Open Access Systematic Review Article

Dextrose Prolotherapy for Muscle, Tendon and Ligament Injury or Pathology: A Systematic Review

Sholahuddin Rhatomy, Evlin Margaretha, Rizki Rahmadian

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 43-62
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1030288

Background: Prolotherapy with dextrose has recently gained attention as a potential treatment for muscle, ligament or tendon pathology/injury.

Questions/Purpose: This review aimed to: 1) evaluate the main outcome of dextrose prolotherapy treatment for muscle, ligament or tendon pathology/injury; 2) determine the concentrations of dextrose and protocol of injection; and 3) assess complications or adverse effects after dextrose prolotherapy.

Methods: Four electronic databases were searched for related published articles. Articles that met the following criteria were included in this review: 1) articles on peer-reviewed level 1 to 4 studies; 2) articles published in English; 3) articles on dextrose prolotherapy study for tendon or ligament or muscle injury/pathology; and 5) articles that describe dose of dextrose. Published articles that met this inclusion criteria were included in this systematic review.

Results: Twenty four studies fulfilled inclusion criteria,consisting of seventeen clinical studies, four animal studies and three invitro studies. Eleven studies reported there were improvement of functional outcome after dextrose prolotherapy. Three Studies reported improvement of patient satisfaction after dextroprolotherapy in supraspinatus tear, Achilles tendinopathy. And patellar tendinopathy, meniscus tear and anterior tibiofibular ligament tear. Three studies reported there are increasing of neovascularization in Achilles tendinopathy and patellar tendinopathy in animal studies, increasing of inflammatory response in animal studies and in vitro studies and increasing of cell proliferation and collagen production. Nine studies (52%) use dextrose 25% concentration. A few adverse effects were reported and  minor effect, such as discomfort  Minor soreness, extreme pain, skin burns 2nd grade, hypotension, Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) ( patient has history DVT).

Conclusions: Dextrose Prolotherapy is a potentially effective treatment for patients with muscle, tendon or ligament tear or pathology. Efficacy in long term follow-up, as single therapy or first-line therapy cannot be determined from the current literature.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of the Cranio-osteology of Two Lonchophyllinae from Colombia

P. M. Parés- Casanova

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1030283

Lonchophyllinae comprises four genera of Neotropical nectarivorous bats. Inside this subfamily       the genus Lonchophylla is one of the most diverse. A total of 51 Lonchophylla skulls from       Colombia (L. robusta n=34 and L. thomasi n=17) was studied by means of geometric morphometric methods with the aim to determine their morphological differential characteristics. For this purpose, viscero and neurocranium were evaluated with 12 landmarks on the dorsal aspect of left hemicranium. The two species were statistically different according to size (expressed as skull length) but also to shape (expressed as the set of Procrustes coordinates). Skulls in L. robusta were clearly bigger, with shorter braincase and longer rostra, and their zygomatic process was more latero-caudally displaced, whereas L. thomasi presented a zygomatic process which was        displaced more rostrally as well longer braincases. All these detected skull form dissimilarities between both species would be explained by their different alimentary habits, but a combination of dietary analysis and morphological analysis is needed to make stronger inference about diet preferences.

Open Access Original Research Article

No Directional Scapular Asymmetry among Tamarines of the Genus Saguinus (Primates: Callitrichidae)

P. M. Parés- Casanova, J. F. Vélez- García

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 7-13
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1030284

Bilateral asymmetry is defined as a deviation of a whole organism or a part of it from a perfect symmetry, and different categories can be recognized. One is the fluctuating asymmetry, defined as the random developmental variation of a trait (or character) that is expected to be perfectly symmetrical on average, and the other one is directional asymmetry, which occurs when one of the sides shows stronger morphological structures or marks than the other. The aim of this study was to determine the kind of scapula asymmetry in Saguinus scapulae. On lateral surface of each right and left scapula, a set of 5 landmarks and 3 curves with semi-landmarks along the margins, on a sample of 16 pairs from different Saguinus species, were considered. Asymmetries (fluctuating and directional) on size and shape of the scapulae were analysed by means of geometric morphometric methods. Directional asymmetry was not detected, demonstrating no side scapular shape bias. The absence of significant directional asymmetry may indicate a similar contralateral pattern of employment of the shoulder, at least for one-arm vertical suspension, as it needs stronger forces than those for terrestrial locomotion and thus would cause more asymmetry in case side loadings were different. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation on the symmetrical/asymmetrical nature of scapulae in Saguinus. Our findings increase knowledge and understanding of humeral joint and arboreal locomotion in primates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Heavy Metal Analysis of Three Urban Rivers in Enugu, Nigeria

Chinedu Ifeanyi Atama, Chioma Julieth Onovo, Chioma Janefrances Okeke, Ossai Nelson, Christopher Didigwu Nwani

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 14-19
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1030285

The multiple industrial, domestic, agricultural, medical, and technological applications of heavy metals have led to their wide distribution in the environment, raising concerns over their potential effects on human health and the environment. This work focused on the determination of manganese, chromium, zinc, cadmium, arsenic, mercury, iron and lead concentrations in Abakpa, Iva Valley, and Transekulu Rivers which are close to residential areas in Enugu, Nigeria. The analysis were carried out using atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS). All the heavy metals tested in the three studied locations exceeded the different drinking water limits except zinc which was below secondary drinking water standard of 5.0 mg/l. The levels of mercury and zinc were significantly higher in Abakpa River (0.57 ± 0.112 and 0.881 ± 0.0015 mgl-1 respectively). Iva valley showed higher levels of manganese, chromium, iron and arsenic compared to other rivers studied. The presence in these metals in the water sources are a great risk to humans and the environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bigger Males, Bigger Females? Pigeons’ Sexual Size Dimorphism

P. M. Parés- Casanova, A. Kabir

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 20-24
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1030286

Sexual dimorphism, defined as phenotypic differences between males and females, is a common phenomenon in animals. In this line, Rensch’s rule states that sexual size dimorphism increases with increasing body size when the male is the larger sex and decreases with increasing average body size when the female is the larger sex. Domesticated animals offer excellent opportunities for testing predictions of functional explanations of Rensch’s theory. Pigeon breeds encounters many different functional purposes and selective constraints, which could influence strongly their morphology. The aim of this paper is to examine, for first time, Rensch’s rule among domestic pigeons. It was compiled a database of 12 quantitative traits (body weight, body height, beak thickness, beak length, neck length, neck thickness, wing length, rump width, tail length, tarsus length, tarsus thickness and middle toe length) for males and females of 11 different domestic pigeon breeds: Bangladesh Indigenous, Racing Homer, Turkish Tumbler, Indian Lotan, Kokah, Mookee, Indian Fantail, Bokhara Trumpeter, Bombai, Lahore and Hungarian Giant House; Rock Pigeon (Columba livia) was also considered as wild relative for comparative purposes. Comparative results between males and females showed that only body weight, wing length and neck thickness were consistent with Rensch’s rule. The rest of trait did not present correlations. Among domestic pigeons, there can appear different expressions of dimorphism according to each trait, so it must be considered that Rensch’s rule vary when considering other traits than body weight.

Open Access Original Research Article

Parameters and States Estimates of COVID-19 Model Using Lagrange Polynomial, Least Square Approximation and Kenya Quarantine Data

Cyrus Gitonga Ngari, Grace Gakii Muthuri, Mirgichan Khobocha James

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 25-42
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1030287

Aims/ Objectives: To develop a compartment based mathematical model, fit daily quarantine data from Ministry of Health of Kenya, estimate individuals in latency and infected in general community and predict dynamics of quarantine for the next 90 days.
Study Design: Cross-sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: 13thMarch 2020 to 30th June 2020. 

Methodology: The population based model was developed using status and characteristic of COVID-19 infection. Quarantine data up to 30/6/2020 was fitted using integrating and differentiating theory of odes and numerical differentiation polynomials. Parameter and state estimates was approximated using least square. Simulations were carried out using ode Matlab solver. Daily community estimates of individuals in latency and infected were obtained together with daily estimate of rate of enlisting individual to quarantine center and their proportions were summarized.
Results: The results indicated that maximum infection rate was equal 0.892999 recorded on 28/6/2020, average infection rate was 0.019958 and minimum 0.00012 on 26/6/2020.
Conclusion: Predictions based on parameters and state averages indicated that the number of individuals in quarantine are expected to rise exponentially up to about 26,855 individuals by 130th day and remain constant up to 190th day.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Studies on Gonad Development, Fecundity and Oocyte Maturation of Spotted Snakehead, Channa punctatus (Bloch, 1793) in Different Water Bodies

Md. Almamun Farid, M. Anisur Rahman, Shammi Aktar, Moumita Choudhury, Syeda Maksuda Yeasmin, Anusree Biswas, M. Aminur Rahman

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 75-87
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1030292

The present study was carried out to compare gonad development, oocyte maturation and fecundity of the spotted snakehead (Channa punctatus) fish during January to November 2015 in different water bodies (such as pond, Joghati baor and Bhairab river) in Jashore, Bangladesh. Mean GSI (gonadosomatic index) values of the female C. punctatus during January, March, May, July, September and November were significantly highest in pond, followed by those in Joghati baor and the lowest in Bhairab river. Absolute fecundity during the month of July in pond, baor and river was 30,006±2,027, 23,629±2,356 and 16,659±2,486, respectively, and the relative fecundity was 5064±183, 4865±106 and 4641±138 eggs, respectively. Mean ova diameter in pond, baor and river in March was 0.25±0.04 mm, 0.16±0.02 mm and 0.21±0.03 mm; in May was 0.36±0.03 mm, 0.29±0.03 mm and 0.23±0.04 mm; in July was 1.06±0.06 mm, 0.95±0.05 mm and 0.87±0.03 mm; and in September was 0.84±0.04 mm, 0.82±0.03 mm and 0.72±0.05 mm, respectively. Mean GSI values of the male C. punctatus during January, March, May, July, September and November were significantly higher in pond than those in baor and river, respectively. The mean highest GSI for female was found to be 6.06±0.11 in pond during the month of July, while the lowest GSI of 0.30±0.08 was in Bhairab river during November. The highest GSI value for male was obtained to be 0.70±0.16 in pond during the month of July, while the lowest GSI of 0.12±0.03 was found in Bhairab river during January. However, significant differences (P<0.05) were found in GSI values, absolute fecundity, relative fecundity and ova diameter of C. punctatus during different months in pond, Joghati baor and Bhairab river. The findings from the present research would immensely be useful for captive breeding and seed production techniques of C. punctatus for aquaculture production, sustainable management and species conservation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Extracts from Two Combretaceae Anogeissus leiocarpus (DC) Guill. and Perr. and Terminalia macroptera Guill. and Perr. on the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Pathogenicity in Nicotiana tabacum L.

Safiétou Ouédraogo, Razacswendé Fanta Ouédraogo, Vincent Ouedraogo, Pierre Alexandre Eric Djifaby Sombié, Moussa Compaoré, Martin Kiendrebeogo

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 88-96
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1030294

Aims: This study aimed to assess the ability of methanolic bark extracts from medicinal plants, Anogeissus leiocarpus and Terminalia macroptera for reducing Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 bacteria pathogenicity in Nicotiana tabacum.

Study Design: A complete randomized block design was used with 3 replications including 3 infiltrations modes: PAO1 only, PAO1+ A. leiocarpus extract, PAO1+ T. macroptera extract; the control plants didn’t received infiltration.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Chemistry Applied and Plant Ecophysiology Laboratory, University Joseph KI-ZERBO between November 2018 and May 2019.

Methodology: Six weeks old tobacco plants previously cultured in vitro were infected via infiltration of bacterial inoculum with or not plant extract into Arabidopsis leaves. Ten days after the infection, phenotypic and biochemical leaves parameters were evaluated. The ImageJ software was used to measure discolored and necrotic surfaces. Chlorophyll a and b, proteins, total polyphenols and total flavonoids foliar contents were determined by spectrophotometry.

Results: The extracts of plants used reduced significantly the severity of chlorosis and necrosis. They also allowed to increase the chlorophyll a but lowered the total flavonoids contents. T. macroptera extract showed an important reduction potential of necrotic area and total flavonoid content, and led to a decrease of total polyphenol content. A. leiocarpus extract application improved the protein content.

This antibacterial activity seems attributable to the content in secondary metabolites including polyphenols acting alone or in synergy with those synthesized by tobacco. In addition, it appears that i) total polyphenols content make T. macroptera the most effective extract plant on foliar necrosis and that ii) perhaps other(s) class(es) of extract polyphenol, different of flavonoids, is (are) involved in the protective action on leaf 10 days after infection.

Conclusion: A. leiocarpus or T. macroptera extracts in the inoculum reduced chlorosis and necrosis damages thanks to infiltrated polyphenols but not enough to prevent damages completely.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formation of Frozen Blackcurrant Fruits Quality

N. Osokina, K. Kostetska, H. Gerasymchuk

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 97-112
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1030295

Aims: Fruits of a multivitamin culture of blackcurrant have a pronounced seasonality of consumption. The essence of the problem is in the scientific substantiation of the rational way of fruits freezing in order to preserve their quality.

Place and Duration of Study: The research was conducted during four years in the conditions of the laboratory of the Department of Technology of Storage and Processing of Plant Products at Uman National University of Horticulture and the workshop for rapid freezing of Uman canning plant.

Methodology: Prepared berries of the consumer degree of ripeness of Pilot Oleksandr Mamkin, Mynai Shmyriov, Novyna Prykarpattia, Biloruska solodka varieties in the string bags were frozen by slow (-20 to -22°С) and rapid (-30 to -32°С) methods, packed in paraffined boxes, polyethylene bags of 400–500 g by weight. Losses in fruit weight, content of ascorbic acid, dry soluble substances, sugars, acids, sugar-and-acid index were determined during and for 10 months of storage (-18°C).

Results: True chemical composition of the fruits took into account losses of their weight. It radically changed the level of indicators. Weight losses of the fruits was lower by a third during fast freezing, however, the overall indicators did not differ significantly until the end of storage: 11.9–12.1% by slow method against 10.1–11.2% by rapid way. The highest losses in the fruits were during the first 3 months, during 4–5 months – their level was stabilized and somewhat increased to the end of storage. Advantages by fruits packing in polyethylene bags were as follows: losses were 6–7 times lower than by string bags and 4–5 times – in paraffined boxes. Advantages of rapid freezing were in 1.2–1.6 times lower losses of the components of chemical composition. Usually, the frozen fruits of Biloruska solodka variety were better than other varieties under favourable weather conditions, they were not inferior.

Open Access Review Article

Organic Farming: Paradigm Shift during Pandemic to ‘Food Safety” Complying ‘Food Security” in India

Durga Prasad Mishra, Siba Prasad Mishra

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 63-74
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1030289

The organic farming is gaining worldwide acceptance since the conventional farming gratifies the demand of both food security and the food safety especially during the pandemic year 2020 of COVID 19. Though demographic rise demands for high yielding grains, fruits and spices but under present scenario it fails to satisfy the food safety. The high yielding highbred seeds, chemical fertilizers and pesticides are degrading the fertility gradually and raising health concerns and do not meet the cosmetic standard. The organic farming is labour intensive with higher input costs and lower yields as compared to conventional farming yet it is in demand for its food safety. The search is to uncover whether the yields from Organic farms in India is capable to ameliorates manage pests and diseases, economic feasibility, food safety, nutrient requirement, environmental sustainability, augment food quality. The influence of shut downs are revealed. The producers face the challenges of certification, beating income during transition, seeds and manures and marketing etc. In India, the end produce of organic products are highly expensive and have high end consumers. The cost amelioration needs to be attended by government institutions as tribal and hilly areas in India like Sikkim, Meghalaya and other tribal areas. The tribal population has high organic farming inputs, logistics facilities and huge organic produces from food grains to fishes and cosmetics and spices. But the novice cropping pattern needs “cluster approach for organic lands (ODOP)”, “compensation for incomes losses during transition phase”, “active participation of Corporate houses and NGOs”, “assuring adequate return on investments”, for registering phenomenal rise in the organic farming in India.