA dhan5) and three sources of nitrogen (Control - no nitrogen applied but residual soil N was 0.123%, urea @ 200 kg ha-1 and Cassava Leaf Compost @ 10 t ha-1) were used in this study. Cassava Leaf Compost @ 10 t ha-1 and urea @ 200 kg ha-1 significantly increased effective tillers per hill, 1000-grain weight, and grain yield were 12.84 and 13.75, 25.00 g and 24.93 g, 5.57 t ha-1 and 6.047 t ha-1, respectively. Cassava Leaf Compost @ 10 t ha-1 and urea @ 200 kg ha-1 increased N uptake in root is 0.821% and 0.756%, and the residual effect of compost increased C, N, P, K and S availability in soil for the succeeding crop in Cassava Leaf Compost @ 10 t ha-1 applied plots. Carbon and N mineralization rates were higher than control and soils receiving recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers. Our findings suggested that compost could be used as biofertilizer to improve degraded cropland soils for sustainable agriculture.

Open Access Original Research Article

Repellent Activity of Piper spp. Leaves Extracts on Rice Ear Bugs (Leptocorisa oratorius Fabricius) and the Characters of Its Volatile Compounds

Laurentius Hartanto Nugroho, Rarastoety Pratiwi, R. C. Hidayat Soesilohadi, Efrida Ratnasari Subin, Sri Wahyuni, . Jekli, Yustina Sri Hartini, Intani Quarta Lailaty

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 34-45
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i930269

Rice ear bug (Leptocorisa oratorius Fabricius) is still classified as the top of five pests that cause the most losses in rice farming productivity. The attack causes the grain to become empty resulted in reducing the yield of grain up to 40% even to 100%. Betel plants (Genus Piper) are easy to grow and grown by almost all households in Indonesia. Ethnobotany showed that betel is used as one of the insect controllers. This research aimed to study the repellant activities of five species of Piper spp. and their phytochemical composition based on CG-MS chromatograms. Moreover, the active compounds were analyzed in potent plant. The repellant activities of chloroform and methanol extract of P. betle, P. aduncum, P. nigrum, P. longum, and P. crocatum were applied using modified olfactometer, while the phytochemical composition were analyzed using GC-MS. The compounds with insecticidal activity in the potent species were analyzed by the references. The results showed that chloroform extract of P. crocatum was the most potent extract. It contains 28 specific compounds which were not found in other species. Literature studies showed that compounds that had repellent activities are monoterpene and sesquiterpene groups.

Open Access Original Research Article

Trajectory of COVID-19 Data in India: Investigation and Project Using Artificial Neural Network, Fuzzy Time Series and ARIMA Models

Pradeep Mishra, Chellai Fatih, Deepa Rawat, Saswati Sahu, Sagar Anand Pandey, M. Ray, Anurag Dubey, Olawale Monsur Sanusi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 46-54
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i930270

Due to the impact of Corona virus (COVID-19) pandemic that exists today, all countries, national and international organizations are in a continuous effort to find efficient and accurate statistical models for forecasting the future pattern of COVID infection. Accurate forecasting should help governments to take decisive decisions to master the pandemic spread.  In this article, we explored the COVID-19 database of India between 17th March to 1st July 2020, then we estimated two nonlinear time series models: Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Fuzzy Time Series (FTS) by comparing them with ARIMA model. In terms of model adequacy, the FTS model out performs the ANN for the new cases and new deaths time series in India. We observed a short-term virus spread trend according to three forecasting models.Such findings help in more efficient preparation for the Indian health system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Numerical Simulation of Blood Flow in a Vessel by Using COMSOL Multiphysics® Software

S. F. Salem, V. V. Tuchin

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 76-82
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i930274

Dynamics of the blood flow play an important role in the development and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In recent decades, blood flow simulation has been widely used to better understand the symptomatic spectrum of different diseases, in order to improve existing or develop new therapeutic techniques. Numerical simulation for biomagnetic fluid (such as blood) flow through a tube with rectangular cross section under the influence of magnetic field is studied in this work. Blood considered as a magnetic and incompressible fluid. The magnetic field effects on the blood stream in a tube are created by a permanent magnet outside the tube. The equations of motion which describe the flow is governed by the combination of magnetic equations for permanent magnet and Navier-Stokes equation for fluid (blood) were solved numerically by using COMSOL Multiphysics® Modeling Software.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dosimetric Characterizations of Megavoltage Therapeutic Photon Beam

Md. Abdullah Al Mashud, M. Jahangir Alam

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 83-88
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i930280

This paper presents the dosimetric parameters characterizations of a megavoltage therapeutic photon beam. The main focus of this study is to investigate and analyze the parameters of percentage depth dose (PDD) and tissue maximum ratio (TMR) due to the importance of treatment system. The depth dose characteristics of 6MV photon beam for different field sizes in water phantom has been measured, analyzed and found a robustness results. The results revealed that the depth dose variation from 0.067% to 1.812% and the TMR values varies from 0.501% to 2.111%. It seems the measured dosimetric quantities are clinically relevant for different field sizes and depths.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficiency and Response to Nitrogen Use in Maize Genotypes for Silage Production in Tropical Climate

Weder Ferreira dos Santos, Osvaldo José Ferreira Junior, Lucas Carneiro Maciel, Joênes Mucci Peluzio, Flávio Sérgio Afférri, Layanni Ferreira Sodré, Lucas Alves de Faria, Lucas Sodré Vieira, Adriano Silveira Barbosa, Rafael Marcelino da Silva

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 89-95
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i930281

Aims: This study aimed to select efficient and responsive maize genotypes to the use of nitrogen for silage.

Study Design: The experimental design was randomized blocks in a 2 x 11 factorial scheme, the first factor being two nitrogen levels: 165 kg ha-1 of N and 15 kg ha-1 of N, and second factor eleven maize genotypes: BRS 3046, M 274, AG 8088PRO2, ANHEMBI, PR 27D28, AG 1051, P33-16, P33-11, P29-M12, P36-19, and P40-8.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was carried out in the 2017/18 harvest at Sítio Vitória (8º18'32" S, 50º36'58" W), located in the municipality of Santa Maria das Barreiras, southern region of Pará state, Brazil.

Methodology: Sowing fertilization was performed in the furrow with 300 kg ha-1 of NPK 5-25-15. Topdressing nitrogen fertilization was performed only at high N, having as source urea (45% N) at a dose of 150 kg ha-1 of N. Parceled in stages V4 and V8. The shoot fresh mass was evaluated at stages R4 and R5, with the cut performed 20 cm from the soil.

Results: The highest shoots fresh masses were obtained in treatments with high use of N, with a general mean of 628 g plant-1. The mean response of 1.87 g of plants per kg of N applied. Genotypes M 274, AG 8088PRO2, PR 27D28, AG 1051 and P 36-19 were efficient to use N. Genotypes AG 8088PRO2, PR 27D28, P29-M12, and P 36-19 were classified as responsive to N application.

Conclusion: Genotypes AG 8088PRO2, PR 27D28 and P36-19 were efficient in use and responsive to nitrogen application. And they are recommended for cultivation with low and high technological level.

Open Access Review Article

Epidemiology of Zoonoses Geared by Domestication with Reference to COVID-19 during Anthropocene; India

Siba Prasad Mishra, Saswat Mishra

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 55-75
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i930271

COV-19, HIV/AIDS, Flu H1N1 and many other zoonotic diseases are emergent during Anthropocene epoch due to climatic anomalies. Bacteria’s, viruses, pathogens are associated with human cause zoonoses mainly resulting from domestication. Minimum 61% of human pathogens are zoonotic comprising 75% of all emerging apocalyptic pathogens in 21st century. The scope of present study is investigating the domestication in time scale and finding the causes and consequences the virulent invasion of the present 21st century zoonotic diseases due to the climatic, biologic, socio-economic causes and the governing laws during the Anthropocene. The Holocene hominids were strong enough to adapt the harsh, frigid climate to sustain life during extreme conditions. Later the food habits, sedentary life and the changing agro-climate made then incapable to sustain with the bacterial, viral and microbial attacks for lack of immunity and adaptability by invoking domestication. The National Health Profile, India; has reported fall in rate of communicable diseases that has out broken from 61% to 33% from 1990 to 2016 resulting from health education, care and vaccines but the pandemicCOVID-19 has challenged the scenario. Demand of one health practices and stringent laws is essential to overcome the risk. Present pandemic COVID-19 has forced the globe away for sustenance of life and livelihood for want of vaccine, it is essential to practice five ‘T’ (Test, Trace, treat, train and trade) to restore the  normal life.

Open Access Review Article

CoVid-19 Pandemic: An Update Clinical Features, Diagnostic Methods, Drugs and Vaccine Race

Théophile Uwiringiyeyezu, Bouchra El Khalfi, Rachid Saile, Jamal Belhachmi, Abdelaziz Soukri

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 96-109
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i930282

CoViD-19 pandemic is a viral disease caused by SARS-COV-2virus and since December 2019, has spread rapidly in all the world countries; At the end of June 2020, over 10 million peoples were infected in the world and more than 500,000 deaths have been identified. Due to its fast transmission, the unavailability of drugs and vaccines and the asymptomatic patients who still spread the virus various measures were implemented to stop this virus. The studies were carried out to identify the molecular characteristics, transmission methods, origins, and all other clinical parameters necessary to eradicate it. The results have shown that CoViD-19 can be transmitted either animal-to-person or person-to-person by airborne. On March 11, 2020, world health organization (WHO) declared the CoViD-19 a pandemic, there, every concerned country has made the different health measures to stop the virus spread; the confirmed CoViD-19 patient undergoes the validation medicals diagnostics tests to follow specific treatments as time goes staying in quarantine room of the hospital to keep away from contact with others. To treat this pandemic, the world of medicine has tried with previous treatments of other viruses with encouraging results but of course, with doubts about the success of the therapeutic effectiveness and the scientific researches continue until the development of the therapeutic medicine and the Covid-19 specific vaccine. Today, the use of anti-inflammatory drugs was reported like chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, the antiviral drugs like ritonavir, Lopinavir, ribavirin, and remdesivir and also the glycocorticoids hormones like dexaméthasone to the patients with severe CoViD-19. Different strains of this coronavirus infect humans, bats, and other mammals. Two strains of VOC-SARS have caused outbreaks of severe respiratory disease in humans: VOC-SARS, which caused an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) between 2002 and 2003, and VOC-SARS-2, which since late 2019 has caused a coronavirus disease pandemic 2019 (COVID-19). Even if today, there are not validated CoViD-19 drugs or vaccines. In This paper, we will talk about what we know until today on SARS-COV-2 and CoViD-19 pandemic particularly the clinical symptoms, transmissions ways, biological samples concerned by SARS-COV-2 infection, medicals laboratories parameters in CoViD-19 cases, medication and medicine and molecular diagnostics methods.