Open Access Method Article

A New, Ecologically Self-Significant Metric of Species-Abundance Unevenness, Reliably Highlighting the Intensity of Interspecific Competition

Jean Béguinot

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 48-71
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i430363

A wide series of commonly used metrics of abundance-evenness (or -unevenness) have been proposed to characterize synthetically the distributions of species-abundances, accounting for the hierarchic-like organization of species within natural communities. Among them, most – if not all–have been relevantly criticized on their serious limitations regarding both their “descriptive” and their “interpretative” capacities. From the descriptive point of view, many authors have already repeatedly emphasized the formal non-independenceof conventional (un-)evenness metrics with respect to species-richness, leading, in particular, to unacceptable bias when comparing communities differing by their species-richness, thus making these metrics unreliable descriptors in this respect. Now, as regards the capacity to provide relevant ecological interpretations, especially in terms of the intensity of competition among co-occurring species, the weakness of conventional (un-)evenness metrics is readily highlighted by the usual absence of any associated interpretation of this kind in the literature: the conventional (un-)evenness metrics beingrestricted to purely descriptive purpose only.

Accordingly, a newly designed abundance-unevenness metric – the “standardized abundance-unevenness” index is proposed, positively addressing both kinds of limitations evoked above. By standardizing a conventional measure,U,of abundance-unevenness to the corresponding measure, U’, of the abundance-unevenness in the well-known “broken-stick” model, the resulting “standardized unevenness” index (Istr = U/U’) proves to be efficient against both themajor limitations pointed-out above:indeed,the new index does benefit by being both (i) formally independent from species-richness, thereby allowing reliable,unbiased comparisons of abundance unevenness between species-communities, whatever their difference in species-richness; (ii) able to relevantly quantify the mean intensity of interspecific-competition within community, in term of its direct outcomeuponthe degree of species-abundance unevenness. This double success being, of course, the direct consequences of the properties of the “broken-stick” distribution model, originally putforth in a well-known, yet insufficiently thoroughly exploited paper by the regretted Robert MacArthur.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Efficacy of Antidermatophyte Creams Formulated from Ethanol Extracts of Cassia Occidentalis and Cassia Alata Leaves

F. O. Oyedeji, A. B. Fawehinmi, S. O. Etatuvie, Hassan Lawal

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i430359

Incidence of drug resistance by dermatophytes is a worldwide concern. Researchers search for natural and better drugs to arrest the ugly situation. This study aims to formulate antidermatophyte Creams with ethanol extracts of the leaves of cassia alata and cassia occidentalis against four selected dermatophytes namely Trichophyton mentagrophtes, Microsporum audounii, Epidermophyton floccosum  and Malassezia furfur. Wistar rats were used in determining the efficacy of the formulated herbal creams by examining the biopsies of the skin of the infected rats for presence of fungal hyphae, tissue destruction, Inflammation of the skin, absence of sebaceous gland and also absence of hair follicles. Dekeratinization of the skin layer was also measured. From the result obtained, it was observed that the efficacy of the creams is concentration dependent. Cassia alata cream formulation was particularly effective against three of the dermatophytes namelyTrichophyton mentagrophtes (30.71± 0.51 µm) Microsporum audounii (36.17± 0.59 µm), and Epidermophyton floccosum (37.49± 0.18 µm) while Cassia occidentalis cream was effective against Malassezia furfur (33.22± 0.16 µm). The results showed that the plants ethanol extracts can be utilized in the management of dermatophytosis when formulated as a cream for topical use.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gamma Radiation as a Potential Phytosanitary Squash Treatment for the Control of Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Fernando Berton Baldo, Anna Lucia Casañas Haasis Villavicencio, Flávio Luis Schmidt, Adalton Raga

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 19-31
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i430360

Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are the primary pests of horticultural crops worldwide, causing both direct and indirect damage to the fruit production, including Anastrepha grandis (Macquart, 1846), which exclusively infests Cucurbitaceae fruit. Dose-response tests were used to examine the effects of gamma radiation exposure on 24 – 48 h old eggs and third instar larvae, both in vitro and in Atlas squashes (Cucurbita moschata). The following physicochemical properties of Atlas squashes exposed to gamma radiation were evaluated: titratable total acidity, sugar, pH, external colouration, and texture. It was found that under in vitro conditions, a 20.0 Gy dose of gamma radiation was able to prevent larval eclosion, but a 200 Gy dose was necessary to prevent emergence after the exposure of third instar larvae. In Atlas squashes, 200 and 250 Gy doses of gamma radiation were able to prevent the emergence of A. grandis adults from eggs and larvae, respectively. The radiation doses estimated by Probit 9 to prevent emergence from squashes infested with eggs and third instar larvae were 257.13 Gy and 270.25 Gy respectively. The use of gamma radiation did not significantly affect the physicochemical properties of Atlas squashes, which suggested that gamma radiation may represent a potentially useful technique for the quarantine control of A. grandis in cucurbits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biology of Anar Butterfly: Deudorix (Virachola) isocrates Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) in Mid Hill of Himachal Pradesh

Himani Kaushal, Mahender Singh Thakur, Joginder Singh, Ramesh Lal

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 43-47
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i430362

Aim: The study on biology of fruit borer, Virachola isocrates Fabricius was carried out under laboratory conditions.

Place and Duration of study: Study on the biology of V. isocrates was carried out under laboratory conditions in the Horticultural Research Station, Dr Y S Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Seobagh Kullu in 2019.

Methodology: In order to study life cycle, V. isocrates reared in the laboratory and measurements of different stages were regularly recorded with the help of ocular micrometer and stage  micrometer.

Results: The average incubation period was recorded to be of 8.66 ± 2.05 days. The developmental period of first, second, third, fourth and fifth instar was 2.66 ± 0.46, 3.33 ± 0.46, 3.66 ± 0.46, 3.33 ± 0.46 and 3.33 ± 0.46 days, respectively. The total larval period was found to be of 15.33 ± 6.94 days. Pupal duration was found to be 15.33 ± 6.94 days. Total developmental period was completed within 40 ± 4.08 days through five larval instars on pomegranate.

Conclusion: An up to date knowledge about the incidence pattern of major insect pests and their life cycle studies is a prerequisite for implementation of an effective and successful management tactics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Diluted Red Sea Water on Growth Behavior and Chemical Component of Moringa Plants

Sami A. Metwally, M. I. Ezzo, Bedour H. Abou Leila, Aboelfetoh M. Abdalla

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 72-82
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i430364

Background: Moringa tree is a drought resistance tree, fast-growing, Moringa leaves, flowers and pods are a food source for human and animals. It is a rich source of calcium, iron and a good source of vitamins, B, A, C, amino acids. Shortage of water resources for irrigation especially in reclaimed soil considered is one of the great problems to cultivate traditional crops. Thus, nowadays the use of the non-traditional source of water, such as saline water is very important.

Results: The obtained data recorded that the lowest level of salinity (4000 ppm) decreased plant height, fresh and dry weight of leaves, the stem fresh and dry weight, stem diameter recorded decreased. Increasing salinity levels up to 16000 ppm high reduction was registered in the previously mentioned parameters except for leaves number. The interaction between salinity and proline concentration exhibited in most cases reduction in total chlorophyll. Carbohydrate content, protein, nitrogen%, calcium%, recorded reduction in most cases under saline condition and their interaction with proline. While, Sodium %, Cl- percentage and proline content recorded increments in most cases under the previously mentioned circumstances.

Conclusion: The results were nearly ascending order with increasing of salinity level. Increasing salinity to 16000 ppm decreased significantly the values of vegetative growth and almost all cases of chemicals constituents were reduced.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Assessment of Polysaccharides Immunoregulatory Effects on CD3+CD56+ NKT-like Cells

Minghao Lu, Yaobiao Huang, Lianyang Yang, Chun Chen

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 83-91
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i430365

Aims: Polysaccharides have shown efficacy in a broad range of applications, especially in immune regulation. However, there are only few effective methods available to evaluate and compare the immunoregulatory properties of the different polysaccharides in vitro. To screen stringently and extend the fields of application of polysaccharide-based treatments, a novel in vitro method, based on the use of cord blood-derived CD3+CD56+ NKT-like cells, was developed in this study.

Methodology: Four injectable polysaccharides used in clinics, including Lentinan (LNT), Bacillus Calmette-Guerin polysaccharide nucleic acids (BCG-PSN), ginseng polysaccharides (GPS), and Shengfu polysaccharides (SFPS), which all might benefit cancer therapy, were further validated by testing their effect on cell proliferation and cytotoxicity in vitro. This new evaluation system could discriminate the effects of the four polysaccharides.

Results: Cells treated for 4 days with either of the four polysaccharides were fewer than untreated cells. Upon 7-day treatments, plant- or bacteria-derived BCG-PSN, GPS, and SFPS induced higher level of IFN-, proportion of cells with a CD3+CD56+ phenotype, and cytolytic activity toward A549 cells, compared to controls. However, fungus-derived LNT yielded lower IFN-, proportion of CD3+CD56+ cells, and cytolytic activity than control conditions.Additionally, all four polysaccharides, in decreasing order GPS, SFPS, BCG-PSN, and LNT, induced significantly higher concentrations of TNF-α compared to control, with respectively.

Conclusion:Cord blood-derived CD3+CD56+ NKT-like cells may represent a powerful tool to screen and evaluate the immunoregulatory potential of biological or chemical compounds for clinical developments and applications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Heavy Metal Contamination and Ecological Risk Assessment of Overlying Water and Sediments of Nkozoa Lake (Southern Cameroon)

Noa Tang Sylvie Désirée, Ekoa Bessa Armel Zacharie, Tchakam Kamtchueng Brice, Wongan Kouonchie Sorel Ange, Etame Jacques, Bilong Paul

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 92-109
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i430366

Examination of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, Hg, Cd and Ni) in overlying water and sediments was conducted in Lake Nkozoa, in a peripheral area of Yaoundé characterized by a high population density and rapid economic development in Cameroon. Sediment samples were collected at the entrance and near the center of the lake, using a raft and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes. They were subjected to water quality parameters, heavy metals comparisons and calculations of pollution indices and ecological risks followed by statistical analysis in order to identify and estimate the sources of metal contamination in overlying water and sediments of the Nkozoa Lake. The physico-chemical parameters of water show that the pH (5 < pH < 6), total dissolved solids (TDS~130 g/L) and conductivity (EC~194.8 µs/cm) are below the recommendations of the WHO. The average heavy metal concentrations in sediments, except Cd, are lower than the upper continental crust (UCC) and several environmental contamination monitoring parameters, such as threshold effect level (TEL), probable effect level (PEL), and severe effect level (SEL). The sediment samples show a low heavy metal contamination degree (class 0) and low potential ecological risk (PER) level, except for Cd and Hg which have high contamination degree (class 1 to 6) and moderate PER. Matrix correlation shows that some parameters like pH, EC, Cr and TDS, Cu, Hg in water have perfect positive correlations (r = 1.00) suggesting common sources of contamination. Cluster analyses coupled with matrix data for sediments revealed that Cd is the most contaminant elements derived from anthropogenic sources.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbial Reduction Potential of Chlorine and its Contribution to Incidence of Stress Response Genes in Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria

Busayo Mutiat Olowe, Olufunke Adelegan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 120-131
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i430368

Background: The quest for potability of drinking water in various homes led to the widely use of chlorine or chlorine compound in treatment of water. Which however has contributed to increasing incidences of antibiotic resistance in the environment.

Aim: This study aimed to investigate the microbial reduction potential and contribution of Sodium hypochlorite, NaOCl, to incidence of stress response genes in antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

Study Design: Experimental Design was adopted in this study

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was carried out at the Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Ekiti State University between October, 2019 and February, 2020.

Methodology: Sixteen (16) different water samples were randomly collected from various homes in Ajilosun, Ado-Ekiti and were chlorinated following manufacturer’s instruction. Microbial load of both raw and chlorinated water was determined using standard pour plate technique. Standard streaking method was used to isolate bacteria from chlorinated water samples. Standard CLSI technique was used to test the sensitivity of isolates to different antibiotics and PCR technique was employed to detect stress response genes (RpoS, RpoN, KatF genes) in multiple antibiotic-resistant bacterial isolates.

Results: The result showed 24% and 52% reduction in the microbial load of well and pipe-borne water samples respectively following treatment with NaOCl for 180 sec. The different identified bacterial isolates recovered from chlorinated water samples included Enterobacter aerogenes (7.14 %), Proteus vulgaris (10.71 %), Escherichia coli (25 %), Bacillus cereus (32.14 %), Bacillus licheniformis (14.29 %) and Staphylococcus aureus (10.70 %). The bacterial isolates demonstrated varying resistance pattern to the different antibiotics. RpoS, RpoN and KatF genes encoding stress responses were detected in some of the tested antibiotic-resistant isolates.

Conclusion: The study therefore stresses the importance of chlorination in contributing to increasing incidence of resistance of bacteria to stressors in the environment. Hence, subverting chlorination efficacy in treatment of water.

Open Access Review Article

Pheromones -Psychosexual Stimulants

Anand Malankar, Sudhir Sawarkar

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 32-42
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i430361

In the quest of understanding the phenomenon of sexual attraction and sex appeal between opposite sex, there are various elements that are responsible like Physical attraction, Smell, body Odor, Voice Pitch and Facial Features. The Physical attraction may be the oldest way of understanding sex appeal, however new studies are uncovering various other unexpected factors like smell, voice pitch, and facial expressions as an important aspect of sexual arousal. The role of smell influence on sexual attraction and other behavioral aspect is crucial because humans can smell around 10,000 different aromas knowingly, however there are array of insensible aromas that we are not aware off which we are smelling day in and day out. They are responsible for behavior. The effects of pheromones on psychosexual behavior on human have been studied to great extent however there is limited understanding on exact role of pheromone communication and its mechanism. Pheromones are commonly used in perfumery as fixative. However, the usage of pheromones would mean more effective as real sexual fascination, execution of this tactic will have paradigm shift in perfumery industry which is a great approach to move from monarchy of art to scientific acquaintance. This review is an attempt of compiling the findings from key researches related to use of Pheromones in humans and few animals. We have further discussed the role of pheromones, their molecular aspects and impact on behavioral and physiological aspects. Our study indicates that pheromones are strong psycho-sexual stimulant in animals and humans, commercially many attempts have been made to prove their significance. There is tremendous scope to explore the potential of Pheromones in reenergizing human sexual life which is greatly impacted due to stress, fatigue and age factor.  

Open Access Review Article

Whey Protein Supplement: An Exclusive Food or Need of the Hour: Review

Sonia Sangwan, Raman Seth

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 110-119
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i430367

Background: Protein is an essential portion of food that exerts beneficial effects on body composition and metabolism. However, protein-rich foods are costly and scarcely available in developing countries, and protein deficiency is a significant public health concern. In this situation, searching for additional dietary protein sources is of utmost importance due to decreasing resources because of the growing global population. The current literature review is about whey protein as it is the cheapest, readily available protein source.

Methods: Milk is formed of two proteins, casein and whey. Whey is different from the casein in milk and is formed as a by-product of the cheese-making process. Whey (the liquid left after milk curdling) was deemed a waste by the dairy industry for decades. However, it is the cheapest protein source for the poor growing populations in developing countries. Whey protein is a complete protein as it contains all nine essential amino acids. It is low in lactose content.

Conclusion: Human body cannot make essential amino acids, so it is necessary to get enough of them from the diet. Due to the availability of carbohydrates, fat, immunoglobulins, lactose, and minerals, including essential amino acids in whey protein, it is necessary for human energy. There are many benefits related to whey protein consumption, such as muscle building and loss of fat. New possible therapeutic properties of whey protein have to be investigated further for the full utility to humans.