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Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical, Microbial and Sensory Characteristics of Yoghurt Processed by Adding Various Formulations of Gum Arabic and Guar Gum

Zakaria A. Salih, Azhari Siddeeg, Ammar Al- Farga, Rasha M. A. Mousa, S. A. Husam, A. S. Al Zubair

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 33-44
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1130297

Yoghurt is one of the most popular fermented dairy products widely consumed all over the world. The present study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical, microbial and sensory characteristics of yoghurt produced by added various levels of Gum Arabic and Guar gum (stabilizers). Physicochemical characteristics, microbial characteristics and sensory evaluation of processed yoghurt samples were conducted under laboratory conditions by standard methods. The results showed that yoghurt produced by the addition of Gum Arabic at concentrations (0.2, 0.35, and 0.5%) had less serum separation (1.6, 1.4, and 3.3 ml/l) after 9 days compared with that produced by adding Guar gum (4.5., 3.1., 0.0 ml/lit), respectively, and their mixture (4.3., 6.1. and 3.5 ml/l). Results reported significant differences in pH values (4.9, 4.5, and 3.9) during storage (0, 3, and 9 days), respectively for all types of stabilizers added. The results illustrated significant differences in total solid (7–8%) at different concentrations during the storage period. The study showed no significant difference in stabilizers (Gum Arabic and Guar Gum). The effect of storage on microbial characteristics was determined and the results showed that all microbial characteristics except coliform bacteria showed a significant decrease in the supplemented yoghurt samples compared with those of control yoghurt, while no effect with stabilizer concentration on microbial characteristics. Sensory characteristics (texture, color, and overall acceptability) were significantly improved, while the flavor was not affected with type and concentrations of stabilizers, but affected with storage period. Yoghurt processed with the addition of Gum Arabic had best quality characteristics than yoghurt made with addition Guar gum and a mixture of them. The study recommended doing more researches in rheological, microbial, and sensory characteristics to improve the quality of yoghurt.

Open Access Original Research Article

Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and/or Celery (Apium graveolens L.) Leaves Aqueous Extracts Role in Opposition to Drinking Contaminated Water Induced Male Rats Urinary Stones and Renal Deteriorations

Alyae M. S. Gabal

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 52-65
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1130299

Aims: The current research was designed to explore the role of basil and/or celery leaves aqueous extracts against urinary stones (urolithiasis) and renal deteriorations induced by drinking water contaminated with ethylene glycol (EG) and ammonium chloride (AC) in male rats.

Place and Duration of Study: The Medical Research Center of the Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt. The experiment duration was 35 days, 7 days for acclimatization followed by 28 days experimentation.

Methodology: Fifty-five adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were classified randomly into 5 groups of ten animals each, except urolithiatic control group which contained 15 rats. Rats were treated as follow: Group I: healthy control group (HCG), rats drank distilled water and received a placebo 1 ml distilled water daily by intra-gastric tube ; Group II: urolithiatic control group (UCG), rats drank distilled water containing ( 0.75% EG and 1% AC ) and the access to water was ad libitum and received 1 ml distilled water daily by intra-gastric tube.; Group III : urolithiatic rats supplemented with aqueous basil extract(U+ABE), rats drank distilled water containing ( 0.75% EG and 1% AC) and the access to water was ad libitum and supplemented with (200mg/kg body weight) aqueous basil extract daily by intra-gastric tube.; Group IV: urolithiatic rats supplemented with aqueous celery extract(U+ACE), rats drank distilled water containing ( 0.75% EG and 1% AC) and the access to water was ad libitum and supplemented with (200mg/kg body weight) aqueous celery extract daily by intra-gastric tube. ; Group V: urolithiatic rats supplemented with aqueous basil and celery extract(U+ABE+ACE) , rats drank distilled water containing ( 0.75% EG and 1% AC) and the access to water was ad libitum and supplemented with (100mg/kg body weight) aqueous basil extract and (100mg/kg body weight) aqueous celery extract daily by intra-gastric tube. At the end of the study 28 days, 24 h urine samples were collected from each individual animal and then rats were sacrificed under sodium barbiturate anesthesia. Blood samples were collected from the hepatic portal vein, serum was separated for biochemical analyses. Kidney samples were separated for tissue homogenate preparation, urinary bladder and ureters were separated and opened to collect urinary calculi.

Results: Research results documented that basil and celery aqueous extracts contain significant amount of active constituents including flavonoids and polyphenols.  Drinking water contaminated with EG and AC caused significant decrease (p≤0.01) in urine volume, pH, urinary and renal magnesium levels with significant increase (p≤0.01) in urinary and renal calcium, phosphate and oxalate levels. It also caused significant increase in kidney function tests [serum creatinine, uric acid, urea, as well as cystatin C] levels .Also renal enzyme activities of [acidic phosphatase (ACP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)] activities were significantly increased (p≤0.01) with significant decrease in renal lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. Water contamination also induced renal mitochondrial dysfunction (decreased complex-1 activity), apoptosis (increased caspase-3 activity) in association with a state of renal oxidative stress [increased renal malondialdehyde (MDA) level related to decreased renal reduced glutathione (GSH)level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity].Inflammation [increased renal tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF- α) and interleukin 18 (IL-18)] with suppressed immune function [decreased serum immunoglobulin (IgG and IgM)] levels were observed in urolithiatic control group. As a result of biochemical changes resulted from EG and AM administration mineral precipitation and urinary stones formation was observed in urolithiatic control group. Oral administration of aqueous basil and /or celery extracts to urolithiatic rats improved urine analysis parameters, renal functions, renal enzymes activities and mitochondrial function. Aqueous extracts also counteracted renal oxidative stress, inflammation, suppressed immune response and urinary stones formation.

Conclusion: Research results proved that aqueous basil and/or celery extracts counteracted and ameliorated urinary stones formation and renal deteriorations associated with drinking water contaminated with EG and AC due to their content of active constituents including flavonoids and polyphenols. The most significant improvements were recorded in the group supplemented with both extracts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Serological and Molecular Characterisation of Virus Infecting Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in Adim-Biase, Cross River State, Nigeria

O. I. Eyong, E. E. Ekpiken, G. M. Ubi, A. O. Alobi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 66-72
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1130300

Watermelon, Citrullus lanatus, (Thunb.) is an annual crop in the Cucurbitaceae family grown for it fruits. It nutritional and medical uses helps in combating some illnesses and maintaining good health. The production of this crop in Nigeria is seriously under threat by virus disease. A survey of some farms in Adim, Biase Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria during the 2019 planting season revealed mosaic and chlorotic symptoms. Mechanical inoculation was performed on young seedlings of Cucumeropsis mannii from watermelon samples showing viral symptoms and latter tested against the universal potyvirus antiserum and further detected by RT-PCR assay using cylindrical inclusion (CI) primer. The amplified cDNA was cloned and the nucleotide sequence determined. The serology result showed that there was positive reaction against the potyvirus antiserum confirming it to be a potyvirus. The gene sequence analysis revealed 86% sequence identity with Algerian watermelon mosaic virus. This is the first report of Algerian watermelon mosaic virus strain infecting watermelon in Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Plant Growth Regulators Affecting Leaf Traits of Loquat Seedling

Muhammad Imam Surya, Lily Ismaini, Suluh Normasiwi, Dwinda Mariska Putri, Vandra Kurniawan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 73-85
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1130301

Leaf is a key functional traits that shows respond of changes in plant physiology. This experiment aimed to study the changes on the leaf traits of loquat seedling that treated with plant growth regulators (PGRs). Three types of PGRs, auxin (naphthalene acetic acid/NAA), gibberellin (gibberellic acid/GA3) and cytokinin (benzylaminopurine/BA) with four doses (0, 25, 50, 100 ppm) were sprayed onto the leaves of loquat seedling. We observed nine parameters, PGRs treatments were significantly affecting eight parameters, while there were one parameter is not significantly affected. The results showed that either in mature or young leaves, PGRs treatments were significantly affecting in eight parameters the growth and development of leaves, such as leaf surface area, specific leaf area, fresh and dry weight leaf, water content, number of stomata, size of stomata, chlorophyll and transpiration rate compared to control. These results gave general view that PGRs treatment might stimulate leaf growth and development including photosynthesis and respiration. However, PGRs was not significantly affecting the number of stomata in young leaves. The application of PGRs doses was not always inline with the mean value of each parameters and it could be linear or quadratic models. The findings of this research could provide the recommendation for application of PGRs during seedling growth, and theoretical basis for comparison between mature and young leaves after PGRs application.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Factors of Campylobacter coli Isolated from Chicken in Côte d’Ivoire

Goualié Gblossi Bernadette, Bakayoko Souleymane, Konan Marie-Pierre Laure

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 86-92
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1130302

Aims: Campylobacters species are major causes of gastroenteritis in human. The main risk factor of infection is consumption of contaminated or by cross-contaminated poultry meat. The aims of this study were to analyze antimicrobial profile and virulence factors associated to Campylobacter coli isolated from chicken’s ceaca in commercial slaughter in Abidjan.

Methodology: A total of 336 chicken ceaca samples were collected from market of two municipality of Abidjan and were examined by conventional microbiological methods and molecular test using PCR. The antibiotic susceptibility tests of the isolates were determined by disk diffusion method the presence of virulence genes was examined using simple PCR method.

Results: From these samples, 210/336 (62.50%) were positives for Campylobacter. Among the isolates, 53 strains confirmed as C. coli by using PCR detection were used for phenotypic and genotypic analysis. Of these strains, 51/53 were positive for one or more antibiotics molecules tested. The highest rate of antimicrobial resistance was found for nalidixic acid 51/53 (96.22%), tetracyclin 49/53 (92.45%) and ciprofloxacin 38/53 (71.69%). Moreover, MDR including 3, 4, 5 and 6 antibiotics families was detected in 11/53 (20.75%) of isolates. On the other hand, detection of virulence gene shows presence of cadF gene in 86.01% of isolates while 82.21% were positive for the three cdt (A, B and C) genes.

Conclusion: We reported in this study the presence of high pathogenic Campylobacter coli contamination of the studied chickens. Molecular identification of the bacteria was performed and determination of high resistance to antimicrobials of the fluoroquinolone family was revealed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ovipositional Behaviour of Two Fruit Flies, Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus, in Seven Fruit Hosts in the Laboratory

Ester Marques de Sousa, Léo Rodrigo Ferreira Louzeiro, Miguel Francisco de Souza- Filho, Adalton Raga

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 93-102
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1130303

Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) are the most commonly found fruit fly species in fruit crops in Brazil. Both polyphagous species show similar host ranges, but specific knowledge regarding the ovipositional preference of either species is scarce. The present study aims to evaluate, in the laboratory, ovipositional behaviours in seven fruit host submitted to infestation by A. fraterculus and C. capitata. Except for C. capitata in Tahiti acid lime, the number of punctures containing eggs exceeded the number of punctures without eggs. The highest values for eggs per puncture were obtained in Fuyu persimmon, for which averages of 4.06 and 50.09 eggs per puncture were deposited by A. fraterculus and C. capitata, respectively. For A. fraterculus, the infestation ranking, based on the number of eggs per puncture from high to low, was Fuyu persimmon > papaya > Tahiti acid lime > carambola > coffee > guava > sweet orange. For C. capitata, the infestation ranking was Fuyu persimmon > carambola > papaya > guava > sweet orange > coffee > Tahiti acid lime. All punctures made to carambola and papaya contained eggs. Sweet orange exhibited the maximum number of punctures of A. fraterculus without egg deposition. The first day of medfly oviposition in Fuyu persimmon resulted in approximately three-fold more eggs per puncture than the second, third, and fourth days.

Open Access Original Research Article

Shelled-Molluscs Fauna at Abrolhos Bank (Brazil): Assessment of Both Total Species Richness and the Completed Distribution of Species Frequencies by Numerical Extrapolation of a Partial Survey

Jean Béguinot

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 103-117
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1130304

Numerous anthropogenic threats to the exceptionally rich coral-reef ecosystem at Abrolhos Bank (Brazil) arguably require implementing drastic conservation policy and meanwhile, urge for the prior detailed assessment of species richness and the species distribution across the Bank. Due to their unavoidable incompleteness, the already implemented “Rapid Assessment Surveys” at Abrolhos Bank deserve being completed, at least numerically, by implementing an appropriate extrapolation procedure, to avoid serious bias precisely due to ignoring both the number and the frequency distribution of those species still remaining undetected after Rapid Assessment Surveys. Complying with this concern, I report on the results of a numerical extrapolation of a previously achieved partial survey of the soft-bottom shelled-mollusc fauna at Abrolhos Bank. This numerical extrapolation provides least-biased estimates regarding not only the number of species which have remained unrecorded but, moreover, additional information on the respective frequencies of these still unrecorded species. As a result, the extrapolated total species richness at Abrolhos Bank reaches at least 435 shelled-molluscs species (instead of only 293 species actually recorded by the Rapid Assessment Survey), out of which 30 species (instead of 19) are expected to be Brazilian endemics. Accordingly, the soft-bottom shelled-mollusc fauna – an admittedly fairly reliable indicator for the whole marine biodiversity – definitely demonstrate the major biological interest of the whole reef ecosystem at Abrolhos Bank and the imperative necessity of implementing truly efficient conservation programs of this ecosystem.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotic Sensitivity Patterns and Plasmid Profile of Bacteria Isolated from Some Swimming Pools in Akure, Nigeria

A. K. Onifade, B. E. Francis, E. A. Aiyenuro

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 118-125
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1130305

Aims: To evaluate the antibiotic sensitivity profile of bacteria isolated from swimming pools in Akure, Nigeria.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, The Federal University of Technology, Akure Ondo state Nigeria between May and July, 2018.

Methodology: Water samples were collected in the morning and evening periods including weekends, from ten (10) swimming pools in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. The temperature and the pH of the water samples were measured and recorded at the time of collection. The types and loads of bacteria at different times of each day were determined for each of the swimming pools. Characterization and Identification of the various bacterial isolates were based on Gram-staining techniques and biochemical tests. Antibacterial susceptibility profile of the isolates was evaluated using standard methods. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus being resistant to multiple antibiotics were subjected to plasmid analysis.

Results: Bacteria isolated include; E. coli which had the highest occurrence rate (25%), S. aureus (18.75%), Shigella flexneri (14.50%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (14.50%), Proteus mirabilis (9.37%), Citrobacter freundii (6.25%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6.25%) Enterobacter faecalis (3.13%) and Salmonella bongori (3.13%). Ciprofloxacin, pefloxacin and tarivid recorded remarkable zones of inhibition against the isolates. The isolates were notably resistant towards chloramphenicol and septrin. The isolates were further examined for the presence of conjugative plasmids. The results showed that their resistance was chromosomal mediated.

Conclusion: Despite the fact that these pools meet the World Health Organization minimum requirement, Microbiological examination of the swimming pools revealed that most of them are contaminated with various pathogenic microorganisms which are potentially harmful.

Open Access Review Article

Curbing the Challenges in Recent Treatment Guideline for Early Management of Individuals with Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury: Recommendation for Therapeutic Hypothermia

Stephen Sunday Ede, Chigozie Ikenna Uchenwoke, Kayode Israel Oke, Chigozie Okwudili Obaseki, Franklin Onyedinma Irem

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-32
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1130296

Background: There has been little prognosis in improving function after a complete spinal lesion. The viewpoint that little can be done to improve motor function after complete SCI seems conceptually and scientifically part of the past. With advance in medicine, better neurological outcome is long expected.

Objectives: The purpose of this review is to explore the challenges in recent treatment guidelines’ for early management of patient with TSCI and to draw recommendation for Therapeutic hypothermia.

Methods: We conducted a scoping study review comprising 28 studies (2010 to 2020) to identify and examine the research literature related to challenges’ in recent treatment guidelines’ for early management of patient with TSCI.

Findings: 28 studies were reviewed. Most cited challenges were surgical timing (26%), followed by controversy on the application of MPS (28.6%). In each of the studies, various challenges of acute stage interventions were outline with poor common standards and recommendations for clinical practices. Surgical decompression (16 papers) was the most cited intervention. Generally, result showed that despite the progress that has been made in the acute management of patients with SCI, neurological outcomes have not improved significantly in recent decades.

Conclusion: Key early interventions are increasingly being recognized; combined Neuroprotective and neuroregenerative care are probably more effective and they inspire current and future research. We concluded that an evidence based guidelines for TH would help reduce the doom experience around complete SCIs. Thus there is a need to better define the beneficial effect of TH on the injured SCI.

Open Access Review Article

Nipping - A Simple Strategy to Boost The Yield - Review

S. Sanbagavalli, Jangam Bhavana, S. Pavithra

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 45-51
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1130298

Nipping is an important practice that removes the apical dominance and promotes the lateral branches which in turn improves the yield of crops. It plays a vital role for better maintenance of source and sink relationship and for ameliorating the productivity. Nipping can be done in two ways either by clipping manually or by spraying growth retardants such as mepiquat chloride, chlormequat chloride and maleic hydrazide. In this review, the influence of nipping on the growth and yield of various crops has been discussed.