Open Access Short communication

Deeper, Larger, More Common: Cryptic Coral Species Podabacia Benefits from Reef Recovery

Andreas Kunzmann, . Samsuardi, Ofri Johan, Karin Springer

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 41-44
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1230309

In 2000 a protected area of 20,000 ha was established in West Sumatra, Indonesia (MPA Pulau Pieh) and the partial reef recovery is well documented. During monitoring of destructed reefs, a new cryptic mushroom coral species, Podabacia kunzmanni, was detected. It is not common, with rather occasional occurrence and most specimens are small. During recent visits in 2018 and 2019, the authors detected numerous specimens, mainly at three locations within the MPA Pulau Pieh, mainly at Pulau Pandan. Most individuals were found in greater depth, down to 18 m, reaching diameters of up to 20 cm. With regard to size, depth distribution and abundance, three new records can be established for this species. There are two potential explanations for finding them mainly on dead reefs: either they are better survivors or they are better colonizers of dead coral substrata. The team is presently collecting more data on the distribution and the reasons behind the sudden rise in visibility.

Open Access Minireview Article

Performance of P2x7 and P2Y Purinergic Receptors as an Inhibiting Factor in the Progression of Pulmonary Neoplastic Cells

Matheus Ribeiro Bizuti, Laura Nyland Jostl, Emanuely Scramim, Keroli Eloiza Tessaro da Silva, Luana Paula Schio, Gabriela Vidotto Cavallieri, Renata Calciolari Rossi, Débora Tavares de Resende e Silva

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 56-62
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1230311

Different pathological processes are considered in lung cancer, such as nicotine deposition, oxidative stress, deregulation of metal ions and chronic inflammation. Purine signaling is involved in all processes, suggesting the importance of nucleotide receptors (P2X7 and P2Y) and adenosine receptors present in lung cells. The accumulation of toxic substances promotes chronic inflammation and cellular alteration, which induces the release of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) in the extracellular space, thus stimulating P2X7 receptors. The activation of P2X7 promotes an increase in the synthesis and release of some pro-inflammatory mediators. P2Y works by promoting the increase of intracellular calcium levels and, P2X7, changing cell permeability. Thus, drugs can be developed with a specific targeting for such recipients, thus provid additional therapeutic options to those existing.

Open Access Minireview Article

Two Faces of Regulatory T Cells: From Immune Defense to Tumoral Progression

S. S. D. E. Medeiros, L. G. De Souza, W. M. Souza, M. G. C. Mayeiro, G. R. Degasperi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 112-125
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1230317

T cells are the most important cellular element of human immunity defending against virus, bacteria, non-self-tissue and tumor cells. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are the major responsible for self-tolerance maintenance, especially those expressing forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3) transcription factor. Tregs suppressive function is established through several mechanisms that are essential to immune system homeostasis, but also related to tumoral microenvironment. Recent studies have provided deeper understanding of Tregs role in cancer as well as promising therapeutic targets for improving prognosis in cancer patients. This review approaches Tregs subtypes, functions and its implication in tumor progression.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Salinity Level and Some Nutrients in Different Depths of Soil at Kalapara Upazila of Patuakhali District

Sabnaj Khanam, Mohammad Asadul Haque, Md. Fazlul Hoque, Md. Tariqul Islam

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1230306

Salinity intrusion is one of the major environmental issues throughout the world. The spatial variability of salt accumulation through the soil profile was studied at Kalapara Upazila, Patuakhali district, Bangladesh. The soil samples were collected from 30 locations covering six villages: Solimpur, Umidpur, Diaramkhola, Hazipur, Monoharpur and Puranmohipur of Kalapara Upazila, Patuakhali district. From each spot, soil samples were collected from two soil depths (0-5cm and 5-10 cm).The study was therefore consisted (30 locations and 2 soil depths) 60 soil samples. The soils were strongly acidic having mean pH value of 4.11, and 4.83 in 0-5, and 5-10 cm soil depth, respectively. In 0-5 cm soil depth, the EC1:5 values were 5.80 dS/m. The EC1:5 values were drastically reduced to 1.86dS/m in 5-10 cm soil depth. The available P content in 0-5 and 5-10 cm soil depth was 21.3 and 24.1 ppm indicating the less availability of P in the surface soil. Available sulphur content found in 0-5 cm soil depth was 28.5 meq/100 g soil ppm which reduced by 63% in 5-10 cm soil depth. The Na+ content in surface soil was 23.03 meq/100 g soils where as in subsurface soil it was 16.7 meq/100 g soils that indicated Na affects plants growth in the study area. With the increase of soil depth exchangeable K content was gradually decreased. Based on the electrical conductivity and different nutrients Monoharpur, Puranmohipur, Diaramkhola village were found seriously affected by salinity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Pre-sowing Treatments and Abiotic Stress on the Germination of Ceratonia siliqua Seeds of Four Moroccan Biomes

Meriem Yatim, Rahal El Kahkahi, Ikram Es- Sbata, Taoufik El- Askri, Samia ElOirdi, Tarik Lakhlifi, Abdelhaq Belhaj, Majida Hafidi, Rachid Zouhair

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 11-31
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1230307

In order to improve the germination rate of carob seeds (Ceratonia siliqua L.), we studied the morphological characteristics of the fruits (pod and seeds, integumentary hardness and tolerance to abiotic stress of the seeds) of seven ecotypes of carob trees from four regions of Morocco. The fruits of its seven populations were studied according to seven discriminative characteristics relating to the pods (length, width, thickness, total number of seeds, total weight of the pulp, seeds  per pod and yield of pods per tree) and four discriminative characteristics relating to the seeds namely length, width, thickness and total fresh weight of seeds. Integumentary hardness was evaluated by pretreating the seeds with boiling water and 95% sulfuric acid. Similarly, we also followed the evolution of water absorption by the seeds during 4 days and we evaluated on these seeds pre-treated, effects of different incubation temperatures (10°C, 25°C and 40°C), their tolerance to different concentrations of NaCl, PEG6000 (0MPa, -0.5MPa, -1MPa and -1.5MPa ) and their reversibility. The morphological characterization of the fruits allowed us to group the populations studied into three groups. Soaking the carob seeds in sulfuric acid for 20 minutes improved the germination rate and time. The evolution of water absorption makes it possible to distinguish two phases. The first phase is obtained during the first 24 hours and characterized by a rapid penetration of water, and second phase which lasts over the last 72 hours and which is characterized by a slow entry of water. The optimum temperature for germination of seeds from all provenances is 25°C. The germination behavior of carob under conditions of osmotic stress demonstrated a highly significant treatment effect (concentration of PEG6000) on the rate and mean time of germination and revealed that this species is very resistant to drought. This study also showed that, salt has a depressive effect on the average germination rate, time and length of radicles. The results of the reversibility test showed that the germination of seeds transferred from osmotic stress and salt stress (-0.5, -1 and -1.5MPa) and from the temperature of 40°C. is totally inhibited. On the other hand, seeds transferred from a temperature of 15°C resume germination under optimal conditions. This study allowed us to select a variety with high yield and tolerant to various biotic constraints.

Open Access Original Research Article

Selecting Bacillus spp. Antagonist of Fungal Phytopathogen Phytophthora infestans Causing Tomato Late Blight

Trang Le Vu Khanh, Le Nguyen Tan, Mai Le Thi, My Pham Thi, Trieu Ly Hai

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 32-40
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1230308

The late blight caused by phytopathogen Phytophthora infestans has been one of the serious disease-causing yields and quality losses of tomato production in Vietnam. To control the fungal disease, chemical fungicides have been overused causing concerns about the ecological risks and human health, especially fungal resistance. Therefore, using natural products from beneficial microorganisms as a safer strategy is getting attention. The present study focused on the isolation of indigenous Bacillus sp. with potential antifungal activity against Phytophthora infestans with the aim to contribute to the diversification and improving the quality of biological control products Bacillus spp. in Vietnam. From 21 strains Bacillus spp. (marked BV1 - BV21) being isolated from different tomato farms in Danang City, Vietnam, Bacillus velezensis BV 16 was selected based on the most potential antagonistic strain in controlling fungal plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans attacking the tomato tree. The strongest inhibition of mycelial growth on P. infestans of Bacillus velezensis BV16 was recorded with 88.89% of growth inhibition percentage. The results also showed that strong activity of chitinase, protease and cellulase in the BV16 strain are consistent with the novel growth control of Phytophthora infestans.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochar, Bentonite and Potassium Humate Effects on Saline Soil Properties and Nitrogen Loss

S. A. Abdeen

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 45-55
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1230310

Aim: In order to study the effect of biochar, bentonite and potassium humate on saline soil characteristics, barley growth and nitrogen loss, a column experiment was conducted. Addition of the above mention materials was hypothesized to improve the characteristics of saline soil and decrease nitrogen loss in the leachate solution.

Place and Duration of Study: Farm of Soils and Water Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt during the winter season of 2019.

Methodology: Biochar and bentonite were added with rates 0, 5 and 10; and the rates of potassium humate were 0, 5 and 10 Excess irrigations were implemented three times (on 12th, 24th, 36th days) during growing season. Leachate solution was collected after each excess irrigation from each column to determine nitrogen loss.

Results: Main results show that total organic carbon and soil porosity were increased by increasing the addition rates of the studied materials, especially at the high rates of biochar and bentonite. Also, the availability of water significantly increased. Addition of biochar and bentonite gave the highest decreasing in leachate solution volume. Nitrogen loss was decreased significantly at the highest rates of the studied materials, where the decrement percentage in leachate solution reached at 36.07%, 35.82 and 23.81 at the highest rates of biochar, bentonite and potassium humate, respectively. That led to increasing the retention of available nitrogen in saline soil. Fresh and dry weights of barley plants were increased significantly by increasing the addition rates of all amended materials. Macronutrients (NPK) content and uptake were increased significantly by increasing the addition rates of the studied materials.

Conclusion: Research results proved that changes in soil properties caused a significant increase in barley growth and nutrients uptake. Addition of biochar and bentonite were the best option for improving saline soil properties, barley growth and nutrients uptake and reduce nitrogen loss by improving nitrogen retention and decreasing the leachate volume.

Open Access Original Research Article

Endo-Parasites of Apparently Healthy Wild Birds in Kaduna State, Nigeria

Assam, Assam, Abdu, Salamatu, Paul, Abdu, Augustine, Ezealor

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 63-72
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1230312

Aims: Wildbirds interaction with poultry increases the likelihood of exchange of parasites between wild birds and poultry highlighting the need to understand wild bird endoparasites to reduce cross-infection at the wild bird-poultry interface. This study investigates the prevalence and diversity of endoparasites among wild birds in Kaduna State to provide baseline data on the wild birds' endoparasites which could be a source of infection to poultry.

Study Design: Wild birds in live wild bird markets, free-flying wild birds and semi-domesticated birds were the samples for endoparasites.

Place and Duration of Study: Birds were sampled in Kaduna State, Nigeria and the samples were analyzed at the helminthology laboratory of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria between April 2012 and December 2012. 

Methodology: Wild birds faecal samples were examined for endoparasites by the simple flotation method. 

Results: Of the 357 birds sampled, 36.4% were infected with at least one species of endoparasite. Charadriidae (7.1%) and Meleagris gallopavo (23.5%) had the lowest family and species prevalence respectively. Free flying, live poultry markets (LPM) and live wild bird markets (LWBM) birds had a prevalence of 39.1%, 37.2% and 34% respectively. The endoparasites identified were coccidia (30.5%), Ascaridia (5.9%), nematode larvae (0.8%), Capillaria (0.6%); Syngamus, Raillietinia and Trichuris (0.3% for each). There was a significant difference between the prevalence (p = 0.00), mean intensities (p = 0.00) and abundance (p = 0.01) of coccidia and Ascaridia. The prevalence   of multiple infections was 2.0% representing 5.4% of infected birds. The study is first to report  in Kaduna State, Nigeria of Trichuris in Anas platyrhynchos and Raillietina in Laniarius  barbarous.

Conclusion: Wild birds in Kaduna State, Nigeria harbours endoparasites of economic significance to poultry and there is the need for more study of these wild birds’ endoparasites at the wild bird–poultry interface.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Activity of Herbal Toothpaste against Organisms Causing Dental Caries

M. Shailaja Raj, R. Hema, Anitha Thomas

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 73-83
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1230313

Aim: Dental caries occurs as a result of acid produced by bacteria which destroys the enamel and underlying dentin. A study was carried out to isolate microorganisms that cause dental caries in patients belonging to different age groups and find out the antimicrobial activity of various toothpastes against them.

Study Design: Collection of samples for isolation of caries causing organisms, to identify them using biochemical tests and test the activity of herbal toothpastes against them.

Place and duration of study: Samples were collected from Krish Multispeciality Clinic and Prashanth Dental Clinic, Nagole between June’2016 – December’2017 and worked on, at Microbiology Department, St. Francis College for women, Hyderabad.

Methodology: Ten samples of each age group from 10-20 yrs., 20-40 yrs. and 40-60 yrs. were isolated. The organisms were identified by carrying out various biochemical tests according to Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology and molecular characterization    based on 16s rRNA typing. Identified organisms were used to test the antimicrobial activity   of herbal toothpastes by employing agar well diffusion method. ANOVA is used for statistical analysis.

Results and Conclusion: Patanjali herbal products like Dantkanti are gaining lot of importance and have become a part of life of common man because of their effectivity. Our studies revealed that out of the various toothpastes tested, Patanjali toothpaste had good antimicrobial activity against all the isolates. On comparative analysis of f-ratio and P significant value (< .05.) of all pairs, it is observed that Patanjali has good antimicrobial activity against all isolates tested. The efficacy of Meswak is almost similar to that of Patanjali.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on the Knowledge Level and Extent of Adoption of Plant Protection Measures against Blast Disease of Rice by the Farmers of Indian Sundarbans

Sabita Nath, Bholanath Mondal, Palash Mondal

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 84-97
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1230314

The study was conducted to know the knowledge and adoption level of plant protection measures against blast disease among 80 respondent paddy growers in the blocks of North and South 24 Parganas of Sundarbans. About 48.75% of the respondents had medium knowledge. Majority of the respondents (75%) knew about blast disease of rice and its key identifying symptom. The 67.5% farmers were having the knowledge about the fungicides used against the disease (Tricyclazole 75 WP, Carbendazim 50 WP, Hexaconazole 5EC), and 22.5% of the farmers knowing about the recommended dose of fungicide application.  The 28.75% of the respondents also knew that the fungicide should be applied at the first appearance of the disease. Further, it has been found that the adoption level of plant protection measures against blast disease of rice was medium (47.5%). Nearly 53.75% of the respondents practicing rice cultivation were in the middle age group of 31-50 years.  Most of the respondent had either 0.13-0.27ha (22.5%) or 0.40-0.67ha (37.5%) landholding wherein they were practicing rice cultivation. Almost all the respondents (100%) possessed Knapsack or hand sprayer for fungicide application. Climatic vagaries, lack of knowledge about to the number of sprays and concerning technology application, non-availability of fungicide on time, lack of facility at the nearby place were the major constraints as expressed by 95, 83.75, 85, 90, and 95 per cent of respondents, respectively. The high cost of chemicals and expensiveness and non-availability of labour during peak cropping period were also the major constraints as expressed by 60 and 83.75 per cent of the respondents, respectively. There was a significant relationship between age, education, landholding, social, mass media and participation in extension activities with knowledge and adoption levels of the farmers of the Indian Sundarbans.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation through New Approach on Plants with Antihypertensive Properties Used by the Herbalists in the Maritime Region of Togo

Souleymane Compaoré, Koffi Koudouvo, Alimata Bancé, Raïnatou Boly, Lazare Belemnaba, Noufou Ouédraogo, Sylvin Ouédraogo

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 98-111
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1230316

Like other countries in sub-Saharan Africa, hypertension is currently a public health problem in Togo. To decrease the insufficient of the methods previously used, a new survey technique, namely ATRM (Achat en Triplet des Recettes Médicinales), has been proposed. This study aims to contribute to a better knowledge of traditional remedies for their safe and sustainable use in the management of hypertension. ATRM method applied with 34 herbalists of 17 markets in maritime and Lomé-Commune health regions. Plant species and parts used, preparation and administration methods and market characteristics of plants were collected. In total, 62 plant species (56 genera and 30 families) were identified from 102 collected recipes. These recipes included 70% single plant recipes and 30% associated plant recipes, showing the influence of the ATRM method in reducing the number of plants in the recipes. Lippia multiflora Moldenke (23.50%) was the most used plant species followed by Uvaria chamae P. Beauv (8.20%), Acanthospermum hispidum DC. (4.92%), Lannea kerstingii A. Rich. (3.83%), Vitex doniana Sweet (3.83%), and Senna sieberiana DC. (3.28%). Leafy stems (33.33%), roots (20.83%) and trunk bark (16.67%) were the most used organs. The recipes were mainly prepared as a decoction and administered orally. In the transit market, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (7.12 USD/kg), Senna occidentalis (L.) Link (4.98 USD/kg), Senna angustifolia Vahl (3.73 USD/kg) and Gardenia aqualla Stapf. & Hutch. (3.56 USD/kg) were the most expensive plants. 59.18% of the plant parts sold were roots, fruits, seeds, trunk bark and whole plants. These results suggest, on the one hand, an extensive biological investigation for effective management of hypertension. On the other hand, there is an urgent need to preserve the species whose vital organs were heavily sold.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agronomic Performance of Corn Cultivars in Low-Altitude in the Cerrado-Amazon Ecotone

Weder Ferreira dos Santos, Lara Rythelle Souza Bequiman, Lucas Carneiro Maciel, Joênes Mucci Peluzio, Osvaldo José Ferreira Júnior, Layanni Ferreira Sodré, Talita Pereira de Souza Ferreira, Fernando Barnabé Cerqueira, Lucas Alves de Faria

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 126-133
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1230318

e of this study was to evaluate the agronomic performance of corn cultivars for grain production in the south at low altitude in the Cerrado-Amazon ecotone.

Place: The research was carried out at Sítio Vitória (8°18'32.0"S, 50°36'58.0"W, 278 MASL), in the south of the state of Pará, Brazil.

Study Design: The experimental design was randomized blocks with twelve treatments and three replications. The treatments were eight corn hybrids: AG 1051, AG 8088, BM 3051, BR 2022, BR 205, BR 206, BRS 3046 and PR 27D28; and four open pollination populations: AL BANDEIRANTE, ANHEMBI, CATIVERDE and M 274.

Methodology: Sowed on January 28, 2019. The following characteristics were evaluated: ear height, plant height, number of grains per row, ear diameter, ear length, ear weight and grain yield.

Results: The cultivars showed a difference for all traits. The grain yield of the cultivars ranged from 4,567 kg ha-1 (BR 205) to 9,450 kg ha-1 (AG 1051).

Conclusion: The hybrids AG 1051 and BM 3051 were the ones that stood out the most, had the best performance in the Cerrado-Amazon ecotone.

Open Access Original Research Article

Problems Encountered during In vitro Culture Establishment in Terminalia arjuna

Meena Choudhary, Inder Dev Arya, Sarita Arya

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 154-160
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1230320

The main aim of present study was to overcome the problems associated with the in vitro culture initiation in Terminalia arjuna. The micropropagation of tree species is not easy as shrubs and herbs. Many problems encountered from explant collection to in vitro culture establishment. The problems that have been occurred during T. arjuna micropropagation were culture contamination, phenolic exudation, bud growth inhibition, shoots yellowing and leaf fall. All these problems have been solved by applying certain treatments prior to explant collection and inoculation. The mother tree was lopped in November months (six months prior to explant collection) to remove any inhibitory substance and release bud growth. Different sterilizing agents were used to minimize the bacterial and fungal contamination. Some modification in culture media (use of different concentration of NH4NO3 and KNO3 salts and adenine sulphate) was done. Surface sterilization of nodal explants collected from lopped branches with 0.1% HgCl2 for 8 min., treatment with chilled antioxidant solution (Ascorbic acid, Citric acid and PVP) and half strength of NH4NO3 and KNO3 salts of MS medium supported 100% bud break response with proliferation of green and healthy in vitro shoots. Removing these hurdles already in the initial stage of micropropagation is very important and maximize mass in vitro propagation of this medicinally important Arjun tree. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Structural Characteristics of Natural Limestone Forests in Cat Ba Biosphere Reserves, Vietnam

Tran Hai Long, I. M. Sangjun, Trieu Thai Hung, Qiwen Li, Ninh Viet Khuong, Nguyen Van Tuan, Tran Hoang Quy, Trinh Ngoc Bon, Tran Cao Nguyen, Le Thi Thu Hang, Tran Van Do

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 161-172
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1230321

An ecological understanding of natural forests after anthropogenic intervention is important for sustainable forest management. This study analyzed the overstory characteristics (species composition, growth, and diameter distribution) and regeneration (species richness, density, and height distribution) in natural limestone forests in Cat Ba Biosphere Reserve, Vietnam. Data were collected in nine study plots established in selective-logged (SLF), clear-cut (CCF), and unlogged (UF) forests. Results indicated that the overstory characteristics of SLF and CCF were lower than that of UF (species richness was 33 in UF, 20 in SLF, and 16 in CCF; DBH was 20.6 ±13.7 cm in UF, 16.9 ±9.7 cm in SLF, and 10.5 ±3.8 cm in CCF; Basal area was 38.2 m2 ha-1 in UF, 24.0 m2 ha-1 in SLF, and 11.4 m2 ha-1 in CCF). For regeneration, species richness also varied from UF (25) to SLF (13) and CCF (5), while seedling density reversely increased. We concluded that a 20-year restoration was insufficient for artificially disturbed forests to recover their ecological functions, regardless of logging intensities and techniques applied.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sperm Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidants Activities as Predictors of Pregnancy Outcomes after Density Gradient Centrifugation in Medical Assistance Procreation

Hasnae Debbarh, Smahane Aboulmaouahib, Malak Jamil, Khadija Mounaji, Omar Sefrioui, Noureddine Louanjli, Rachida Cadi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 173-182
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1230322

Aims: The purpose of this study was to assess the Density Gradient Centrifugation (DGC) effectiveness in spermatozoa selection by analyzing the oxidative stress profile and in pregnancy prediction outcomes of In Vitro Fertilization (IVF).

Study Design: This was a prospective study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biology, laboratory of Physiopathology Molecular Genetic and Biotechnology. Ain Chock Faculty of Sciences, Hassan II University, Casablanca. And Anfa Fertility Center Private Clinic of in vitro fertilization and Endoscopic Surgery, Casablanca.

Methodology: We included 101 men patients subdivided into three groups. Group A with normal sperm parameters and a positive pregnancy; Group B with normal sperm parameters and a negative pregnancy; Group C with abnormal sperm parameters and a negative pregnancy. After DGC, lipid peroxidation (MDA) level, as well as the antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT), were evaluated.

Results: Patients with normal and abnormal sperm parameters showed that MDA level, and antioxidant enzymes activities increased significantly from the pellet, to 80 %, and from 80% to 40% fractions. In addition, lipid peroxidation and enzymes activities levels were significantly lower in patients with positive pregnancy than in patients with negative pregnancy and especially those with abnormal spermatic parameters.

Conclusion: The DGC would select sperm not only motile and viable but with less oxidative stress. Moreover, the rate of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities could differentiate between patients with normal and abnormal spermatic parameters and between patients with positive and negative pregnancy outcome.

Open Access Original Research Article

GC–MS Analysis and Antimalarial Activity of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Carica papaya against Plasmodium berghei NK65 Infection in Swiss Mice

Johnson Oshiobugie Momoh, Olanrewaju Anthony Damazio, Omolayo Monsurat Oyegbami

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 183-197
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1230323

Aim: The study determines the GC-MS and the anti-malarial activity of methanolic leaf extract of Carica papaya in Swiss mice infected with Plasmodium berghei NK65.

Study Design: The experimental study lasted for five weeks.

Place of Study: Department of Chemical Sciences (Biochemistry Unit) and animal House unit in Department of Biological Sciences (Environmental Biology Unit), School of Pure and Applied Sciences, Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Lagos, Nigeria.

Study Design and Methodology: AAS, GC-MS and phytochemical analyses were determined in the plant extract using standard procedures. Thirty-six Swiss mice of both sexes (26–32g) were divided into six groups of six mice each. Group A (normal control) was untreated and uninfected. Groups B–F were intraperitoneally inoculated with P. berghei NK65, while group B (disease control) was untreated-infected group, group C and D (standard drugs) received standard drugs, chloroquine (10 mg/kg B.WT) and artesunate (10 mg/kg B.WT); groups E and F received methanolic leaf extract of C. papaya at 400 and 600 mg/kg B.WT respectively. WBC, HCT and HGB were determined in the whole blood using BC-3200 Auto Hematology Analyzer. MDA, TP, SOD % inhibition, SOD unit, CAT and GSH were all determined in the liver homogenate using standard procedures.

Results: The AAS analysis shows that the extract contains minerals like: potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron and sodium. Twenty-six compounds were identified to be present in the extract using GC-MS analysis. The active compounds with their retention time, molecular weight, molecular formula, peak area and activities were predicted. The three major prevailing compounds and their percentage abundance are: squalene (27.28%), neophytadiene (12.71%) and phytol (10.16%) respectively. The phytochemical analysis indicates the presence of tannins, saponins, alkaloids, phenolic compounds etc. The C. papaya extract caused 56.76% and 75.53%  significant (P<0.05) reduction in parasitemia at 400 and 600 mg/kg body weight respectively while chloroquine exerted 92.86% and artesunate exerted 90.67% reduction at 10 mg/kg body weight respectively carried out during  curative test. The extract significantly (P<0.05) reduced WBC count and increase HGB and HCT concentration in the treated mice compared to the infected untreated mice. There were significant (p<0.05) increase in the TP, SOD % inhibition, SOD unit, GSH and CAT levels in the liver homogenate of animals treated with chloroquine, artesunate and extract of C. papaya compared to the untreated mice. MDA level was significantly decreased in the malaria treated mice compared to the untreated mice.

Conclusions: The study shows that methanolic leaf extract of Carica papaya possess antimalarial activity in Swiss mice infected with Plasmodium berghei NK 65.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Characteristics and Nutrient Utilization by Meat Type Chicken Fed Fusarium oxysporum Degraded Brewer Dried Grain

T. E. Lawal, `, F. A. Aderemi, O. M. Alabi, O. A. Oguntunji, M. O. Ayoola, T. P. Olanipekun, S. G. Ademola

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 198-204
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1230324

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Fusarium oxysporum degraded Brewer dried grain (BDG) on the performance and nutrient utilization ofbroiler chicken at starter and finisher phases. Undegraded and degraded (BDG) werewas used to compound rations for broiler birds for 8 weeks. The undegraded BDG was used at 7% inclusion level and the degraded BDG was used at 3, 5, and 7%. A total of 150 day old chicks were randomly selected and allocated for 5 treatments. Thirty 30 birds were allocated to each treatment with three replicates each. Fusarium oxysporum was inoculated into BDG through Solid State Fermentation for a period of 7 days. This was used as degraded sample. There was improvement in the crude protein, ash, and gross energy after biodegradation. Biodegradation led to reduction in crude fibre, cellulose, hemicellulose, and detergent fibre content. At  starter phase, there were significant (P<0.05) (P=0.05) differences in feed consumption and body weight gain and the highest feed consumption (FC) and body weight gain  (BWG) were found in treatment 5, which contained 7% degraded BDG (DBDG) and the FC and BWG they were 88.93 and 41.07g/bird/day, respectively. At the finisher phase, there were significant (P=0.05) differences in both the average feed intake and the average body weight gain by the birds. The highest feed intake was found in treatment 5 (140 g/b/d) and the highest body weight gain was also observed in treatment 5 (78.21g/b/d). Significant differences (P=0.05) were also observed for the feed conversion ratio at the finisher phase. The best value (1.64) was recorded at the control treatment and this was followed by the value recorded for treatment 5 (1.79). The relative cost benefits revealed that it is profitable to feed broilers with F. oxysporum degraded BDG. The results showed that F. oxysporum was able to enhance the feeding value of BDG and this impacted positively on the feed consumption and body weight gain by the birds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Efficacy of Different Fungicides against Fusarium musae, a Fruit Rot Disease of Banana

T. T. Baria, K. B. Rakholiya

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 212-219
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1230326

Fruit rot disease caused by Fusarium musae is one of the post-harvest disease of banana and is adversely affecting the fruit quality and the market value In vitro evaluation of different fungicides, against F. musae. Amongst, fungicides viz., mancozeb 75 WP at 2500 ppm, azoxystrobin (20%) + difenoconazole (12.5%) at 1000 ppm and propiconazole (25 EC) at 500 ppm and 1000 ppm were found cent per cent inhibition of mycelial growth of F. musae. Whereas, in vivo evaluation were lowest fusarium fruit rot severity was observed in propiconazole (25 EC) at 1000 ppm in pre (6.61%) and post- inoculation (6.70%) treatments at 8 days after inoculation.


Open Access Original Research Article

Diagnosis of Melanoma Based on the Sparse Auto-Encoder for Feature Extraction

Nadia Smaoui Zghal, Marwa Zaabi, Houda Derbel

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 220-230
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1230327

Aims: Skin cancer is a fairly critical disease all over the world and especially in Western countries and America. However, if it is perceived and treated early, it is quite often curable. The main risk factors for melanoma are exposure to UV rays, the presence of many moles, and heredity. For this reason, this work focuses on the issue of automatic diagnosis of melanoma. The aim is to extract significant features from pixels of the images based on an unsupervised deep learning technique which is the sparse autoencoder method.

Methodology: A preprocessing phase is required to remove the artifacts and enhance the contrast of the images before proceeding with the feature extraction. Once the characteristics are extracted automatically, the support vector machine classifier and the k-nearest neighbors are applied for the classification phase. The objective is to differentiate between 3 categories: melanoma, suspected case, and non-melanoma. Finally, the PH2 database is used to test the proposed approaches (200 images are presented in this dataset: 80 atypical nevi, 80 common nevi, and 40 melanoma).

Results: The obtained results in terms of specificity, accuracy, and sensitivity present noticeable performances with the support vector machine classifier (achieved 94 % overall accuracy) and the k-nearest neighbors (92 %).

Conclusion: This study's experimental findings showed that the best performance was obtained by the approach based on a deep sparse autoencoder combined with support vector machine.

Open Access Review Article

Neoplasias in Fish: Review of the Last 20 Years. A Look from the Pathology

Luis Alberto Romano, Virgínia Fonseca Pedrosa

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 134-153
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1230319

In fish there is an innumerable variety of neoplasias that arise essentially from all cell types. Neolasia here, we will focus on the neoplasias that appear spontaneously in these animals and will not cover the experimentally induced neoplasias and/or the animal models of neoplasias. As for diagnosis, in general, specialists in aquatic organism pathology are not so familiar with the diagnosis of neoplasias. Infectious pathology, as opposed to non-infectious pathology, is the predominant condition in this area and, of course, these are of greater importance because some infectious diseases generate great economic losses, while neoplasias are isolated pathologies, with some exceptions.

In the last 20 years, 10 neoplasias in different species have been diagnosed in our laboratory, and we reported their characteristics in this paper. We also made a detailed bibliography review and observed how 90 neoplasias among 56 species of teleosteal fish were reported.

Neoplasias in fish, unlike other diseases, do not generate great losses to aquaculture. However, the true value of neoplastic pathology compared is to better understand the histiogenesis and biological behavior of neoplasias in mammals and humans. Carcinogenesis is generally complex and in most neoplasias in both mammals and fish, the origin is unknown, and it seems that there are many factors that contribute to the onset and growth of neoplasias.

Open Access Review Article

Mental Sub-Normality: Mainstreaming Children with Disabilities. The Challenges of the Counseling Profession

Effiom, Bassey Ekeng, Stella Bassey Esuabana

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 205-211
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i1230325

This paper takes a critical look at mental sub normality, mainstreaming children with disabilities and the challenges of the counselling profession. Its use children that need special education, the blind, epileptic, partial deaf. Since they have rein-force stigmation. Inclusive approach, re-affirmation, care and integration, confidence building institutionalized in school and family life. Using guidance and counselling as the best approach to adjust the different maladaptive behavior of children in school. This works seem to view sub Normality as classify within range although adequacy of social adaptation is taken into account. As it may include brighter even cluster student, this children may be term educational sub normal. They may have weak intellectual capacity, some educational authorities have special school for them. But else where they are accumulated in normal school example Nigerian.

Sub mentality suffer discouragement, contempt and neglect from early age. Emotionally and social growth they cannot respond as adequately to the environment as can normal children, they are likely to feel isolated and to be excluded from social activities from early childhood. Therefore, counsellor must experience sub normality by getting involve and clarify their feeling towards children with disabilities.