Open Access Short communication

Pollen Morphology of Six Indonesian Begonia (Begoniaceae) Species

Hartutiningsih M. Siregar, . Sudarmono, Joko Ridho Witono, Hary Wawangningrum

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 7-13
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i530370

Aims: This study aims to determine pollen morphological differences in six Indonesian Begonia species.

Study Design: All fresh pollen grain of six Indonesian Begonia species were collected using a standard method and observed at SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) Laboratory.

Place and Duration of Study: The pollen is collected from Bogor Botanic Gardens, then observed using an SEM in The Museum Zoologicum Laboratory, Research Center for Biology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), on August 2018.

Methodology: The results of SEM pollen ultrastructure observations were analyzed descriptively by describing images of size, P/E index, aperture, endoaperture, and ornamentation of pollen. The size of pollen morphology is calculated based on the length of the polar axis and the equatorial axis on a micrometer scale. Determination of the shape of pollen can be determined by comparing the length of the polar axis with the equatorial axis.

Results: All species examined share common pollen grain characters, i.e. isopolar and three zonocolporate. The longest polar axis (P) and equatorial diameter (E) presented by B. puspitae, whereas the shortest of P is shown by B. kudoensis and the shortest of E by B. sudjanae. Only B. hooveriana has prolate – perprolate aperture, whereas other species perprolate. Endoaperture types of B. puspitae, B. sudjanae, and B. hooveriana is lalongate, while the other species is lolongate. The coarsely striate ornamentation forms are presented by B. holosericeoides and B. natunaensis, whereas other species has fine striate ornamentation.

Conclusion: The size, P/E index, aperture, endoaperture, and ornamentation of pollen are not useful for section classification of six Indonesian Begonia species. Pollen morphology should be incorporated to other characters, such as morphological, cytological, and molecular characters for making delimitation of Begonia species.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Free DNA (cfDNA) by RT-qPCR in Individuals in Sperm Alterations

Modou Mamoune Mbaye, Hasnae Zekhnini, Bouchra El Khalfi, Noureddine Louanjli, Mustafa Zakaria, Fatiha Elmellouli, Abdelaziz Soukri

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i530369

Previous studies have suggested that the presence of circulating nucleic acids (cell-free DNA) in seminal plasma may indicate disease states. However, the potential association between cell-free DNA (cfDNA) levels in seminal plasma and sperm fertility parameters has not yet been definitively determined.

In this study, we will compare seminal free DNA levels between normozoospermic samples and those from different pathologies related to characteristic parameters of sperm quality (asthenozoospermia, azoospermia, teratozoospermia, oligozoospermia and a few samples with a high fragmentation index) in order to detect a potential association between free DNA levels in seminal plasma and these different pathologies of male fertility.

The recovery of free DNA from our different samples was done with the MACHEREY-NAGEL NucleoSpin® kit. This kit allows isolation of DNA from cell-free biological fluids using rapid silica column procedures. The quantification of free DNA in our samples was performed by quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR).

Our results showed a significant difference in the level of free seminal DNA between normozoospermic samples and oligozoosperimic, teratozoosperimic, azoosperimic samples and those with a high DNA fragmentation index. On the other hand, no significant difference in the level of seminal free DNA was noted between normozoospermic and asthenozoospermic samples.

These results suggest that seminal free DNA may be an important biomarker in the assessment of human sperm fertility.

Open Access Original Research Article

Occurrence of Soil-transmitted Helminths from Selected Dumpsites and Farmlands in Calabar, Nigeria

Edema Enogiomwan Imalele, Effanga Emmanuel Offiong, Usang Anok Ukam, Aramushu Willington Urimaneh, Henshaw Victoria Utibe

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 14-22
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i530371

Aims: The present study investigated the prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminth contamination in dumpsite and farmland soils in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria.

Methodology: Soil samples were randomly collected from selected dumpsites and farmlands from July to December 2019. 200 soil samples (100 samples each from dumpsites and farmland) were collected. Soil samples were analysed using Zinc sulphate flotation technique whereas soil nematode extraction for hookworm and Strongyloides larvae was carried out using the modified Baermann technique.

Results: Of the 200 soil samples examined, 131 (65.5%) were positive for ova/larvae of one or more parasites. Dumpsite soils were highly contaminated with ova/larvae of soil-transmitted helminths than farmland soils with a prevalence of 79% (n=79) and 52% (n=52) respectively (P=.02). Farmlands had the highest mean intensity (6.75±1.88) of contamination with ova/larvae of soil-transmitted helminths compared to dumpsite soils (1.68±0.14). Ascaris lumbricoides recorded the highest occurrence (35.5%) (P=.003) in soil samples examined. A. lumbricoides (40%) and Trichuris trichiura (6%) contamination was higher in dumpsite soils, while Strongyloides stercoralis larvae (34%) and hookworm (10%) contamination was higher in farmland soils. Dumpsite soils recorded the highest number of parasites (84%) in the wet season, while farmland soils recorded the highest number of parasites (92%) in the dry season (P=.11). Generally, parasitic ova/larvae were more prevalent in the dry season (91%) than in the wet season (73%) (P=.33). S. stercoralis (33%) was more prevalent in the wet season followed while A. lumbricoides (43%) recorded highest occurrence in the dry season.

Conclusion: This study revealed the potential health risk of contracting soil-transmitted helminth parasites in soils around farmlands and dumpsites in Calabar, Nigeria. It is therefore important that a combination of sanitation and health education be put in place for effective control of soil-transmitted helminths.

Open Access Original Research Article

Clone x Tester Crosses on Compatibility Level of Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.)

Febria C. Indriani, Joko Restuono, Wiwit Rahajeng, Rudi Iswanto, Titik Sundari, Rudy Soehendi, Didik Harnowo, Yuliantoro Baliadi, Made J. Mejaya

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 23-37
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i530372

Evaluation of compatibility on sweetpotato is very important to determine the crossing parents to increase the compatibility of controlled cross-pollination.  This research was aimed to study the level of compatibility in controlled cross-pollination based on percentage of normal seedlings obtained from crosses. The research was conducted at Kendalpayak Experimental Station of ILETRI, Malang, Indonesia then followed by breaking seed dormancy and germination of seeds obtained. The genetic materials used were 17 accessions with high yielding potential and 3 accessions as tester for crossing.  The results showed that there were differences in the compatibility levels of crossing combination and their compatibilities as male or female parents.  Clone C-011 (Tester 2) was the most compatible as male parent, while clone C-141, C-007 and C-131 were the most compatible as female parents. Clone C-127 (Tester 3) was the most compatible as both male and female parents. Clone C-001 (Tester 1) could not be used as  female parent due to high incompatibility.This compatible clone information is very useful in determining of both controlled crosses and open crosses in sweet potato in order to increase the breeding efficiency.

Open Access Original Research Article

Geographic Distribution Shift of Invasive Plant Austroeupatorium inulifolium in the Future Climate Projection

Angga Yudaputra, Izu Andry Fijridiyanto, Inggit Puji Astuti, Rizmoon Nurul Zulkarnaen, Ade Yuswandi, Joko R. Witono, . Yuzammi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 38-47
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i530373

Aims: This study aims to predict the future geographic distribution shift of invasive plant species Austroeupathorium inulifolium as the impact of global climate change.

Study Design: The rising temperature and precipitation change lead to the geographic distribution shift of organisms. A. inulifolium belongs to invasive plant species that often causes a substantial economic loss and ecological degradation in the invaded areas. Modelling of species distribution using the climate-based model could be used to understand the geographic distribution shift of invasive species in the future scenario under global climate change.

Place and Duration of Study: Center for Plant Conservation and Botanic Gardens – LIPI and 6 months.

Methodology: The total 2228 of occurrence records were derived from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) database. The seven climatic variables were selected from 19 variables using a pairwise correlation test (vifcor) with a threshold >0.7. The ensemble model was used by combining Random Forest (RF) and Support Vector Machine (SVM).

Results: Both two models are well-performed either using AUC or TSS evaluation methods. RF and SVM have AUC >0.95, and TSS >0.8. The predicted current distribution tends to have larger distribution areas compared to observed occurrence records. The predicted future distribution seems to be shifted in several parts of North America and Europe.

Conclusion: The geographic distribution of invasive plant species A. inulifolium will be shifted to the Northern part of globe in 2090. Mean temperature of driest quarter and precipitation of warmest quarter are the two most important variables that determine the distribution pattern of the A. inulifolium. The predictive distribution pattern of invasive plant A. inulifolium would be important to provide information about the impact of climate change to the geographic distribution shift of this species.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of COVID-19 Pandemic on Mental Health of Youths in Nigeria: The Counselors Intervention Strategy

Godwin Michael Ubi, Bassey Ekeng Effiom, Stella Esuabana

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 48-60
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i530375

In late December, 2019, patients diagnosed with viral pneumonia due to an unidentified microbial agent were reported in Wuhan, China. A novel coronavirus was subsequently identified as the causative pathogen, provisionally named 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). As at November 10, 2020, confirmed cases had reached an alarming 50,994,215 with a global death toll of 1,264,077    from 2019-nCoV infections, most of which involved people living in or visiting countries with high rate of prevalence and thus increasing the human-to-human transmission. A random sampling of 150 inmates in a Psychiatric clinic revealed that the advent of the COVID 19 pandemic in Nigeria left many youths stressed up, depressed, traumatized with excited state of anxiety leading to mental health challenges and some of which  resort to committing suicide.The post COVID 19 era plunged many youths into joblessness. Many youths who were into artisans and gainfully employed with private outfits and organizations such as private schools lost their jobs (20.67%) due to the COVID 19 disease outbreak which shut down schools, businesses and government. The state of joblessness of the youths in the current post COVID 19 era has further affected the mental health of some of the youths in Nigeria. Absence of government palliatives (4.00%), ASUU Strike (3.33%), High level of poverty, isolation, Sicknesses (13.33%), High level of Despondency, Loss of accommodation (16.67%), Inflation (increased prices of food and other items), Increased transportation cost, Persistent lockdown, Social unrest, High level of insecurity (17.33%), Security personnel brutality and Increase crime rates. The counselor’s intervention strategy should focus on helping the youths with poor mental health due to COVID 19 to regain self- confidence, regain self –esteem, seek medical attention for them, canvass for free medication for affected ones, create awareness on job opportunity for them, engage governments on behalf of the youths for employment opportunities as well as giving them palliatives, reopening of schools/universities and linking them to credit facilities, social safety nets and other available opportunities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Livelihood Patterns and Socio-economic Conditions of the Fishermen of Kharingcha Baor at Chaugachha Upazilla in Jashore District, Bangladesh

Md. Raihan Uddin, M. Aminur Rahman, Moumita Choudhury, Md. Almamun Farid, Anusree Biswas, M. Anisur Rahman

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 61-74
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i530376

A field study was carried out to investigate the livelihood patterns the socio-economic conditions of the small-scale traditional fishermen of Kharingcha baor at Chaugachha upazilla in Jashore, Bangladesh. The survey was conducted on 100 peoples from 70 families of the fishermen in the study area. It was found from the study that 94% fishermen were comprising of males, while 6% were of females. Among them, the majority was Hindus (88%) and the minority was Muslims (12%). During the suvey, the proportion of semi paka houses were documented to be 88%, while kancha were 12%, and all the families had electricity facilities. It was found that 20% of fishermen had no education, 6% had passed SSC-HSC examinations, 14% had passed 6-10 classes and 24% had passed 1-5 classes. It revealed that 84% of fishermen were married and 16% were unmarried. Throughout the study, 33% of the fishermen were found to be dependent on village doctors, 40% on upazilla hospital and 27% on MBBS doctors. Several types of local boats and dingi nouka as well as nets such as tana jal (surrounding net), set bagnet, khapla jal (cast net), thela jal (push net) etc. were used for the harvesting of different fish species (Labeo rohita, Catla catla, Cyprinus carpio, Cirrhinus mrigala, Heteropneustes fossilis, Channa striatus, C. punctatus etc.). Averagely, 35-80 kg fish per day was caught by a group of fishermen using a boat. The majority of the fishers sold their harvested fishes upon the fulfillment of their demands. The monthly mean income of fishermen was around BDT. 5,000-15,000 in the baor area. Among the fishermen, 56% of them were observed to lend money from money lenders and 44% from the NGOs for their fishing-related activities and livelihoods. It revealed from the present findings that the traditional fishermen of Kharingcha baor require more technical, organizational and institutional helps for the improvement of their socioeconomic condition and sustainable livelihood.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Diversity Study of African Rice (Oryza glaberrima) and its Wild Relatives using Microsatellites Markers

David Montcho, Mounirou Sow, Olufisayo Kolade, Roland Bocco, Clement Agbangla

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 75-87
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i530378

The Africa Rice Center Gene Bank hold about 2,500 accessions of Oryza glaberrima. To understand well the genetic diversity in O. glaberrima and its wild species, the use of molecular tools is prominent. The sample consisted of 217 accessions of O. glaberrima, 46 of O. barthii and 7 of O. sativa (checks) was genotyped with 21 polymorphic microsatellites markers. A total of 245 alleles were detected with average 11.67 alleles per locus. Number of alleles was ranged from 2 (RM124) to 20 (RM536). The polymorphic information content value was 0.49 while the heterozygosity was 0.091. The result showed that the sample can be clustered into four genotypic groups. Two groups among them were homogeneous. The first one consisted of O. barthii accessions with 82 alleles in total with average 3.90 alleles per locus. However, the second one consisted of only O. glaberrima accessions with 122 alleles with average 5.80 alleles per locus. O. glaberrima accessions were analyzed using model-based population structure. Results revealed two groups among O. glaberrima accessions. At the end, the identified core collection has 26 accessions consisted of 16 O. glaberrima and 10 O. barthii based on 21 microsatellites markers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatio-temporal Brusselator Model and Biological Pattern Formation

Zakir Hossine, Oishi Khanam, Md. Mashih Ibn Yasin Adan, Md. Kamrujjaman

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 88-99
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i530380

This paper explores a two-species non-homogeneous reaction-diffusion model for the study of pattern formation with the Brusselator model. We scrutinize the pattern formation with initial conditions and Neumann boundary conditions in a spatially heterogeneous environment. In the whole investigation, we assume the case for random diffusion strategy. The dynamics of model behaviors show that the nature of pattern formation with varying parameters and initial conditions thoroughly. The model also studies in the absence of diffusion terms. The theoretical and numerical observations explain pattern formation using the reaction-diffusion model in both one and two dimensions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Reproduction Control in Coptodon zillii using Abrus precatorius Root Bark Diets as Fertility Inhibitor Agent

B. J. Akin-Obasola

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 100-106
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i530381

The antifertility effects of Abrus precatorius root bark meal (APRB) on Coptodon zillii juvenile was determined by a 42 days feeding experiment, with the inclusion levels of 0g, 6g, 12g, 18g and 24g/kg diet. Water volume of 20 litres in a plastic tank (50cm x 27cm x 35 cm dimension) was maintained throughout the period of experiment. Coptodon zillii was fed at 4% body weight. In male fish, testis weight, milt volume, milt count and motility duration reduced with increase in inclusion level and there were significant differences (P<0.05) in the treatments used. Histology of testis at 0g of APRB/kg diet showed primary and secondary spermatocytes in the seminiferous tubule, connective tissue was clearly seen. In treatments 6g, 12g, 18g and 24g APRB/kg diets, there were increase in interstitial cell, eroded connective tissue and necrosis. In female fish, ovary weight, fecundity, relative fecundity and gonadosomatic index reduced with increase in the concentration of treatments used. Histology of the ovary at 0g APRB/kg diet showed developing oocytes while treatments 6g, 12g, 18g and 24g revealed reduced oocytes, increase in interstitial cell, alteration in ovary development and necrosis. The research revealed that Abrus precatorius root bark meal may be effective in controlling reproduction in Coptodon zillii.