Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the response of Turkey strains to Salmonella and Newcastle vaccines

Ekei Victor Ikpeme

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i330348

This research work was carried out to evaluate the immune response of 3 turkey strains to salmonella and Newcastle vaccines measured via antibody titre. The study deployed a total of 120 poults (40 black, 40 white and 40 lavender) strains. To ascertain the initial antibody titre of all the birds, blood samples were obtained from their wing veins immediately after acclimatization for salmonella and Newcastle antibody titre.  The test for salmonella and Newcastle antibody titre responses of the birds were performed using widal and haemagglutination inhibition (HI), respectively. The birds were divided into two broad groups tagged as A and B, which represented Salmonella and Newcastle vaccines, respectively. Each group had 3 sub-groups denoting the 3 strains of turkey used for the study. After vaccination, blood samples were collected from all the birds at 3 and 5 days for laboratory assessment of antibody titre response. The results showed that there was significant increase (p<0.05) in the antibody titre response of all the turkey strains after vaccination. Results obtained on the time of exposure of the birds to vaccine revealed that higher antibody titre values were obtained from the black and white turkey strains at 3 days than at 5 days after administration of Newcastle vaccine, except in the lavender strain, which had higher titre value at 5 days after Newcastle vaccination. Following administration of salmonella vaccine, black and lavender strains had statistically higher antibody titre response (2.03 and 2.10 mean loge widal, respectively) than white strain (1.86 mean loge widal). Similarly, the black strain also had higher antibody titre value when Newcastle vaccine was administered (2.35 mean loge HI) followed by lavender (1.99 mean loge HI) and white strain (1.71 mean loge HI). Black strains showed more antibody titre response and by implication, stronger immunity to Salmonella and Newcastle vaccines. More importantly, the differential response of the 3 turkey strains to vaccine could give turkey breeders the choice of selection of turkey breeds for disease resistance breeding.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physiological Behaviour and Yield Contribution of Oryza sativa Under Different Cultivation System in Boro Season

Md. Shoriful Islam, Md. Moinul Hoque, Kamal Uddin Ahamed, Parvin Akter Bithy, Sarmin Akter Ranu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 10-18
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i330349

Aims: The objectives of the research work were to evaluate the physiological behaviour and yield contributing attributes of rice under different system of cultivation in boro season.

Study Design: The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications.

Place and Duration of Study: Central research field of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka-1207 during November 2015 to May 2016.

Methodology: In this research we used three System of cultivation [T1: Low land transplant (anaerobic) condition; T2: Raised upland (aerobic) condition, and T3: Raised transplant (aerobic) condition] and five rice Varieties [V1: BRRI hybrid dhan3; V2:Bolaka; V3: Moina; V4: Gold and V5:BRRI dhan 45], where different morpho-physiological data was taken for evaluation their performance. The significance of the difference among the treatment means were estimated by the Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at 5% level of probability [1].

Results: Among the different system of cultivation significant variation was observed on growth, yield and yield contributing parameters. All the studied hybrid varieties showed superiority in respect of physiological characters, yield and yield attributes in anaerobic condition over aerobic condition. BRRI hybrid dhan3 provided the highest grain yield (8.05 t ha-1) at low land transplant condition. BRRI hybrid dhan3 performed well due to yield attributes [amount of chlorophyll (2.47 mg g-1) in its flag leaves,leaf area index (4.25), shoot reserve translocation (34.97%), grain dry matter accumulated from current photosynthesis (85.87%) , higher filled grains per panicle and 1000 grain weight] than others varieties and the lowest (4.28 t ha-1) was obtained from BRRIdhan45 at raised transplant condition.

Conclusions: The results showed that Low land transplant condition with BRRI hybrid 3 showed the best performance regarding growth, yield and yield contributing characters of Boro rice varieties than others.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of NPK Fertilization Method on the Physiology and Fruit Products of Myristica fragrans in North Maluku, Indonesia

Wawan Sulistiono, Abubakar Ibrahim, Bayu Suwitono, Himawan Bayu Aji, Abdul Wahab, Muhammad Taufiq Ratule, Made Jana Mejaya

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 19-29
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i330350

Aims: The objective of this study was to determine the optimal fertilizing method and NPK fertilizer dosage for plant physiology and nutmeg yield.

Study Design: The experimental design was a completely randomized block design (CRBD) in a 4x3 factorial arrangement with three replicates. The first factor was four NPK fertilizer doses: 1, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5kg NPK (15:15:15)/tree/year. The second factor was the manner of fertilizer application: (1) fertilized in spot, (2) fertilized in-furrow trenches trunked and (3) fertilized in hole.

Place and Duration of Study: The research was conducted in Tobelo North Halmahera (1°44'45.3"-1°44'54.4" N, 127°59'54.4"-127°59'53.2" E), North Maluku, Indonesia from January 2019 to May 2020.

Methodology: The nutmeg trees used was 30 years old. The population of trees plants in the study area was 40 trees. Observation parameters on leaves are chlorophyll a, b and total, nitrate reductase activity (NRA), N, P, K, proline content, number of young and old fruits.

Results: The fertilization treatment with the fertilizer application method into the crack/hole fertilizer with a dose of 2.5 kg NPK significantly produced high levels of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b,         total chlorophyll of leaves and old fruit. The number of old fruits is positively correlated with chlorophyll a content (0.615*), chlorophyll b (0.663*), total chlorophyll (0.634*) and number of young fruits (0.748 **). The application of fertilizer hole produces plants that recover quickly from drought stress, as evidenced by the highest proline content.

Conclusion: NPK fertilization using the hole method and at doses of 2.0-2.5 kg/tree/year are recommended for improving plant physiology and yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional Responses of the Black Cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.), Larvae under Toxicity Effects of Five Wild Botanical Extracts from Sinai, Egypt

Enas E. Nasr, Samir S. Teleb, Amira I. Abou-Saty

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 30-46
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i330351

Aims: To identify the chemical components of five wild Botanical oils (BOs) and their larvicidal influences on the anti-nutritional indices of the 4th instar larvae of Agrotis ipsilon.

Study Design: A comparative study with the randomized design, using five plant Extracts replicated five times.

Place and Duration of Study: Mentha longifolia, Artemisia judaica, Majorana hortensis, Origanum syriacum, and Achillea santolina were collected from the Sinai desert, Egypt. Study procedures were done at the Laboratory of Botany and Zoology, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Egypt, between December 2018 and June 2020.

Methodology: An analysis of the tested BOs components was done using a Shimadzu GC-9A gas chromatograph. Five sub-lethal concentrations of each plant were prepared (5 replicate/treatment) to evaluate medium lethality against A. ipsilon larvae (20 larvae/replicate). Untreated larvae were used distilled water only as a control. Ten larvae of each treatment were treated with only one LC50 to estimate the effect of different tested BOs on anti-nutritional Activities.

Results: The main component of the M. longifolia and A. judaica oil was Piperitone at 39.79 and 37.55%, respectively; whereas the M. hortensis, O. syriacum, and A. santolina oil was Terpinen-4-ol, Thymol, and Fragranyl acetate at 29.82, 31.21, and 25.67%, respectively. According to LC50 of the tested BOs, the toxicity of A. judaica, M. longifolia, O. syriacum, respectively, were the most effective oils, while M. hortensis and A. santolina oils were the least susceptibilities. The more toxic oils reduced food consumption, causing a significant decrease in relative consumption rate (RCR), growth rate (RGR), and efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI)/digested (ECD). The previous oils also showed a significant increase in metabolic cost (MC) and anti-feeding activities against A. ipsilon larvae compared to M. hortensis and A. santolina.

Conclusion: It is suggested that A. judaica and M. longifolia extracts contain high Piperitone content and could be accepted as toxicants to control A. ipsilon.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prediction by Soft Computing, Planning, and Strategy Building of Aquatic Catch: Chilika Lagoon, Odisha, India

Siba Prasad Mishra, Ananta Charan Ojha

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 47-62
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i330352

Introduction: The Chilika lagoon in south Odisha, India was ecologically degraded from 1985 onwards by reduction of its aquatic (fish + prawn + shrimp) catches along with reduction in salinity, hydraulic regime, water exchange, aquatic weeds invasion, and sediment influx. The aquatic catch was 8669MT in year 1985-1986 gradually reduced to 1274MT during 1995-1996 from Odisha Fisheries Dept. records which resulted in poor economic condition of ≈0,2million fishermen and they migrated to adopt other livelihood. One direct tidal inlet dredged (Sipakuda) and Naraj barrage in the apex of South Mahanadi Delta were the major hydraulic interventions made to regain hydraulic regime. After the hydraulic interventions, the eco system restored, and the aquatic catch surged but it was insufficient to livelihood sustenance for the fishermen community of the Chilika,     so   that  they are forced for alternate occupation and migration.

Methodologies: Fish catch data collected for 30 years and soft computing models linear regression, Multi Linear Perception (ANN), SMOorg (SVM) and the Random Forest algorithms (Weka Software) are used to predict the fish catch data of the lagoon for coming decade from 2020 to 2030. The effects of major hydraulic interventions are analyzed and the soft computing method of the fish and shrimp catch prediction of the Chilika has been attempted for the first time except some statistical approaches.

Results: The Random Forest is found to be the preferred algorithm followed by the MLP model. The amount of catch remained around 12-13TMT if the variables and the present status of the lagoon is maintained. The combined effect of the Sipakuda Tidal inlet and the effective operation of the Naraj barrage have maintained the sustainable aqua catch. The present study shall be an immense help for the lake users and policy makers to augment aquatic catch, and alternate livelihood fishers community of the Chilika lagoon.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Diversity Analysis of Somaclonal Variants of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers

Md Shamsuzzaman, Debu Kumar Bhattacharjya, Md. Shariful Islam, Md. Ekramul Hoque

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 63-76
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i330353

Aims: An experiment was conducted to analyze the DNA fingerprinting and genetic diversity of nine potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) somaclonal variants and three check varieties.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was carried out at the Biotechnology laboratory of the Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh during November, 2013 to December, 2014.

Methodology: The somaclonal variants investigated were SIP-3, SIP-5, SVP-6, SVP-18, SVP-19, SVP-25, SVP-55, SVP-56 and SVP-68, while the check varieties were Cardinal, Diamant and Asterix. Six RAPD primers were used to perform PCR reaction after genomic DNA was extracted from young leaves.

Results: The selected 6 primers produced total 54 distinct and differential amplified DNA bands of size range 88 bp to 3265 bp, where 47 bands (~87%) were polymorphic and 7 bands (~13%) were monomorphic. The pair-wise inter-genotype similarity indices were ranged from 61.59% to 93.55% with an average of 74.31%. The Nei’s genetic distance among 12 potato genotypes was estimated from 0.0972 to 0.6217 whereas, genetic identity was between 0.5370 and 0.9074. Here, the distantly linked accessions among the somaclonal variations with check varieties were SVP-6 (to Cardinal and Diamant) and SVP-25 (to Asterix). In addition, the UPGMA dendrogram segregated the 12 potato genotypes into two broad clusters containing 8 and 4 genotypes, respectively. Furthermore, the dendrogram also displayed the highest genetic distance between SVP-6 vs SVP-68 genotype pair.

Conclusion: Significant relationship and diversity were found among the studied 12 genotypes. This genetic diversity among the potato genotypes would be utilized for further potato improvement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genotypes x Environments Interaction of Soybean Lines in Various Shading Environments

Titik Sundari, G. W. A. Susanto, Novita Nugrahaeni, . Suhartina, . Purwantoro, Yuliantoro Baliadi, Made J. Mejaya

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 77-92
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i330355

Soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr.) planted in land space among stands of other crops especially forest trees experience shading stress due to less sunlight penetration. The objective of the study was to identify the performance and yield stability of soybean genotypes in various shading environments. Field research was conducted in 2018 on 15 soybean genotypes consisted of 12 promising soybean lines and three check varieties (Dena 1, Dena 2, and Grobogan) in 10 shading environments (cassava, maize, orange, teak, eucalyptus, oil palm, and no shading). Randomized block design and repeated four times was used in each location. Result of the study showed that the response of the genotypes to grain yield was significantly difference in each environment or location. Stability of genotypes were grouped into 3, namely 1 genotype classified as unstable and recommended for less optimal environments, 6 genotypes (5 promising lines and 1 check variety) which were classified as stable and adaptive in 10 test locations, and 8 genotypes (6 promising lines and 2 check varieties) classified as unstable in 10 test locations. Based on seed yield and yield components average, one line (Grob/Pander-395-2) had a high average seed yield (1.84 tha-1), high seeds weight per plant (14.8 g), high weight of 100 seeds (21.6 g), and stable in 10 location (indicated by non significant both regression coefficient and regression deviation). Therefore, Grob/Pander-395-2 could be recommended for being grown in shading environments across the country.

Open Access Original Research Article

Presence or Absence of Earlobes Reveals Different Biometric Structure among the Peluca Hen from Guatemala

Pere M. Parés-casanova, Raúl Jáuregui

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 93-99
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i330356

Background and Objective: Earlobe, a head furnishing trait, is a non-putative trait in Peluca hen (“naked-necked” hen), a local breed from Guatemala. The objective of this study is to determine if presence or absence of earlobe is linked to a body linear trait.

Materials and Methods: Quantitative data collected on 311 mature hens belonging to Peluca breed were subjected to analyses for two different phenotypic subsets according to presence/absence of earlobes (212 with earlobes and 99 without earlobes). Measured morphometric traits were 18: Weight, Perimeter, Length, Width and Height of Body, Wing Length, Leg Length, Lengths of Head, Beak and Face, Length and Width of Shank, Metatarsal Perimeter, Dorso-sternal Height, Bicostal Length, Withers Height, and Thoracic and Abdominal Perimeters. A Principal Component Analysis was applied to the study of variable between both groups to explore the relationship between traits.

Results: body length and height, and abdominal and thoracic perimeters were the most discriminative traits between groups. “Non-lobe” group presented significative higher values only for body length.

Conclusion: Presence/absence of earlobes describe a different body structure within the Peluca hen. Moreover, as this represents no adaptative response, presence or absence of earlobe must be considered to be more related to the productive aptitude rather than different ecotypes. This association of earlobe with some body traits is important since it can ease the task of selecting productive characteristics of the “Peluca” hen.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Previous Crops and Fertilizers Management of Stem Amaranth in Vegetables – Vegetables - Rice Cropping System

Shila Pramanik, Mohammad Zakaria, Mohammad Mofazzal Hossain, Mohammad Moynul Haque, Mohammad Abu Saleque

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 100-115
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i330357

Aims: To determine the effect of previous crops and fertilizers management on yield and yield parameters of stem amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.) in vegetables-vegetables-rice cropping system.

Study Design: A randomized complete block design (RCBD) with six treatment combinations having four replications was used for the experiment.

Place and Duration of Study: The field experiment was conducted in kharif-1 seasons (April to June) 2018 and 2019 at the research field of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, Bangladesh.

Methodology: The layout was kept undisturbed for the cropping sequence over two years. Factor-A had three previous crops under the cropping system as P1= Potato (Potato - Stem Amaranth - T. Aman rice), P2= Garlic (Garlic -Stem Amaranth -T. Aman rice), P3= Cauliflower (Cauliflower -Stem Amaranth - T. Aman rice) and Factor-B had two level of fertilizers management as F1= Organic fertilizer (N based organic compost), F2= Inorganic fertilizer (Estimated inorganic fertilizer dose based on the soil test value without cow dung). The data were recorded on plant height, leaves per plant, stem diameter, stem yield (t ha-1) and stem dry matter content (%) during harvesting time.

Results: Significantly maximum plant height was observed (93.5cm) in inorganic fertilizer treated plot under previous crop cauliflower which was followed by (93.0cm and 75.0cm) under garlic and potato, respectively. Whereas, minimum plant height (61.8cm) receiving organic source of fertilizers when the previous crop was potato in 2019. The interaction of previous crops and fertilizer application showed significant variation on leaves per plant of stem amaranth both in 2018 and 2019. Stem diameter showed the same trend as that of stem dry matter and resulted insignificant influence due to previous crops and fertilizers management over the two years. In 2018, significantly higher stem yield was observed (38 t ha-1) in inorganic fertilizer treated plot under previous crop cauliflower which was followed by (36.1 t ha-1and 35.5 t ha-1) under garlic and potato, respectively. Whereas, lower stem yield (20.0 t ha-1) receiving inorganic source of fertilizers when the previous crop was cauliflower. Higher stem yield was observed (51.4 t ha-1) in (F2P2) treated plot which was followed by (44 t ha-1) under F2P3 and F2P1, respectively. Whereas, lower stem yield (22.0 t ha-1) receiving F1 source of fertilizers when the previous crop was P3 in 2019.

Conclusion: The experimental results of this study have shown that previous crops had a positive impact on the yield parameters of stem amaranth like plant height in 2018 and leaf numbers of plant both in 2018 and 2019. Interaction effect of previous crops and fertilizers management exerted significant variations only on leaves per plant of amaranth both in 2018 and 2019. Moreover, fertilizers management showed significant variation for plant height in 2019 and for stem yield both in 2018 and 2019.Therefore, it was concluded that stem amaranth after previous crop garlic with soil test based inorganic fertilizer could be high yielding and N based organic compost could be moderate yielding under Garlic- Amaranth – T. Aman cropping system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modelling of Biphasic Biogas Production Process from Mixtures of Livestock Manure Using Bi-logistic Function and Modified Gompertz Equation

Christian C. Opurum, Christian O. Nweke, Christopher E. Nwanyanwu, Nkemakolam A. Nwogu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 116-129
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i330358

In this study, anaerobic digestion (AD) of three livestock manure: (poultry manure (PM), pig dung (PD), and cow dung (CD) was conducted at different mixed ratios under mesophilic (25-35°C) conditions. Two kinetic models, the modified Gompertz and bi-logistic function model were used to simulate the cumulative biogas yield from the experiments, and model parameters simultaneously obtained. The biogas production profile appeared diauxic-like or biphasic with multiple peaks, revealing the complexity and multi-component nature of the substrates. There was an increase in biogas yield from the treatments, PD/CD 1:1; 37.25 dm3 (3.47%), PD/CD 3:1; 38.41 dm3 (6.96%), CD/PM 1:1; 26.76 dm3 (16.80%) and CD/PM 3:1 24.31 dm3 (6.11%), whereas PD/CD 2:1 (15.41 dm3) and CD/PM 2:1 (22.57 dm3) exhibited inhibitory effect. However, statistical analysis (ANOVA) indicated a significant difference in biogas yield from PD alone (36 dm3) compared to CD alone (22.91 dm3). The two models showed good performance in the simulation of the AD process, with high correlation coefficients, an indication of a very strong relationship between experimental data and model parameters. However, the bi-logistic function model showed a better fit in the simulation of the experimental values, as it was able to capture the curves in the plots, with a higher correlation coefficient R2 (0.9920 - 0.9985) than the modified Gompertz model (0.9797 - 0.9968). This work has shown that the phenomenon of diauxic growth in the anaerobic digestion of complex organic substrates could be captured quantitatively in the kinetic model using bi-logistic function model.