Open Access Minireview Article

Regulation of Autophagy and Inflammation Through Physical Exercise in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: Protective Factor in Individuals Affected by COVID-19

Matheus Ribeiro Bizuti, Júlia Leão Batista Simões, Gabriel Rossi Francisco, Gabrielli Drechsler, Fabiana Brum Haag, Rafael Luiz Pereira, Débora Tavares de Resendee Silva

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 66-76
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i130334

In March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) characterized the rapid and uncontrollable spread of the new Coronavirus as a pandemic, given that this disease has high severity and morbidity and mortality. The epicenter of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak was the city of Wuhan, China. Individuals with associated comorbidities, such as patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), are at increased risk of being affected by the severe form of the disease. In this sense, it is known that people with CKD have a more sedentary lifestyle, with reduced physical exercise. Thus, physical exercise is able to modulate the inflammatory process resulting from CKD, acting as a regulator of the immune system, as well as assisting in the control of renal autophagy. It appears that physical activity contributes to the improvement of the population's quality of life and acts as an effect of disease prevention. Hence, people who live with CKD in times of the pandemic of COVID-19, by adopting physical activity as a life practice, will have the consequence of strengthening the immune system by modulating inflammation and increasing the control of renal autophagy. Therefore, the practice of exercise is suggested when facing COVID-19.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth and Yield Production of Canola as Affected by Organic and Mineral Fertilizers Application under Drought Stress Conditions

Saied El Sayed, Farid Hellal, Hanan H. Abdel-Kader

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i130328

Field experiment were carried out at the Research and Production Station of the National Research Centre, Nubaria region, Behiera Governorate, Egypt during 2019/2020 to study the effects of compost and zinc foliar application on growth and yield production of canola under drought condition. The water stress treatments (75 and 40% water holding capacity, WHC) occupied the main plots and compost treatments at the rates (0, 2, 4 and 6 ton fed-1) were allocated at random in the sub-plots with the foliar application of zinc at a rate of 0, 50 and 100 ppm. Data noticed that increase compost rate associated with increasing the SPAD red and RWC under both irrigation treatments where 75%WHC scored the highest values than 40 %WHC. Results indicated that increasing compost rates was associated with increasing of canola characters plant height, number of branch, number of pods and 1000 seeds weight as well as, seed yield, biological yield as affected by compost and zinc application rates and their interaction under normal and stress treatments. Also, data illustrated that stress tolerance indices (SSI, STI, GMP, YI, YSI, MP, TOL and HM) of canola as affected by water stress and Compost application and Zinc sulphate. Data indicated that the highest values were attained after application compost at a rate of 6.0 ton fed-1 with a foliar spray ZnSO4 at a rate of 100 ppm. Results concluded that, application of compost and zinc is important for enhancing the growth parameter and seed production of canola under water stress condition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Constituents and Larvicidal Properties of n-Hexane Extract of Parinari excelsa Seeds

A. Dokubo, F. G. Obomanu, N. Ebere, G. I. Ndukwe

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 14-23
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i130329

The study was conducted to investigate the chemical compositions and larvicidal effect of n-hexane extract of Parinari excelsa seeds against fourth instar larvae of Culex mosquito after 24 h and 48 h exposure. The chemical composition of n-hexane extract of P. excelsa seeds were analyzed using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Larvicidal activity was performed following standard procedures of World Health Organization (WHO). GC-MS analysis showed that the seed extract of P. excelsa contained hexadecyl phenyl carbonate with highest percentage (7.502%, RT=26.39), followed by tetradecyl phenyl carbonate (5.77%, RT=25.90), 1-methyl cyclohex-3-enyldodecyl fumarate (5.70%, RT=24.58), decyl phenyl carbonate (4.70%, RT=28.64) and the lowest, octadecyl-2,2,2-trichloroethyl carbonate (0.62%, RT=13.71). The result showed significant (p<0.05) mortality of larvae  in 24 h and 48 h of exposure. However, the highest larval mortality  was recorded at 48 h exposure. Result of regression analysis indicated that mortality rate positively correlated with concentration having a regression coefficient (R) close to one in each exposure case. The estimated lethal concentrations (LC50) for 24 h and 48 h exposure were 2.056±0.176 µg/ml and 0.429±0.150 µg/ml respectively. This indicates that larvicidal activity recorded for 48 h exposure was 4.8 times more than that recorded for 24 h exposure. The study demonstrated that n-hexane extract of P. excelsa seeds exhibited larvicidal potential and can be utilized as biopesticides to minimize the multiplication of mosquitoes that transmit vector borne diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Induced Breeding Technique for Freshwater Fish Gobi, Glossogobius giuris (Hamilton, 1822) Using Pituitary Gland (PG) Extract

Selina Yeasmine, M. Aminur Rahman, Md. Sarower-E-Mahfuj, Sonia Sku, Md. Nazmul Hossen, M. Anisur Rahman, Md. Fazlul Awal Mollah

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 24-35
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i130330

This study aimed to establish induced breeding technique of freshwater fish gobi (Glossogobius giuris), using the pituitary gland (PG) extract. Six experiments were conducted at the Department of Fisheries Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Fisheries, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. First breeding trial was conducted in June using 40, 45, and 50 mg PG kg-1 body weight of the female fish. None of the fish was ovulated in the 1st trial. Two more breeding trials were conducted in July and August, using 6 mg (T1), 8 mg (T2) and 10 mg (T3) PG kg-1 body weight of female, and 3 mg (T4), 4 mg (T5) and 5 mg (T6) PG kg-1 body weight of male fish. After treatment, the ovulation rates were recorded as 56.33±1.53, 82.67±2.52 and 75.33±1.53% in July and 58.00±2.65, 94.67±1.53 and 78.33±1.53% in August under the treatments T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Hatching rates of eggs were observed as 52.00±4.36, 81.67±3.21 and 72.33±6.03% in July, and 54.67±3.23, 91.67±3.06 and 73.67±5.13% in August under the T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Hatching time was ranged from 35 to 48 h and after the absorption of yolk sac (60-72 h), they were survived well when fed with tubificid worms and mixed zooplankton. The female treated with the dose of 8 mg PG kg-1 body weight in August showed the best performance so far as the ovulation, fertilization and hatching rates were concerned, while the single dose of 4 mg kg-1 body weight of PG was found to be effective for male fish in both months. The findings obtained from the present study reveals that induced breeding of G. giuris, using PG extract is successful for large scale production of quality seed in captive condition, which would further facilitate towards the aquaculture production and biodiversity conservation of this important fish species to a greater extent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Antifungal Effects of Plants Extracts on Malassezia species Isolated from Scalps of Primary School Pupils and Bingham University Students

Maikenti James Ishaku, Egah Ruth Grace, Adogo Lillian Yami, Koggie Amos Zamfara

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 36-43
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i130331

Aim: The aim of the research was to evaluate the antifungal activities of the leaf extracts of Senna alata and Lawsonia inermis on Malassezia spp. isolated from the scalps of primary school pupils and Bingham University students.

Place and Duration of the Study: This study was carried out in the department of Biological sciences, Bingham University Karu Nasarawa state between July to September, 2017.

Methodology: The plant species Senna alata and Lawsonia inermis was collected from Garki district of the Federal Capital Territory Abuja and Sayina village of Auta-balefi Karu Local Government Area of Nasarawa state respectively. These plant species were identified by plant experts in the Department of Biological Sciences, Bingham University, using characteristic features of the leaves such as the shapes, sizes and flower corresponding to the herbarium specimens. Other features included plant height, fruits type, nature of the branches, colour of the stems, present or absence of spines, and number of flowers etc. Senna alata and Lawsonia inermis plants extracts were obtained by maceration in 80% ethanol, soaking and boiling of the powdered leaves of the plants respectively. A total of 83 dandruff scrapings were collected from both the pupils of Kodope primary school and Bingham University students. The identification of Malassezia species was made microscopically by methylene blue staining and wet mounting. Each slide was examined under high power field microscope (40X objective) to detect the presence of hyphae and budding yeast cells.  The positive samples were cultured on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) plates and incubated at 37°C for 3-5 days. Fungal growth was observed. Gram’s staining procedure and biochemical tests such as catalase test, bile Esculin test and Tween assimilation test using Tween 20 and 80 was carried out. The evaluation of the antifungal effects of Senna alata and Lawsonia inermis on Malassezia sp. was carried out using the well diffusion method.

Results: Out of 83 samples analyzed, 21 were positive for Malassezia spp.  Three (3) species were identified and isolated; namely Malassezia restricta, Malassezia globosa and Malassezia furfur.

The antifungal effects of the plant extracts revealed that the Malassezia species were susceptible to the ethanolic extract of Senna alata with a mean zone of inhibition 11.00± 0.969. The Aqueous   extracts of Senna alata showed significant antifungal effect on the fungi with mean zone of inhibition 10.00± 0.969 when compared to the control, while the boiled extract had no effect. The ethanolic extract of Lawsonia inermis was the only extract recorded to have antifungal effect on the fungi, with mean zone of inhibition 7.71±0.876.

The relationship between of Malassezia infection with age, gender, and institutions was determined by Chi-square test through the use of statistical package for social science (SPSS). There was no significant difference in Malassezia infection between the ages (P=0.189) as well as gender (P=0.367). However, the distribution of infection between the institutions shows a significant difference (p=0.043).

Conclusion: This study reveals that naturally acquired herbs of S. alata especially and L. inermis may be effective in combating Malassezia species which are the causative agents of dandruff and hence, the use of naturally acquired herbs should be encouraged in combating dandruff.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphological and Physiological Screening of Aerial Yam (Dioscorea bulbifera L.) for Sodium Chloride Tolerance

S. E. Kalu, A. N. Osuagwu, I. A. Ekpo, L. E. Okonko, G. M. Ubi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 44-52
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i130332

Aerial yam (Dioscorea bulbifera L.) is an indigenous, edible and energy-giving crop used for herbal remedy for some common ailments like diabetes, dysentery, cholera and conjunctivitis. It is fast-growing and can adapt to different soil types and habitat conditions, therefore seen as having the potential of tolerating salt stress conditions in this area of climate change. This study, therefore, sought to determine the tolerance of D. bulbifera to salt stress conditions through morphological and physiological studies. Bulbils of D.bulbiferaof two distinguished shapes were sourced from local farmers in Abia State, AkwaIbom State and Cross River State of the Niger- Delta region of Nigeria, and established in Biological Sciences Research Farm, University of Calabar, Calabar, to have the various lines for the experiment. Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications was used for the study. At four weeks after sprouting, the plants were treated with 250ml of different concentrations of sodium chloride (0, 100, 200 and 300mM) twice a week for six weeks. Morphological data of leaf color, number of leaves/plant, root length, leaf length, petiole length, leaf area, vine length and number of bulbils were measured weekly during the treatment period while physiological data of Chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll- b concentrations, peroxidase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities were analyzed two weeks after the completion of the treatment. Results revealed that sodium chloride reduced the vine length, number of leaves, number of bulbils, chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-b concentrations of the plant, and caused an increase in the root length, peroxidase and glucose-6- phosphate dehydrogenase activities. Although sodium chloride reduced the growth of the D.bulbifera, all the lines were able to produce bulbils at a salt concentration of 0.00mM to 200mM. Therefore, this plantcould be regarded as a moderate salt tolerant plant. Significant differences in growth and yield were found between the lines (P<0.05). Bulbils with round shape tended to show more growth than the spindle shape.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of Susceptible Weed Hosts of Phytophthora spp. in Cocoa Trees in the Nawa Region, South-West of Côte d'Ivoire

Daniel Kouamé Kra, Yapi Richmond Baka, David Coulibaly N’golo, Ipou Joseph Ipou

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 53-65
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i130333

The cocoa tree, the mainexport crop in Côte d'Ivoire is frequently attacked by a disease: brown pod rot, caused by Phytophthora spp. which causes a considerable drop in production. This soil-borne pathogen attacks on so-called weeds when environmental conditions are favourable. The presence of these susceptible weed hosts can amplify this scourge of brown rot by transmitting the pathogen to the crop plant. In order to improve the yield of this crop, a study was conducted in the Nawa region to identify the weed hosts through the characterization of the pathogen.

This study consisted first in the inventory of susceptible host weeds of Phytophthora spp. and second in the morphological characterization of the pathogen.

Concerning the host weeds inventory we procceeded determining all symptomatic weeds located within 3 m of the cocoa plants affected by brown rot.

We identified 48 susceptible host species, divided into 41 genera and 22 families and we observed brown spots on the leaves of Oplismenus burmannii and Laportea aestuans; on the leaves of Clerodendrum splendens and Xanthosoma mafaffa, brown necroses surrounded by a yellow halo were noticed. Oily brown spots were examined on the leaves of Ageratum conyzoides. On the proximal, lateral and distal parts of the pods symptoms of brown spots covered with whitish mycelia were observed. Phytophthora strains obtained from the pods and weeds on PDA culture medium were characterized by matted, white mycelial colonies with a cottony appearance. Microscopic features revealed the presence of sporocysts, oospores and chlamydospores of different shapes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Progressive Recovery of a Marine Gastropod Community Following Atmospheric Nuclear Tests in French- Polynesia: A Socio-ecological Interpretation

Jean Béguinot

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 77-110
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i130335

Aims: The way species-richness is accommodated and how species-abundance distribution is organized in a hierarchic pattern is central to community ecology. Yet, the process by which species-richness and species-abundances are progressively accommodated can hardly be monitored, in practice, at a sufficiently large spatial scale. Fortunately, the progressive recovery of marine communities, after their complete destruction by atmospheric nuclear tests, yet offered unique opportunity to monitor the full process of accommodation of increasing species-richness and the associated, transient development of strong interspecific competition, all along the process of recovery.

Methods: Taking full advantage of such monitoring yet requires, first, to relevantly overcome two important practical issues: 1) achieving reliable numerical extrapolations of the usually unavoidably incomplete samplings in order to accurately estimate both the true species-richness and the completed distribution of species-abundances, including the abundance of undetected species and 2) disentangling (i) the positive contribution of improved niche-diversification to species-richness and species-abundance evenness from (ii) the negative contribution of increasing interspecific-competition, all along the recovery progress. This, indeed, is a rather tricky challenge, yet relevantly solved by using the newly developed “standardized unevenness index”, conceptually based upon MacArthur approach to interspecific-contest at niche overlaps.

Results: Applying both tools above to the monitored recovery of a reef-associated Gastropod community, entirely wiped-out previously by severe nuclear blasts, had allowed a deeper understanding of the dynamic interplay between species-recruitment, niche-diversification and interspecific-competition in the regeneration of the community. In particular, along the recovery process, a transient, metastable phase – involving severe interspecific-competition at niche-overlaps – precedes a gradual return to dynamic stability, with the virtual extinction of interspecific competition

Open Access Original Research Article

Reproductive Biology of Land Crabs (Gecarcoidea lalandii) in Ly Son Island, Quang Ngai Province – Vietnam

Huynh Minh Sang, Le Thi Thu Thao, Ho Son Lam, Phan Minh-Thu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 111-120
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i130336

The reproductive biology of the land crab Gecarcoidea lalandii was documented for the Ly Son Island, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam. Approximately 30 crabs, collected every month in the 12-month period from August 2019 to July 2020, were analyzed gonadal development stages, sex ratio, spawning season, fecundity and size at first sexual maturity. Results showed that number of male and female crab in nature was not significantly different. Gonadal of the crab passed through five stages of maturation. The crab spawns continuously during the spawning season. In nature, the crab can mature whole year-round with a higher proportion from January to August and the peak maturation from June to July.  The spawning season is of this species is only on the raining period from June to July. Length at first sexual maturity of the crab was 53.91 mm of carapace width for female and 50.39 mm male crab. The absolute fecundity varied in 473,000-820,000 eggs ind-1 and highly related to body weight. The current findings provide the scientific foundation for fishery resource management and artificial breeding of the land crab in Ly Son.

Open Access Original Research Article

Expression of Evi-1 Gene in Leukaemia: Diagnostic and Prognostic Perspective

Ifeyinwa Maryann Okafor, Henshaw Uchechi Okoroiwu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 121-135
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i130337

Leukaemias are malignant neoplasms characterized by disorderly, purposeless proliferation of white blood cells with abundance of one cell type. The exact aetiology of leukaemias is still yet to be fully understood. However, it is generally believed that neoplasm is caused by genetic mutation, chromosomal translocation, or activation of certain oncogenes. There are also nuclear oncogenes which are also vital genes in normal cell proliferation and differentiation, often being pivotal genes in developmental and cell cycle regulation. They are also important in cancer progression. Ecotropic viral integration site (EVI-1), a nuclear oncogene has been implicated in the progression of some leukaemias. EVI-1 gene is located on the human chromosome 3 band q24-q28 and spans over 100 kb.  The EVI-1 gene encodes a 145 kDa protein of the zinc-finger family which is an essential transcription factor for appropriate murine and human development and is also associated with some leukaemias, following ectopic expression. EVI-1 protein is divided into two main regions: The N-terminal region that contains zinc finger domains (ZFi) and C-terminal region containing three zinc finger domains (ZFii) and a sequence of acidic amino acid. This review summarizes the biological, leukaemogenetic/oncogenic roles and biochemical properties of EVI-1. It further discusses the diagnostic and prognostic implication of EVI-1 in some leukaemias, encouraging incorporation of routine assay of EVI-1 in diagnosis and prognostic monitoring of leukaemias.