Open Access Original Research Article

Rhizopus spp Promoting and Inducing Late Blight (Phytophthora infestans) Resistance in Solanum lycopersicum L.

C. Agbor, . Fotso, A. C. Djueani, R. F. Muyang, H. D. Mbouobda

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i230338

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L) which is highly consumed by humans, suffer severe attacks of various pathogens. Among these pathogens, Phytophthora infestans is the most prominent causing a devastating tomato disease called late blight. This study was aimed at evaluating the protective effects of Rhizopus spp on tomato plant growth upon infection with P. infestans. The work was partition into two phases: phase 1 delt with the effect of Rhizopus spp on tomato growth parameters while phase 2 was on the protective effects of Rhizopus spp against late blight in tomato and its attributes on biochemical parameters. In phase 1 seedlings were raised and divided into five groups of six plants each. Group I was the control while Groups II to V were treated with Rhizopus spp (2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 mg/ml respectively) for 25 days. After every 5 days’ plants were treated and on each day of treatment, growth parameters (number of leaves and height) and chlorophyll contents measured. On day 25, samples were collected for biochemical analysis (flavonoids, phenolic content, total protein, vitamin C, catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH)). In phase 2, Rhizopus at 5 mg/ml obtained as best results in phase one was used. Raised seedlings were divided into four groups: Group 1 was healthy (H), Group 2 of plants infected with P. infestans (50 mg/ml) (I), Group 3 of plants stimulated with Rhizopus spp (5.0 mg/ml) (St), and Group 4 of plants inoculated with P. infestans after stimulation with Rhizopus spp (St + I) for 7days. Every two days, diseases incidence and severity were recorded and after 10th days samples were collected for biochemical (total protein, CAT and GSH) analysis. As results, Rhizopus spp inoculation induced an increase in the number of leaves, plant height and chlorophyll contents compared to the control group with plants of group II (Rhizopus spp 5.0 mg/ml) having the best result. A significant increase (p< 0.05) in flavonoid, phenolic content, reduced glutathione level and catalase activity were recorded. Another significant increase (p< 0.05) in disease incidence and severity in plants treated with the pathogen when compared to the control. Co-inoculation of plants with Rhizopus spp and P. infestans significantly decreased disease incidence and severity. Also a significant decrease in GSH level and CAT activity were noticed. Co-inoculation of plants with Rhizopus spp and P. infestans significantly increased (p< 0.05) GSH level and CAT activity when compared to the control group. In conclusion Rhizopus spp instigate plant growth and induce disease resistance in tomato upon infection with P. infestans causing late blight.

Open Access Original Research Article

Restoration of Degraded Natural Limestone Forests in Cat Ba Biosphere Reserves, Vietnam

Tran Hai Long, Trieu Thai Hung, Sangjun Im, Dang Thi Hai Ha, Ninh Viet Khuong, Nguyen Van Tuan, Hoang Thanh Son, Tran Hoang Quy, Trinh Ngoc Bon, Tran Cao Nguyen, Phung Dinh Trung, Tran Nam Binh, Le Hong Lien, Qiwen Li

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 14-26
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i230339

Vietnam experienced significant forest cover change during the last half of the twentieth century, and restoration of natural forests have increased since the 1990s. This study developed comparisons of human-intervened and naturally restored forests in Cat Ba Biosphere Reserve, Vietnam in order to gain a better understanding of restoration options for the dual objectives of biodiversity conservation and forest cover. The overstory trees (species composition, growth, and diameter distribution) and natural regeneration (species richness, density, and height distribution) were measured and compared in twelve plots established in natural (NPS) and artificial restoration (RPS) models for post-selective-logged forest, and natural (NPC) and artificial restoration (RPC) models for post-clear-cut forest. Results indicated that the overstory trees and natural regeneration of RPS and RPC was higher than that of NPS and NPC. We concluded that the forest restoration models had shown successes, although extensive silvicultural techniques should be applied for a more stabilized development, especially in the RPC.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ameliorative Effects of Enriched Environment and Chronic Administration of Aqueous-methanol Extract of Garlic (Allium sativum) on Mice Models of Depression

P. P. Mshelia, M. I. A. Saleh, O. O. Omodara, A. A. Madaki

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 27-39
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i230340

Depression is a state of mood or energy level that includes lack of motivation, a sense of hopelessness and a loss of physical energy. The World Health Organization revealed that depression is one of the leading causes of ill health and disability worldwide. More than 300 million people are living with depression. Many of the currently available antidepressant drugs have proven to be effective but they are burdened with some disadvantages such as various adverse effects, problematic interactions and relatively low response. Therefore the need to utilize a natural agent in the management of depression is paramount. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic administration of extract of Allium sativum and Enriched environment in depression. 42 albino mice were used and divided into seven groups of five mice each. Group 1 was given distilled water; groups 2 and 3 received 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of aqueous extract of Allium sativum respectively; while groups 4 and 5 were in addition to receiving 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of the extract, housed in an enriched cage. Group 6 was only housed in an enriched cage and group 7 receives 10 mg/kg of imipramine. The experiment lasted for six weeks after which Force Swimming Test, Tail Suspension Test and Sucrose Preference test were conducted. The mice were sacrificed and their brain isolated, homogenized and centrifuged. The supernatant was used for biochemical assays (MDA, SOD, GPx, BDNF & TNF-α). The results showed that Allium sativum and Enriched Environment helped in mitigating depressive disorders. Therefore, conducive environment and garlic extract could be used in the management of depression.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Role of Biofilm Formation in Antibiotic Resistance of Bacteria Isolated from Saliva of Patients with Dental Caries

Merriam Ghadhanfar Alwan, Hadeel Adil Al Rubaye, Noor Adil Abood, Hind Tahseen Ibrahem, Hamiza Bt Hamidon, Asmat Ahmad

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 40-49
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i230341

Objectives: This study aim to determine the bacterial diversity, biofilm forming ability and the antimicrobial resistance of bacteria isolated from saliva of patients with dental caries conditions with the using of 16S rRNA gene sequencing technique for identification of the most virulent isolates.

Methods: Isolation and identification of microorganisms were done employing standard bacteriologic techniques, followed by biofilm detection using tissue culture plate method. The strong biofilm forming isolates were selected for antibiotic susceptibility test against selected antibiotics using disk diffusion technique. In order to identify the selected isolates. The genomic DNA obtained following the extraction process were used for the amplification of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene.

Results: A total of 137 bacterial isolates were obtained and identified as belonging to 21 genera. Tissue culture plate (TCP) method were employed for screening the isolates according to its biofilm forming ability, its showed that 55 (40.1%) of the total isolates were strong, 57 (41.6%) were moderate and 25 (18.3%) were weak biofilm producers. The antimicrobial susceptibility test showed the multi antibiotics resistance of the strong biofilm former isolates to the conventional antibiotics. Enterococcus faecalis isolates showed the highest biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance. The 16S rRNA gene for two of these isolates have been amplified using PCR and the product sequenced, analyzed and registered in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) as UKMS1 and UKMS2 and the accession numbers KX960104.1 and KX960105.1 respectively.

Conclusion: The study has revealed that antimicrobial resistance of bacteria isolates from saliva of patients with dental caries conditions is associated with biofilm formation. Other uncommon pathogenic bacteria were also isolated in this study as a result of the use of non-selective enrichment medium for culturing. Enterococcus faecalis isolates indicated the highest biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Validation of Safety Guidelines Adopted for COVID – 19 in Nigeria: The Guidance and Counseling Perspective

Stella B. Esubana, Effiom B. Ekeng, Godwin M. Ubi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 50-61
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i230342

Background: This paper adopted scientific approach to validate the WHO/NCDC safety counseling guidelines to prevent the spread of the SARS-COV 2 coronaviruses in Nigeria in the guidance and counseling perspectives using the sequence characteristics of SARS-COV 2 in Nigeria as validation criterion.

Methods: Five hypotheses were used to validate the safety counseling guidelines currently operational globally. Bioinformatics analysis of retrieved RdRP sequences was adopted.

Results: All alternate hypotheses were accepted indicating the validity of each of the criterion. Indicators validated included the use of soap (foam) can dissolve the fatty layer of the virus protein coat through regular washing of hands. Heat (high temperature) above 26°C can melt the virus protect as well as hot water. Alkaline water or basic solution with high pH was found to destroy the virus protein coat. Alcohols based sanitizers was also found to dissolve the fat especially the outer lipid layer. High ultra violet light (extinction coefficient) exposures on any object harboring the virus was found to breakdown the viral protein coat while high molecular weight of the coronaviruses confines them to the nose mask or face shield on infected patients. Hence the advocacy for the use of personal protective equipment and the nose mask. The study also validated and revealed that coronavirus strain in Nigeria (MT159778.1) shows a high molecular weight (16289.82g/mol), Total number of negatively charged amino acid residues (11), Total number of positively charged amino acid residues (14), aliphatic index (95.45%), instability index (49.67%), G-C content (38.34%), Half-life (1.2 hrs), alpha helix (49.66%), extinction coefficient (15065m/mol), isoelectric point (8.33) and Hydropathicity (0.106).

Conclusion: These are the validities that constitutes’ the guidance and counseling perspective on the WHO/NCDC issued safety guidelines towards preventing the spread of the COVID – 19 coronaviruses globally.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Black Soldier Fly, Hermetia illucens (L., 1758) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Larvae to Treat Waste Water

Klaus Doelle, Ifeoma Udegbunam

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 62-70
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i230343

This study investigated the application potential of Black Soldier Fly Larva Hermetia illucens Stratiomyidae: Diptera (L.1758) for wastewater treatment and the removal potential of chemical oxygen demand, ammonia, and phosphorus of and liquid manure residue and municipal waste water containing 1% solids content.

Black Soldier Fly Larva were found to reduce the concentration of chemical oxygen demand, but unfortunately, increase the concentration of ammonia and phosphorus.

The ability of Black Soldier Fly Larva to feed on organic waste of Liquid manure residue showed that Black Soldier Fly Larva increase their weight by 365% in a solution with 12% solids content and by 595% in a solution having 6% solids content. The study also showed that Black Soldier Fly Larva have the ability to survive in a solution of 1% solids content and have the ability to reduce chemical oxygen demand by up to 86.4% for liquid manure residue and 46.9% for municipal wastewater after 24 hours. Generally, ammonia increased by 43.9% for Liquid manure residue and 98.6% for municipal wastewater. Total phosphorus showed an increase of 11.0% and 88.6% increase for liquid manure residue and municipal wastewater respectively over the 8-day study. Transparent environments tend to reduce the COD content more than the dark environment, both for the liquid manure residue (55.8% and 65.4%) and municipal wastewater (71.5% and 66.4%).

Open Access Original Research Article

Anthropocene Physiography and Morphology of Chilika; India

Siba Prasad Mishra, Rabindra Nath Nanda, Saswat Mishra, K. C. Sethi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 71-95
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i230344

Introduction: Based on stratigraphy, events, ecology and climatology, the present time is assigned Anthropocene epoch due to dominance Homosapiens over geo- bio-hydro-aero spheres of the mother earth during its accepted Anthropocene epoch succeeding the official 11700 years old Holocene epoch from 1950. Asia’s largest shallow brackish water lagoon, the Chilika housed over about 1000km2, behind 64.3km barrier spit with multiple tidal inlets to Bay of Bengal. It is sinking and shrinking due to rapid dimensional diminution, environmental degradation, sedimentation, salinity depletion, phytoplankton invasion. Present study envisages the elementary morphology, formation mechanism, sediment transport, and dynamic performance of tidal inlets and the lagoon by applying GIS methodology between the year 1930 and 2017 including its local catchment land use changes within the lagoon and associated south Mahanadi delta. Under vulnerability, the brackish water lagoon is constantly deteriorating its ecosystem, it is required for wise use of the wetland that can alleviate the poverty, uplift lagoon users economy, and disallowing the stakeholders living standard during present Anthropocene epoch

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Assessment of the Nutritional Fitness of Wild and Cultured African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

Ayandiran Tolulope Akinpelu, Ogundiran Mathew Akinloye, Ajala Olasunmbo Olumuyiwa, Opasola Olaniyi Afolabi, Olanipekun Abimbola Stephen

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 96-106
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i230345

The nutritional qualities of wild and cultured Clarias gariepinus from Oba Reservoir, Ikose, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria, and the cultured fish from the Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Oyo State Ministry of Agriculture and Mineral Resources, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria, were evaluated. The proximate composition, mineral element composition and essential amino acids profile of the sampled fish species were evaluated using standard laboratory procedures. The results of the proximate composition was observed to be high in cultured population compared to the Wild and there was a statistical significant difference in the amount of crude protein, fibres, carbohydrate, fat/lipid, ash and moisture contents across the two sampled populations (Wild; 17.94 ± 0.19, Cultured; 21.06 ± 0.51), t = -5.738, p-value =0.001. Mineral element content showed maximum amount of copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), Manganese (Mn) and Iron (Fe) in Wild population than in their cultured counterpart while the amount of Cadmium (Cd) and Nickel (Ni) observed in Wild population were undetected. It was also discovered that all amino acid analysed were found to be higher in the cultured group compared to the wild. There were varied levels of significant correlations among all the measured amino acids contents across the two sampled populations. This study showed that the proximate composition, elemental contents and amino acids profiles of both the cultured and wild fishes varies significantly and the results proofed that the cultured fish sample were more nutritious than the wild population, therefore, good monitoring system of Oba Reservoir should be encouraged with strict vigilance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Supplementary Foliar Applications and Their Effect on the Agronomic Behavior of Strawberry in a Vertical System

María del Pilar Marín Cortez, Antonio Flores Naveda, Perpetuo Álvarez Vázquez, Josué Israel García López, Armando Robledo Olivo, Xohitl Ruelas Chacon, Neymar Camposeco Montejo

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 107-116
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i230346

Aims: The objective was to evaluate the agronomic behavior of the strawberry crop under supplementary foliar applications in a vertical system.

Study Design: The experimental design used in each test was the completely randomized experimental model with six treatments and four repetitions each. The treatments were Control, Estimulante plus®, AeroBiot®, BasfoliarAktiv®, Basfoliar PS® and HPLS.

Place and Duration of Study: The research was carried out under a greenhouse in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. From October 20, 2019 to February 20, 2020.

Methodology: The San Andreas strawberry variety was used, the vertical system consisted of 4” PVC tubes, 1.2 m long, with 5 cm diameter perforations, a mixture of peat moss and perlite was used as substrate in a ratio 70:30 %. The foliar applications were carried out every week, stimulant plus®, AeroBiot®, Basfoliar Activ® and HPLS were at a rate of 2 ml L-1, Basfoliar PS® was at a rate of 2 g L-1, the control was only distilled water.

Results: The foliar application of AeroBiot® statistically improved the average weight of the fruit and exceeded the control by 16.7 %, the length of the fruit was statistically similar between the applications of BasfoliarActiv®, AeroBiot®, Basfoliar PS® and HPLS, the rest of the variables showed a similar statistical behavior.

Conclusion: The agronomic performance of strawberry cultivation in a vertical system was similar between supplementary foliar applications of products containing macro and microelements, amino acids and protein hydrolysates, while worm leachates such as AeroBiot® improve the average weight of the fruit.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-chemical Characterization of the Leachate from Fermentation Composts Treated with Lime and Soda: Case of the Composting Platform in Aného, Togo

Edem K. Kolédzi, Nitale M’Balikine Krou, Kwamivi N. Ségbéaya, E. Aziablé

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 117-126
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i230347

This study aims to determine the parameters measuring the reduction rate of the organic matter during fermentation and its bio-availability after maturation of the compost made using fermentable fractions of household waste. Thus, a physico-chemical characterization of the raw leachate and the leachate treated with lime and caustic soda was carried out. The results showed that, the contents of the other parameters measured are higher for the raw leachate compared to those obtained for the treated leachate. Organic and inorganic pollution is reflected by high Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), absorbance at 254 nm, turbidity and suspended matter. The COD values ​​in the raw leachate vary between 13000 and 19150 mg/O2/L; those of the absorbance at 254 nm between 30.5 and 34.15 OD; those of turbidity between 156 and 255 NTU (Nephelometric Turbidity Unit) and those of suspended matter between 48 and 1600 mg/L. In the treated leachate, the COD values ​​oscillate between 4489 and 8743 mg/O2/L; those of the absorbance at 254 nm between 6.69 and 31.1 OD; those of turbidity between 57.8 and 122 NTU and those of suspended matter between 70 and 92 mg. These results reflect a good reduction after treatment with lime and soda.