Open Access Original Research Article

Haematological and Biochemical Profile of Wistar Rats Exposed to Chloroform Stem Extract of Portulaca oleracea Linn. (Purslane)

Victoria C. Obinna, Gabriel O. Agu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i730394

Portulaca oleracea Linn. has a history of extensive use as a medicinal plant and is a component of the Nigerian ethnomedical pharmacopoeia. Although several studies have been carried out exclusively on the leaves to ascertain the physiological effect, there seems to be dearth of literature on the physiological effect of the stem. This study which was designed to fill this gap investigated the sub-chronic effect of oral administration of chloroform stem extract of P.oleracea (CSEPO) on haematological parameters and plasma activities of some enzymes (Alanine Aminotransferase - ALT, Alkaline Phosphatase - ALP & Aspartate Aminotransferase - AST) and levels of other biochemical parameters such as total protein, albumin, bilirubin, urea and creatinine in male wistar rats. Twenty animals were randomly divided into 4 groups of 5 rats each. Group A(Control) received 0.5 ml of olive oil(vehicle) while Groups B, C & D received 125, 250 & 500 mg/kg body weight of CSEPO respectively for 21 days by oral gavage. At the end, the animals were anaesthetized and blood samples were collected for haematology and plasma biochemical assay. No significant (P > .05) variation occurred in the mean values of ALT, ALP, AST, total protein, albumin, bilirubin, urea, creatinine, Packed Cell Volume (PCV), haemoglobin concentration, RBC, WBC and differential leucocyte counts relative to the control. There was a highly significant (P < .01) increase in the total platelet count only at the dose of 500mg/kg in comparison with control. Oral administration of CSEPO as used in this study had no adverse effect on haematological and biochemical parameters. Secondly, CSEPO may be a useful remedy in thrombocytopenia, due to its potential to increase platelet count. However, further study is recommended in that regards.

Open Access Original Research Article

Doxorubicin-Induced Cardio Toxicity in Albino Rats Protected by Adansonia Digitata (Baobab) Leaf Extract

Akintola Adebola Olayemi, Kehinde Busuyi David, Saka Waheed Adeoye, Oyewande Esther Ajoke, Ayandiran Tolulope Akinpelu, Ogundiran Mathew Akinloye

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 12-22
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i730395

Cardiovascular disease is the world's leading cause of death, killing 17 to 19 million people each year. The usage of traditional drugs was influenced by the need for effective medications for the treatment of cardiovascular disease without side effects. The current study investigated the cardio-protective effects of Adansonia digitata leaf extract on doxorubicin-mediated cardiotoxicity in laboratory rats. Thirty-five albino rats were divided into five groups, each consisting of seven rats. Group 1 was given filtered water as a control, while Group 2 was given saline and doxorubicin, Group 3 received doxorubicin and Vitamin E, and Groups IV and V were myocardial oxidative animals treated with Adansonia digitata leaf extract (150 and 300 mg/kg/wt) for two weeks. After the rats were sacrificed, their hearts were collected and homogenized for biochemical assays. The results on the activities of creatinine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate amino transferase (AST), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde were determined. Histopathology examination was used in addition to assays to validate myocardial damage. In comparison to the control group, rats provided doxorubicin showed a significant increase in the activities of cardiac marker enzymes (CK, LDH, and AST), as well as a significant increase in malondialdehyde concentration with a concomitant decrease in antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, and NOS), implying cardiotoxicity. In rats with doxorubicin-induced myocardial infection, pretreatment with Adansonia digitata leaf extract reduced myocardial damage, these biochemical results were confirmed by histopathology. Finally, the new study demonstrates that Adansonia digitata has cardioprotective properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Toxicological Impact of Leachates from Lemna Refuse Dump Site on African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus, Burchell 1882) Fingerlings Under Laboratory Condition

Udeme Uyom Udofia, Finian Tobias Okoro, Akaninyene Paul Joseph

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 23-37
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i730396

Aim: The study investigated the toxicological effects of Calabar municipal dumpsite leachate on the fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus.

Experimental Design: The study was set-up in a 6 × 2 Complete Randomized Block Design.

Methodology: During the studt 120 C. gariepinus fingerlings were used. Each group was made up of 10 fingerlings. The fingerlings were exposed to 0% (control group), 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% of leachate in duplicate. Histopathology was also carried-out on the gills and liver of the fingerlings of each exposure group.

Results: The temperature, pH, conductivity, and BOD increased with increasing leachate concentration, while the DO decreased with concentration. 5.17 ± 0.66 cm and 1.09 ± 0.40 g mean length and weight respectively of fingerlings were determined. Mortality depended on concentration. The 96 hours LC50 value with 95% confidence limit of C. gariepinus fingerlings exposed to leachate was 22.5% ± 0.89, and was significant with a determination coefficient (r2) of 0.93 at P<0.05. Leachates altered the orientation of gills and liver of the fingerlings.

Conclusion and Recommendations: The low LC50 value of fingerlings exposed to different concentrations of leachate indicates a high toxicity of the leachate and altered the gills and liver of fingerlings. To this end, we recommended dumpsites are sited at a distance far from water bodies and areas inhabited by human, to mitigate the leeching of leachate into nearby aquatic systems. Law against indiscriminate discharge of waste into drainage channels and any aquatic system should be enforced by Government, to prevent mortality of biological organisms, extinction of species, contamination of organisms in nearby aquatic systems, changes in the physical properties, and health risk to humans that depends on resources from these aquatic systems for food.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites among the Malnourished Children in Enugu, Nigeria

N. F. Onyemelukwe, U. C. Maduakor, C. A. Uchenna, U. Okongwu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 38-46
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i730397

Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) have remained a serious challenge to developing countries. Infectious disease and nutritional deficiencies can impact adversely on the nutritional status of children. Hence, this study aimed at investigating prevalence of Intestinal parasitic infections among malnourished children in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. It was a case-controlled study consisting of 164 malnourished children and 100 well-nourished subjects between the ages of 0-10 years whose caregivers gave their consent. Anthropometric measures were evaluated using the Gomez system of classification. Stool samples were analyzed using standard parasitological protocols. Of the 164 malnourished children 52(31.7%), 63(38.4%), 49(29.9%) had mild, moderate, and severe malnutrition respectively. Five species of helminths and three species of protozoa were detected. The overall prevalence was 51.8% among the malnourished and 12% in well-nourished children. The prevalence of IPIs among the control, mild, moderate, and severe malnutrition were 12%, 36.5%, 60.3%, and 57.1% respectively. Ascaris lumbricoides ranked highest 40(37.7%) followed by Hookworm 31(29.3%) and the least was Strongyloides stercoralis 4(3.8%) among the helminths while Cryptosporidium spp was the most prevalent protozoa 8(7.6%) and the least was Isospora spp. 2(1.9%). Mixed infections were detected in 3(7.5%) and 6(21.4%) among children with moderate and severe malnutrition respectively. Nutritional status was found to be a significant risk factor while gender and age were statistically insignificant P= 0.118 and P= 0.455 respectively. The study revealed that malnourished children are highly susceptible to IPIs. There is a need for integrated effort to address malnutrition and parasitic infections

Open Access Original Research Article

Soybean Cultivation Technology Package on Tidal Swamp Lands in Indonesia

Arief Harsono, Dian A. A. Elisabeth, Sriwahyuni Indiati, Fachrur Rozi, Didik Harnowo, Titik Sundari, Yudi Widodo, Ruly Krisdiana, Made J. Mejaya

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 47-57
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i730398

The main constraints of the tidal swamp lands in Indonesia for soybean growth are low soil pH, high Al saturation, and low nutrient availability of N, P, K, Ca, and Mg. The objectives of this research were to determine tolerance of several soybean varieties to Al saturation level, and to obtain a technological package for soybean cultivation which was suitable for farmers to adopt on tidal swamp lands. The research consisted of two stages of study. The first stage formulated of technology package, and the second stage evaluated feasibility of the technology package which was formulation from the first stage. The first stage  studied  the effect of  dolomite application (20%

- 30% of soil Al saturation) on four soybean varieties (Anjasmoro, Panderman, Dega 1, and Demas). The second stage studied the effect of three technological packages: existing technology; water- saturated soybean cultivation (WSC); and alternative technology which was formulated from the results of the first study. In the 30% of soil Al saturation condition, the alternative technology package (application of 50 kg urea + 75 kg SP36 + 50 kg KCl + 1500 kg organic fertilizers/ha + rhizobium biofertilizer “Agriosy” 0.25 kg/50 g seeds/ha)  gave soybean yield of 1.78 - 2.72 t/ha for all

of soybean varieties tested. The alternative technology package with Anjasmoro variety provided higher seed yields (2.62 t/ha) compared to the existing technology (2.07 t/ha) and WSC technology package (2.44 t/ha). The alternative technology package gave a profit of 11,595,000 IRD/ha with B/C values of 1.71 which was higer than the existing and WSC technology packages. The alternative technology package was more profitable than the existing technology (current farmer practice) and water-saturated soybean cultivation technology packages.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on the Ecological Situation and the Nursery Function of the Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile, 1813 Prairies on the Islands of Ventotene e Santo Stefano

Roberto Bedini, Marco Bedini, Arianna Trafeli, Martina Manuele

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 58-76
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i730399

On behalf of the Management of the Protected Marine Area of the island of Ventotene and Santo Stefano the Marine Ecology and Biology Institute of Piombino (ITALY) carried out a very in dept study aimed at knowledge of the ecological situation of the Posidonia Oceanica (L.) Delile, 1813 meadows. The most appropriate methodologies were used to be able to identify all the benthic species present in order to evaluate the efficiency of the nursery function of the prairies investigated. The results of the numerous species captured in the juvenile stage have demonstrated the excellent nursery function of the meadows of the island of Ventotene.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation and Regression Analysis of Age and Body Mass Index (BMI) Among Nsidung Fisher Folks, Calabar South, Cross River State, Nigeria: The Counselor Sensitization Strategy

Florence A. Undiyaundeye, Effiom B. Ekeng, Godwin M. Ubi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 77-85
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i730400

The research focuses on the relationship between age, blood pressure and body mass index among fisher folks at Nsidung, Calabar south, cross River state Nigeria. The study evaluated one hundred and twenty fisher folks separated into six groups based on age. Appropriate equipment and tools were used to measure the systolic and diastolic blood pressures and pulse rates. The body mass index was determined using weight over square of height (kg/m2). The data generated was analyzed using Pearson’s’ correlation coefficient and linear regreesion analysis. The results showed that the age of the Nsidung fisher folks correlates strongly, positively and significantly with their body mass index and systolic blood pressure and correlated negatively, weakly and non-significantly with diastolic blood pressure, mean body weights, height and pulse rate. The results also revealed that a body mass index is linearly dependent on the age of the fisher folks. The results of correlation analysis reveals that age correlated (r=0.719; p<0.001) and (r=0.883; p<0.001) significantly, positively and strongly with Body mass index (BMI) and systolic blood pressure respectively. The study revealed the line of best fit equation Y = 1.2329X + 23.937 with a significant regression coefficient R2 of 0.5182. The counselor’s intervention strategy will focus on the creation of awareness on the need for a regular and routine blood pressure check - up by all fisher folks at Nsidung. There is need to create awareness on the potential risk factors that predisposes the Nsidung fisher folks to increased blood pressure and pulse rates. The need for urgent guidance and counseling program for the Nsidung fisher folks on the dangers of drug abuse, smoking and poor dieting which is highly prevalent among them. The need for government safety nets intervention program for the aged among the Nsidung fisher folks to forestall increasing cardiac associated problem which is highly prevalence among the aged.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Formulated Feed Preference and Stocking Density on Growth and Survival of Baby Pila globosa Reared in Laboratory Condition

Md. Shariful ISLAM, A. F. M. Shofiquzzoha, Nilufa Begum

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 86-91
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i730401

Quality diet as food for raising freshwater snails under laboratory conditions has a significant effect on their growth and the number of egg clutches laid as well as on the size of the snail. Now a days, some innovative farmers of Bangladesh started snail culture within their fish farms in the view of producing snail to use as feed for their Prawn (Macrobrachiam rosenbergii), indigenous catfish (Clarius batrachus) farms, domestic duck farms and also as a protein supplement for preparing fish feed. From previous study we know that Bulinus nyassanus growth and survive rate was found well on locally formulated fish diet consisting of 30% crude protein with ingredients comprising fish meal, maize bran, rice bran, soya bean, wheat bran, hemicellulose (binder), vitamin premix and mineral premix.  But no such research has been done in case of apple snail. The present study was aimed to investigate the feed formulation preferred by Pila globosa species and their effects on survival and growth of these snails in laboratory condition. Three type of formulated feed viz., pellet feed, fish meal and 50% fish meal + 50% crusted khudipana were used for the experiment in high and low stocking density of baby snails. The present findings shown that the diets in order of preference based on their effects on growth and survival of snails were formulated pellet feed, fish meal and 50% fish meal+ 50% crushed khudipana. After rearing of 28 days, highest growth found 0.32g with 86.66% survival with formulated diet in 60nos/L stocking density and 0.35g with 90% survival with formulated diet in 30nos/L stocking density. It`s indicate that the snails reared on formulated pellet feed diets and lower stocking density gave better performance in terms of survival and mean growth rate than those reared on other diets.

Open Access Original Research Article

Composition and Physicochemical Characteristics of Milk of the West African Dwarf Goats in Cross River, Nigeria

Ebegbulem, Victoria N., Nwanjoku, Janet E.

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 92-96
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i730402

Goat milk is a suitable alternative to human milk owing to its high beta casein content which makes it very digestible unlike cow milk. Moreover, the West African Dwarf goat is highly trypano- tolerant and thrives excellently in the humid forest zone of Nigeria. It  therefore necessitated the need to expound its potential in human nutrition in the study area. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the proximate, mineral composition and physicochemical characteristics of milk of West African Dwarf goats in Cross River State, Nigeria .Twenty five lactating West African Dwarf does within the age of 3-5 years were milked from five Local Government Areas of Cross River State (Calabar South, Calabar Municipal, Akamkpa, Biase and Odukpani) in which three goat milk samples were obtained by hand milking from each location. Data collected were presented using descriptive statistics. Completely randomized design was used to study the relationship between components of the milk samples. Proximate components of milk were crude protein (3.91-6.35%), ether extract (2.69-5.04%), Ash (1.51-1.95%), Nitrogen free extract (88.68-90.32%) and moisture content (77.72-85.56%). Values of physicochemical components were: Total Acid (0.16-0.21%), Total solid (12.30-13.30%), Density (0.90-1.95%) and pH (6.50-6.90%). Elemental components (mg/100g) were potassium (202-64-204.39), sodium (49.06-49.96), calcium (133.18-133.98), magnesium (13.96-14.07), iron (0.04-0.07), zinc (0.30-0.32) copper (1.32-1.35) and phosphorus (110.32-110.98). Proximate composition of milk samples from the different locations varied significantly (p>0.05).Similarly, the physicochemical composition from the locations also varied significantly (p<0.05) with exception to milk pH with no significant difference. Mineral elements of milk samples from different locations were not significantly different except the potassium content in milk from Odukpani which was significantly lower than the other locations. Goat milk from the study locations met the nutritional standards in terms of proximate, mineral and physicochemical composition. Results from this research provides veritable information of the nutritional content of goat milk in the study locations particularly and help encourage the incorporation of goat milk in the diet of Nigerians generally.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Invasive Alien Species- Acacia nilotica on the Remnant Dry Deciduous Forest of Palu Valley, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

Mustaid Siregar, . Sutomo, Danang Wahyu Purnomo, Rajif Iryadi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 97-111
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i730403

Aims: The study was carried out to assess the species composition, vegetation structure, regeneration and possible direction of vegetation development due to Acacia nilotica invasion.

Study Design: The study applied the vegetation analysis and remote sensing technique in the deciduous forest of the Palu Valley in Central Sulawesi.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Biromuli District, Sigi Regency, Central Sulawesi Province of Indonesia in February 2019.

Methodology: Species composition, vegetation structure and regeneration were studied using the split plot method, while the specific population and distribution of A. nilotica were studied using drone photos in an area of 10.24 ha.

Results: Individuals >2cm in diameter are 24 species, 22 genera and 14 families. The main species are Tabernaemontana pandacaqui, A. nilotica and Jatropha gossypiifolia. The ground vegetation (diameter<2cm) contained 21 species, 21 genera and 17 families, dominated by Digitaria ciliaris and A. nilotica. The species diversity index is 2.3880 (moderate), while the species evenness index is 0.75 (unstable). Density of 1.069 individual’s per ha and total basal area 2.48 m2 per ha. The dominance of individuals with a diameter of 2.0-4.9 cm (62.9%), followed by diameter of 5.0-9.9 cm (32.4%),  and diameter of 10 cm up (4.67%). The canopy layer consists of only one main layer at a height of 4-7m. Canopy analysis using drone photos showed that 27% of the total forest canopy area and 32.9% of the total individuals were controlled by A. nilotica.

Conclusion: The dry forest in Sigi is the remnant deciduous forest located specifically in the Palu Valley which is still in the process of development. The invasion of A. nilotica needs to be controlled in a sustainable way so that the rest of the forest does not turn into a stretch of A. nilotica.

Open Access Original Research Article

Short-term Storage of Seeds and Cryopreservation of Embryonic Axes of Lepisanthes fruticosa

B. Suryanti, M. A. Mohd Shukri, U. R. Sinniah, S. Nur Atisha, A. K. Abdul Muhaimin

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 112-123
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i730404

Aims: This work highlights short-term storage of recalcitrant Lepisanthes fruticosa seeds and long-term conservation attempts of its embryonic axes (EAs) through cryopreservation.

Study design: This study adopted the Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Ten samples were used for each experiment and replicated for 3 – 5 times.

Place and Duration of Study: Cryopreservation Laboratory, Agrobiodiversity and Environment Research Centre, MARDI Headquarters, Malaysia, in 2017 and 2018.

Methodology: Short-term storage was carried out using fresh seeds at 54% moisture content and stored at 8±1 °C and 25±2 °C for 7 weeks. Three variations to sterilization were attempted to optimize survival while keeping contamination low. Cryopreservation using two different methods were tested, namely vitrification and the encapsulation vitrification method. Vitrification technique involved the pre-culturing of EAs overnight in different sucrose pre-culture concentrations (0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 M) prior to, loading, dehydration with vitrification solution (PVS2), rapid immersion into liquid nitrogen (-196°C), rapid warming, unloading and recovery. While, encapsulation vitrification involved encapsulation of the EAs using 3% sodium alginate followed by exposure to different duration (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 minutes) of vitrification solution (PVS2) prior to cryopreservation.

Results: L. fruticosa seeds can be safely stored for short-term up to 7 weeks of storage either at 8±1 °C or 25±2 °C with no loss in germination. This study also showed that EA was amenable to cryopreservation and 13.33 – 66.67% of viability was obtained when the EAs were cryopreserved using the vitrification technique. The best result was obtained with 66.67% viability, when the EAs were pre-cultured with 0.4M sucrose prior to exposure to PVS2 and liquid nitrogen. Cryopreservation of EAs using the encapsulation-vitrification method was unsuccessful.

Conclusion: Seeds of L. fruticosa can be stored for short-term (up to 7 weeks) using hydrated/non-dried seeds where they can be successfully stored at 8±1 °C and 25±2 °C for up to 7 weeks. For long-term (cryopreservation), EAs can be cryopreserved upon pre-culture with 0.4M sucrose prior to exposure to PVS2 and liquid nitrogen through vitrification technique.

Open Access Original Research Article

Airborne Fungi in Prison Indoor Environments of Nsukka and Enugu Metropolis, Nigeria

N. Chukwuma Lilian, B. Enweani Ifeoma, V. Udeogu Chidozie, Okwelogu Izunna Somadinna, O. Arua Chukwuemeka, C. Ukandu Vivian, C. Asogwa George

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 124-132
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i730405

Air borne fungi are transmitted through the air which can cause respiratory infections in human leading to allergies, asthma and diseases of the respiratory tract. The study is to determine the prevalence of fungi isolates in Enugu and Nsukka indoor prison environments and the possible effects on the respiratory tracts of the prison inmates. Institutions that accommodate large number of people such as Prisons, schools and hospitals are prone to airborne diseases due to overcrowded and unhygienic environment. The study was carried out using convenience sampling method and health based questionnaires. One hundred and forty (140)samples were analyzed consisting prison offices(48),inmates cells (28),lavatory (16),furniture(8),nasal swabs(20) and hostels(20). AC single impactor with high vacuum pump was used for indoor air sample collection; thermometer was used in measuring the temperature of the room and hygrometer for measuring the humidity. Sterile swab was used in collection of nasal samples, walls, furniture, toilets and bathrooms. Sabouraund dextrose agar (0.05µg Chloramphenicol and 1µg of Streptomycin), Malt extract agar, Chromagar, Brain heart infusion agar, and Nutrient agar were used for culture media for isolation of fungi respectively. The data generated from this research was analyzed using SPSS statistical software version 23.The result obtained showed that the percentage distribution of fungi isolates in prison offices were 60.9%, 57.4% in Nsukka and Enugu respectively while the percentage distribution percentage distribution of fungi isolates in prison cells were 42.6% and 39.1% in Enugu and Nsukka respectively. There was a significant difference in the distribution of fungal isolates at P=0.042.The indoor temperature and humidity of Enugu and Nsukka were the same at P using ANOVA, when compared with the hostels that served as control. Considering the public health effects of these airborne fungi, appropriate measures should be put in place in prison indoor environment to prevent the growth of moulds and yeast and its dissemination.