Open Access Case study

The Study of Impact of Tofu Industrial Waste Treatment Plant on Value of Chemical Oxygen Demand Level in Residents Well of Central Lamper Village, Semarang-Indonesia

Nabila Widya Anugraheni, Slamet Isworo

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 98-107
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i830415

Background and Objective: The existence of a tofu waste treatment plant in residential areas and reports from the public about the unpleasant odor in several wells made residents worried about the impact of the intrusion of tofu waste treatment plant waste. This study aims to assess the impact of possible intrusion of waste from tofu waste treatment plants into residents' wells. 

Methods: This type of research is descriptive with a survey method. Samples from the research site were analyzed in the laboratory by the titration method based on the value of chemical oxygen demand, compared with Government Regulation of the Republic of Indonesia No. 82 Th. 2001 concerning water quality management and water pollution control.

Results: The results of the measurement of the chemical oxygen demand value of the Bajak river were 51.8 mg/L (starting point) and 238 mg/L (end point). The value of chemical oxygen demand in resident wells is as follows: resident well 1 of 12.2 mg/L, resident well 2 of 9.12 mg/L, resident well 3 of 3.05 mg/L, residential well 4 mg/L of 33.05 mg/L. L, resident well 5 is 3.05 mg/L, resident well 6 is 15.2 mg/L, resident well 7 is 27.4 mg/L and resident well 8 is 3.05 mg/L.

Conclusion: The value of chemical oxygen demand in the Bajak river exceeds the quality standard, while the value of chemical oxygen demand in resident wells shows that the farther from the tofu waste treatment plant, the smaller the concentration value of chemical oxygen demand. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Measurement of Sub-Lethal Toxicity and Effect of Kerosene Pollutant on Hematological Profile of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

E. A. Ivon, F. O. Sanusi-Jadesola, N. E. Edu, C. O. Anyanwu, G. M. Ubi, Edodi Iyam Odum

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i830406

Background and Objectives: The study measured the impact of crude oil fractions and its derivatives like kerosene on the early life and sub-adults growth of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus in terms of mild, acute and chronic toxicity effect. It also examines the effect of indiscriminate spillage of crude oil derivatives on aquatic organisms. 

Materials and Methods: Blood profiles such as Red Blood Cell count (RBC), White Blood Cell count (WBC), Blood Differentials, Hemoglobin, (HB), and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) of the treated fishes and control were estimated after exposure of the fish to the kerosene pollutant. Behavioral changes in fish exposed to8.0ml/l, 16.0ml/l, 25.0ml/l and 50.0ml/l of kerosene pollutant varied from erratic swimming, moribund movement, jumping and lack of balance.

Results: At concentration 8.0ml/L, mean total mortality was observed within 72hours of exposure. The lethal concentration (LC50) was 8.0ml/L and highest mean mortality observed with 80% kerosene pollutant. PCV of the exposed fish was 26% when compared to the control 27%, HB was 8.9 gdl as against 9.0 gdl in the control. Total WBC was 640 x 109/L as against 1280 x 109/L in control. RBC reading was 2.1 compared to 5.3 mm3 of the control.  Lymphocyte was 80%, Neutrophil was 4% and monocyte 16% compared to 62%, 8% and 30% in control respectively. There was decrease in white blood cells counts for 8.0, 16.0, 25.0 and 50.0ml/L groups (p<0.05) compared to the control.

Conclusion: The study concludes that it is necessary to ensure the safety of aquatic life forms especially fishes, by minimizing aquatic pollution with kerosene to sustain fish food quality, availability and security.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physiological Variations in Cucurbita moschata Duch. Ex. Poir Due to a Nigerian Strain of Moroccan Watermelon Virus: Lagenaria breviflora Isolate

A. A. J. Mofunanya, E. A. Effa, D. O. Etim, F. A. Akomaye, A. O. Damian

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 18-26
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i830407

Aim: Physiological variations in Cucurbita moschata due to infection with a Nigerian strain of Moroccan watermelon virus (MWMV): Lagenaria breviflora isolate was studied.

Study Design: Randomized block design was used.

Place and Duration of Study: Botany Department, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria between March and May, 2015.

Methodology: Seeds of C. moschata were sown, on germination inoculated with the virus and analyzed for possible variations between healthy and inoculated plants.

Results: Results analysis revealed increase in all amino acids investigated. Highest significant (P=0.05) percentage variation in amino acids of inoculated and healthy were -40.0% for aspartic acid, -36.1% (histidine), -29.7% (proline), -28.8% (lysine), -23.3% (glysine), -16.6% (phenylalanine) and -12.6% (glutamic acid). Infection of C. moschata with a Nigerian Strain of MWMV: Lagenaria breviflora isolate caused significant decrease in leaf nitrogen and relative water content of inoculated plants compared to the healthy. Highest percentage decrease in leaf nitrogen was 40.7% at 2 weeks after inoculation (WAI) and lowest of 25.0% at 10 WAI. The virus caused decrease in relative water content of 29.6% at 6 WAI. Activity of oxidative stress enzymes: peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and enzymes of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (6PGdH) and 6-phosphogluconic acid dehydrogenase (G6PdH) were significantly (P=0.05) increased in infected C. moschata- MWMV plant. Enzymes activity was significantly higher in inoculated than in healthy plants at all stages of growth with decrease at later periods for both inoculated and healthy plants. Percentage increase in POD, PPO, G6PdH and 6PGdH activity due to infection at 8 WAI had values of -40.5%, -46.7%, -98.9% and -89.1% respectively.

Conclusion: The Nigerian strain of MWMV: Lagenaria breviflora isolate caused significant variations with increase and decrease in biochemical and physiological components of C. moschata affecting its growth and yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Study on Human Host Factors Perpetuating the Transmission of Schistosomiasis in Endemic Community of Wudil, Kano State, Nigeria

Mahmud Ali Umar, Umar Aliyu Umar, Mujitapha Lawal, Sani Muhammad Yahaya, Muhammad Salisu Inuwa

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 27-41
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i830408

Objective: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the human host factors that contribute to the perpetuation of schistosomiasis transmission in endemic communities of Wudil, Kano State, Nigeria.

Methods: Information was derived from structured questionnaires supplemented with oral interviews, on perception of the community on the cause of urogenital schistosomiasis, using self-reported macrohaematuria, as the disease proxy, water-use practices, riverside urination and defaecation, and the choice for treatment of schistosome infection.

Results: Out of 139 study participants, the perceived causes of gross haematuria by the respondents were Excessive Salt Intake (41.73%); Scorching Sun (20.86%); Unknown (17.27%); Infection (10.07%); Supernatural Force (5.86%) and Water Contact (4.32%). The respondents with self-reported terminal haematuria were 49.64%; riverine water contact 75.54% and riverside contamination 65.41%. Of the 72.46% of the respondents with gross haematuria who attempted for medication only 8.0% visited health facilities, while majority relied on traditional herbalists (39.13%) and roadside medicine stores (20.29%) for treatment. There was a strong association between riverine water contact and terminal haematuria (Odds Ratio: 6.09, 95% CI, 2.825-13.131, P<0.0001; Relative Risk: 2.737, 95% CI, 1.664-4.502, P<0.0001).

Conclusion: Exposure to contaminated water as a result of socioeconomic activities, riverside, poor perception on the cause of the disease and lack of adherence to orthodox treatment of positive cases are the key promoters of schistosomiasis transmission in the study area. Excessive salt intake and scorching sun are the major perceived causes of haematuria among the study participants. This underpins the need for health education and other efficacious interventions for community awareness on the disease etiology which is central to effective elimination campaign.

Open Access Original Research Article

Increasing Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Productivity and Farmer’s Income through the Implementation of Modified Double Rows Planting System

Robet Asnawi, Ratna W. Arief, . Slameto, Reny D. Tambunan, . Martias, Made J. Mejaya, . Fitriani

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 42-52
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i830409

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) productivity in Indonesia is leveling off. The study aims to determine the effect of the Jejer Manten double rows modified planting system on the growth, productivity, and economic feasibility of the rice farming system. The study was conducted in Lampung Province, Indonesia from 2016 to 2018. The study was arranged using a split-plot design with 3 replications. The treatment consisted of two factors namely: planting system (S1 = Jajar Tegel, S2 = Jajar Legowo double rows 2:1, and S3 = Jejer Manten double rows modification) and rice varieties (V1 = Ciherang; V2 = Inpari 10).The results of the study showed that the Jejer Manten planting system produced higher growth and productivity than Jajar Tegel and Jajar Legowo planting system. During the three years of research, the application of the Jejer Manten planting system increased productivity by 6.04-32.27% compared to Jajar Tegel and 13.78-28.92% compared to the Jajar Legowo planting system. Economically, based on the analysis of marginal benefit-cost ratio (MBCR), the application of the Jejer Manten planting system was more feasible than the Jajar Tegel planting system (MBCR = 6.32) and Jajar Legowo planting system (MBCR = 8.18). Based on these results, it is recommended to apply the Jejer Manten planting system as a new technology to increase rice production and support of food self-sufficiency program of Indonesia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Haemoglobin Type, Haematology and Morphometric Characteristics of Muscovy Ducks Reared in Calabar, Nigeria

Ebegbulem, Victoria N., Ekwere, Ofonime N.

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 53-58
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i830410

This study determined the haemoglobin polymorphism, haematology and morphometric characteristics of Muscovy ducks. A total of 80 adult Muscovy ducks (40 per sex) respectively were used for the study which lasted 60 days. Blood samples of the ducks were collected and analysed for haemoglobin type and haematological traits while body weight (BWT) and body parts such as body girth (BG), wing length (WL), keel length (KL), shank length (SL), body length (BL), thigh length (TL) and Body circumference (BC) were taken and subjected to one –way ANOVA.  Drakes exhibited significantly (P<0.05) higher values in body girth, body length and thigh length than the ducks. Average values recorded were BWT (2040 g), BC (30.43cm), KL (25.75cm), BL (25.78cm) and TL (4.85cm).  Haemoglobin types found among the ducks were Hb AA, AB and BB, males being predominantly of Hb BB and females of Hb AA.  Gene frequencies of 0.5435 and 0.4565 were recorded for alleles A and B respectively among the ducks. Genotype frequencies were AA (39.14%), AB (30.43%) and BB (30.43%). Some average haematological values recorded were Packed Cell Volume (PCV) (29.86%), Erythrocytes Sedimentation Rate (ESR) (7.34mm/hr), Haemoglobin Concentration (HBC) (11.93g/dl), Red Blood Cell Counts (RBC) (2.4 × 106/L) and White Blood Cell (WBC) (1.98 × 103/L). Results of body morphometry from this research could serve as an important basis for characterization, conservation and improvement of this duck breed in the study location. The establishment of the haemoglobin types of ducks in Calabar is a precursor to the determination of its relationship(s) with economic traits in the birds. Haematological values recorded in this study showed that the ducks were in normal condition of health and growth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diet of the Silky Shark Carcharhinus falciformis (Müller & Henle, 1839) in Waters off Côte d’Ivoire (West Africa)

Koua Clément N’Gouan, Kouadio Justin Konan, Oi Edia Edia

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 59-69
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i830411

Aims: This study was to establish the feeding habits of silky shark Carcharhinus falciformis in waters off Côte d’Ivoire.

Study design: All stomachs of the specimens were collected using a standard method and analysed at laboratory.

Place and Duration of Study: The study of the diet of C. falciformis was carried out at the laboratory of the Oceanological Research Centre (ORC) between April 2019 and August 2020.

Methodology: To carry out this study, measurements and extractions of the stomachs of silky sharks were performed using a tape measure and dissection kit. Diet was described using the Index of Relative Importance (%IRI). The food overlap between sexes, size groups and marine seasons were analysed using the Morisita index.

Results: A total of 265 specimens ranging in size from 79 to 254 cm total length were used. Of the stomachs examined, 163 individuals had food contents (61.51%), whilst 102 were empty (38.49%). The results indicated that silky shark has epipelagic and mesobathypelagic feeding habits, preying upon a wide number of prey taxa (33 species) but with a diet dominated by teleost fishes, especially Thunnus albacares (60.62%IRI) and Katsuwonus pelamis (33.18%IRI). The Morisita index and the Spearman rank correlation coefficient showed similarity of the diet between sexes (Cλ > 0.60; Rs = 0.776 and p = 0.001 and marine seasons (Cλ > 0.60; Rs = 0.658 and p = 0.001). The juveniles and adults did not show any overlap. The Amundsen graphical (Fig. 3) analysis suggested that silky shark displays specialist feeding behaviour in this area.

Conclusion: Diet consisted mainly of T. albacares and K. pelamis, the proportions of which varied according to size and marine seasons. Carcharhinus falciformis is considered to be a specialist predator.

Open Access Original Research Article

Multivariate Analysis of Blood Pressure and Body Mass Index (BMI) for the Aged in Calabar South: The Counselors Intervention Strategy on Awareness Creation on Stress Related Disorder

Florence A. Undiyaundeye, Effiom B. Ekeng, Godwin M. Ubi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 70-81
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i830412

Multivariate analytical study was carried out for the blood pressure (BP) indicators and body mass indices (BMI) for the aged in Calabar South Local Government area of Cross River State, Nigeria using the systolic, diastolic and pulse rate and for weight over the square of heights as indices for stress related disorders. The research focuses on multivariate analysis using principal component analysis, factor analysis, Cronbach’s alpha statistics, biplot analysis, matrix plot, linear trend model and Turkey’s multiple comparative statistics between age, blood pressure and body mass index among the aged of 60 – 90 years. The study evaluated one hundred and twenty aged people separated into six groups based on age. Appropriate equipment and tools were used to measure the systolic and diastolic blood pressures and pulse rates. The body mass index was determined using weight over square of height (kg/m2). The data generated was analyzed using multivariate statistical analysis of Minitab v17 statistical software. The results revealed that all six age brackets evaluated for the aged showed 66- 70 and 81 -85 yrs showed pre –obese conditions while the other four age brackets showed obese class 1 hypertension respectively. The results further showed that five principal components accounted for 100 percent of total variations in BMI and BP for the aged in the study area with principal component one (PC1) with eigen value of 0.398 contributing 56.90% to the observed total variation. The principal loading variable for this component was obtained from pulse rate (0.470). A trend linear model of Yt = 23.94 + 1.233 x t was obtained for the trend analysis indicating the high dependence of the BMI and BP (Y) on age (t). The results of Cronbach’s alpha statistics revealed a high level of low precision and high standard errors among all variables evaluated showing less than 70 percent. The Turkey’s multiple comparative analysis revealed high level of inconsistency among the variables as we compared one variable to another. The counselor’s intervention strategy focuses on the creation of awareness on the need for a regular and routine blood pressure check - up for the aged, the need to create awareness on the potential risk factors that predisposes aged to increased blood pressure and pulse rates, the need for urgent guidance and counseling program for the aged on the dangers of drug abuse, smoking and poor dieting and the need for government safety nets intervention program for the aged to reduce increasing stress related disorders which is highly prevalence among the aged in the area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Many More Consumers Not Always Induce Stronger Competition: Weaker Interspecific Competition Despite Higher Species Richness in Secondary Feeding Guild, as Compared to Primary

Jean Béguinot

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 82-89
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i830413

The species functional structuration (specifically in terms of species richness and average intensity of interspecific competition) is widely varying among species communities and this point is now very well documented in literature. But, what about the species functional structuration within the different feeding guilds that coexist in a same local community – in particular the primary and the secondary feeding guilds? Are there significant differences – or not – between them in this respect? This rather fundamental issue does not seem having been addressed yet, at least using appropriate investigative tools. However, a series of recently published case studies, precisely implementing such an adequate investigative approach, now deserves full consideration in this regard and makes the subject of the present review. Substantially, it results from this preliminary survey of the question that marked differences in the patterns of species functional structuration clearly singularize the secondary from the primary feeding guilds, within a same local community. More precisely, a consistent trend seems to arise, highlighting both: (i) a markedly greater species richness and, yet somewhat unexpectedly, (ii) a significantly reduced intensity in interspecific competition within secondary feeding guild as compared to primary. The point is discussed and interpreted as being the consequence of the fact that secondary feeders (typically carnivores) have obviously evolve quite more diversified feeding behaviors than did the primary feeders (typically herbivores).

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of Single and Split NPK Fertilizer Application on Growth and Yield of Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.)

M. Aluko, O. O. Olajide, A. F. Kehinde- Fadare

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 90-97
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i830414

Inorganic fertilizer application and the quantity required by the crop for optimum production led agronomists to introduced varying measures in crop production. A study to investigate the effects of single and split NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer application on muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) production was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of Ekiti State University. A 4 × 2 factorial experiment laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design in three replicates with four varying rates (0, 167, 333 and 500 kg ha-1) of NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer applications and two-mode of applications (single and split) serves as the treatments. Data collected include the number of leaves and branches, vine length, number of fruits, fruit length and width, fruit weight, fruit flesh thickness (fruit pulp width), number of seeds fruit-1 and seed weight. Collected data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA), and treatment means separated with Duncan Multiple Range Test at 5% level                            of probability. The split application at 333 kg ha-1 NPK fertilizer produced a significantly higher number of leaves (90), leaf area (109.58 cm2) and vine length (110.77 cm) at 10 WAS than other applied fertilizer rates. The split application of 500 kg ha-1 NPK fertilizer produced a higher fruit yield                    (12.64 t ha-1) than 12.09 t ha-1 from the single application which was not significantly different                  from the 333 kg ha-1 NPK fertilizer. The results indicated that the split application of NPK                 fertilizer is a better fertilizer application approach than a single application for muskmelon production.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Organogenesis in Cotton (Gossypium spp) for Ex-situ Conservation Issue

Marius Guillaume Sinha, Gilles Habib Todjro Cacaï, Jerome Anani Houngue, Serge Sètondji Houédjissin, Thiéris Dassoudo Sossou, Corneille Ahanhanzo

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 108-119
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i830416

Background: Monovarietal cultivation of cotton plant allowed the genetic erosion for traditional cotton varieties that proceed essential traits mainly involved in cotton genetic breeding. These varieties need to be preserved for future used. This study aims to evaluate the effect of gibberellic acid on cotton seed germination and the effect of Benzylaminopurin (BAP), Kinetin (KIN), α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and activated charcoal (CA) on cotton seedlings growth obtained from different type of explants.

Methodology: The seeds of three improved varieties (KET782, ANG956, OKP768) and five local varieties (Q62, Q64, Q85, Q88, Q92) were germinated with different concentration of gibberellic acid (GA3). Different explants were collected from the germinated plantlets and cultivated in different culture media containing plants growth regulators and activated charcoal in different concentration.

Results: We found that Gibberellic Acid activity on cotton seeds germination significantly varied according to the variety and GA3 concentration in the medium. 63.33% germination rate in OKP768 was obtained on the medium containing 0.5 mg/L of GA3 while the medium with 1 mg/l of GA3 gave the highest seed germination in Q85 (75%), Q64 (69.17%), and ANG956 (40.83%). The plantlets regeneration rate varied within the explants in different varieties used. 100%of axillary nodes were regenerated in Q62; Q85 and Q92 varieties while 60% were regenerated with the zygotic embryos in ANG956, and OKP768. Moreover, the medium supplemented with GA3 (1mg/l) + NAA (1 mg/l) induced the greatest number of roots (2.75 roots/plantlet) in the ANG956 and OKP768 varieties. With activated charcoal (10 g/l), ANG956 and OKP768 varieties achieved better performance with respective roots length average of 3.4 cm/plantlet and 2.1 cm/plantlet. The activated charcoal at 10 g/l highly influenced the length of roots with an average of 7.7cm in ANG956 variety.

Implication: The protocol established during this study will be useful for in vitro regeneration and conservation for cotton local varieties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ethnobotanical Survey of Flora and Fauna Species in Kainji Lake National Park New-Bussa Local Government Area, Niger State, Nigeria

M. R. Umar

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 120-131
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i830417

This study was carried out to identify the Ethnobotanical uses of flora and fauna species in Kainji Lake National Park New-Bussa Local Government Area, Niger State, Nigeria. The study objectives were to document knowledge and generate data on identification and uses of Plant species and animal species in Borgu and Zugurma sector of the park. Ethnobotanical surveys based on interviews from the park ranges, plant taxonomist and zoologist staff of the park and Botanical survey was carried out based on sample plots. A stratified random sampling was used to select sample sites within the two sector of the Park, based on flora and fauna sub-classification. A total Ten (10) plots of 100m x 100m strips were demarcated within the two sectors. In each plot a total of four (4) 20m x 20m sub-plots were randomly selected for identification of Flora and Fauna resources in both the two sector of the park. Results from Flora resources shows a total of 45 plants species belonging to 21 families were both the two sector. Family- Leguminosae and Combretaceace were the dominant family in terms of number of species represented. The species are multipurpose and are exploited to satisfy different subsistence needs. Bark and Leaf are the most commonly used Flora parts for medicinal in KLNP. Results from Fauna resources shows that Family-Bovidea and Felidae are the most dominate in the Mammal species, Family-Pythonidea is dominate in Reptile species, Birth has different family and species. Alestidae and Cyprinidae are the dominates in fish found in KLNP while Family-Mochokidae and Bagridae are the most dominates in the fresh-water fish species in Kainji Lake (Northern Nigeria).