Open Access Case Report

Endometrial Osseus Metaplasia during Infertility Evaluation: A Case Series

J. O. Imaralu, A. A. Akadri, T. O. Solaja, O. I. Odelola, C. C. Nwankpa

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 86-93
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i930428

Aims: To highlight the pathogenesis of endometrial osseus metaplasia, its importance as a rare cause of infertility and the benefit of hysteroscopic evaluation of infertile women with risk factors for osseus metaplasia.

Presentation of Case: A diagnosis of endometrial osseus metaplasia was confirmed histologically in three women undergoing diagnostic hysteroscopy as part of infertility evaluation. They all had chronic vaginal discharge and a preceding history of induced second trimester abortion. Two of the patients were referred for evaluation before in-vitro-fertilization (IVF). Hysteroscopy was done with a 30° telescope, initially using a 2-channel diagnostic sheath, which was later replaced with a 4-channel operating sheath for tissue retrieval.

Discussion: Endometrial osseus metaplasia is a rare condition characterized by the presence of mature or immature bone in the endometrial cavity. Endometrial retention of embryonic tissue following an abortion is the commonest theory of etio-pathogenesis. It is an important cause of infertility and while other causes of infertility can be easily by-passed in an IVF cycle, endometrial factors may not be addressed by IVF alone, as a defective endometrium is a risk for failure. Although there is no consensus on routine hysteroscopy for women undergoing IVF, it is the mainstay of evaluation and treatment of women with endometrial osseus metaplasia.

Conclusion: Only complete removal of metaplastic tissue would restore fertility, in patients with osseus metaplasia. Hysteroscopy done in infertile women with risk factors for endometrial osseus metaplasia may enhance early treatment and ultimately increase successful spontaneous and IVF pregnancy rates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Yellow Sap Contamination on Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) Fruit in Relation to Soil Calcium Contents and Plant Tissue

. Martias, Titin Purnama, . Riska, . Affandi, Sri Yuliati, Nini Marta, Tri Budiyanti, Deni Emilda, Dewi Fatria, . Hendri, I. G. K. D. Arsana, Ratna W. Arief, Robet Asnawi, Made J. Mejaya

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i930418

Yellow sap contamination (YSC) is one of the mangosteen quality constrain in Indonesia. Calcium is the prominent nutrient that influence the incidence of yellow sap contamination. A research with objective to observe the relationship between incidence YSC and Ca availability in soil as well as plant tissue was done in ten locations in West Sumatra, Lampung and West Java provinces. Purposive random sampling method was used to determine the site locations. The plant and soil samples were collected from 10 sites and ten tree per sites. Correlation analysis was used to measure the relationship between incidence YSC and Ca content in fruit endocarp, mesocarp, peel, soil and leaf. The result showed that there was a variation of incidence YSC in site location with range of 8.7%−54.04%; 4.0−51.6%; and 17.7−78.6% for percentage of YSC in fruit flesh, segmentation and peel, respectively. Ca content in soil, endocarp, mesocarp and leaf were given significantly negative correlation toward incidence YSC in fruit flesh and segmentation. Ca content in leaf part correlates significantly to Ca availability in soil, endocarp and mesocarp. Ca content in leaf in the range of 1.40- 1.70% indicates YSC less than 10%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determining the Optimum Conditions for Extracting Carotenoids from Syrian Apricot Fruits

Wahbi Kalook, Adib Faleh, Amir Al-Haj Sakur, Wassim Abdelwahed

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 11-20
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i930419

The aim of this research is to extract carotenoids from apricot fruits using a food solvent (ethanol) and a non-food solvent (propanol). In addition, it aims to study the effect of different extraction conditions, i.e., the extraction temperature (20-40-60)°C and the extraction times (4-8-12) hours, on the carotenoids yield in order to improve and develop extraction methods. The extracted carotenoids were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the studied carotenoids are α-carotene and β-carotene. It was found that β-carotene constitutes about 80% of the total carotenoids in apricots. The results indicated that the extraction yield using ethanol was low compared to the extraction yield using propanol. Propanol is the most suitable solvent for carotenoids extraction in comparison with ethanol. The temperature also had a significant effect on the extraction yield; at 20°C the extraction yield was very low, and 60°C was the optimum temperature for the extraction of carotene. The extraction yield significantly increased with time in the first hours of extraction, and there was no significant effect from increasing the extraction time for a period of 6-8 hours. Moreover, the pretreatment of fruits by freezing accelerated the extraction process and increased the extraction yield. The optimum conditions for extracting carotenoids were determined in the conditions of food extraction; the optimum conditions for extracting carotenoids are: extraction at 60°C for three hours with pretreatment by freezing as the extraction rate reached up to 6.36 mg/100 g using ethanol as a food solvent.

Open Access Original Research Article

A New Methodology for Designing a Skull Implant

Nassim Markiz, Eszter Horváth, Péter Ficzere

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 21-30
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i930420

Cranioplasty is a surgery used to repair a bone defect in the skull caused by an injury. It involves lifting the scalp and restoring the contour of the skull with an implant usually manufactured by additive manufacturing. The cranial implant is a sensitive topic; thus, it must be manufactured to the highest standards. Medical implants are growing significantly due to industrial digitalization and the rapid development of industrial software. With the help of computed Tomography (CT) equipment, a spatial, rotating model of the patient's current state can be obtained quickly, even in minutes where the replacement part of the deficiency can be perfectly designed. Although this requires considerable routine, computational capacity, and time, but taking advantage of the latest software presented in our manuscript, the development time of the implant can be up to 50 times shorter with significant improvements in suitability and adaptability. Subsequently, we can produce more accurate implants with more accessible and faster manufacturing with our developed method. The development steps and methods of designing an implant are described in our article.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Neem Leaves (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) on the Control of Costalimaita ferruginea (Fabricius, 1801)

Roldão Carlos Andrade Lima, Mauricélia Ferreira Almeida, Adriana de Sousa Freitas, Andressa Layane Ferreira Linhares, Bianca Pinheiro da Costa Neiva, Brunna Tavares da Silva Brito Sousa, Jeferson Pereira da Silva, Kaio Lucena Vidal, Felipe Ferreira da Silva, Gabriel Alves Santos, Raylson Marcelo Fernandes de Lima

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 31-37
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i930421

Aims: Evaluate the insecticidal effect of the aqueous extract of neem leaves on the control of

Costalimaita ferruginea in eucalyptus.

Place and Duration of Study: Entomology Laboratory of the Center for Agricultural Sciences (CCA) of the State University of the Tocantina Region of Maranhão (UEMASUL) between November 2016 and July 2017.

Methodology: Neem aqueous extract solutions were tested at concentrations of 40, 60 and 80%, and the control group treated with mineral water. Leaves of eucalyptus seedlings were immersed in each concentration and individualized in Petri dishes together with the insects. The design was completely randomized with four treatments and ten repetitions, each repetition consisting of a Petri dish with an insect and a eucalyptus leaf. The evaluations were carried out daily, analyzing the mortality of adults, and the leaves were replaced by others submitted to the same treatment and procedure described above.

Results: In the evaluations of 12, 60, 72 and 84 hours there was no significant difference. 36 hours after the implementation of the experiment, the 60% neem concentration resulted in 100% mortality of specimens.

Conclusion: The 60% neem concentration is the most efficient due to its rapid effect on C. ferruginea mortality and economy of raw material for production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Farmers’ Preference of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Varieties Introduced to Improve Plant Productivity in North Sumatra Province, Indonesia

Yudi Widodo, Ruly Krisdiana, Nila Prasetiaswati, Kartika Noerwijati, Arief Harsono, Didik Sucahyono, Tinuk S. Wahyuni, Titik Sundari, Made J. Mejaya, . Martias, I. G. K. D. Arsana

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 38-46
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i930422

A varietal testing had been undertaken in Pematangsiantar regency, North Sumatra province, Indonesia in 2015-2016. The objective of the study was to determine the preference of cassava growers to the introduced varieties compared to the existing cassava varieties. Twelve cassava varities (UB1/2, UB1472, Adira1, Malang4, Cecekijo, Farsem, Gajah, Ketan Jabung, Caspro, Malaysia, Adira4, and Cikaret) were tested using a Randomized Block Design with four replications. The data were taken on aboveground characters and underground characters such as root number, root diameter, root length, root weight, and starch content based on factory criteria (A = 22%, B = 18%, C = 14% and D = 10% starch content). Results of the study indicated that Malang-4 had the highest root yield (49,830 kg ha-1) followed by Farsem variety (41,690 kg ha-1), and Malaysia Local variety (41,030 kg ha-1). The bitter taste of Malang 4 was an appropriate character to be developed as starch processing of cassava. Starch content is very important indigenous criteria for farmers and traders to know fairly about pricing in relation with starch content. The higher starch content coincided with higher root yield of Malang-4 is very interesting and will benefit the factory. There was no difference in factory price of cassava from farmers, although the starch content indicated different levels (B =18%, C=14% or D =10%). The Malang-4 could be introduced to the local goverment for being grown in a larger areas in the North Sumatera province.

Open Access Original Research Article

Critical Level of Manganese in Soil and Leaves: It’s Relationship to Fruit Quality of Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.)

. Martias, Bambang Hariyanto, Titin Purnama, . Nofiarli, Deni Emilda, . Hendri, Adha Fatmah Siregar, A. Kasno, Sri Yuliati, Desi Hernita, I. Gusti K. D. Arsana, Made J. Mejaya

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 75-85
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i930427

Manganese (Mn) is one of the essential micronutrients that plays a crucial role in plants' growth and development and is also considered a limiting factor for crop production. This study aimed to determine the critical level of Mn in soil and leaves for improving the quality of mangosteen fruit. The research was conducted in 2015 in several mangosteen production centers, including West Sumatra (Simalanggang and Banja Laweh), West Java (Karacak and Barengkok), Bali (Belimbing and Selamadeg). A well-maintained of fifteen to twenty years old mangosteen plants were used with uniform soil fertility. Purposive random sampling is conducted in each location to select ten plants from each site. Soil samples are taken from under the plant canopy around 0-30 cm in depth at the four cardinal directions. The terminal leaves that collected from the middle part of the plant canopy are used as the leaf samples. Physiological ripe fruits are taken after ripening with index 3-4. The parameters observed consist of (1) soil pH of H2O, Ca, Mg, Mn-available, (2) levels of Mn, Ca, Mg, and K in the leaves, (3) fruit quality (fruit weight, fruit diameter, fruit skin thickness, aryl weight, seed weight). The results showed the Mn content in the soil ranged from 18.89 to 33.63 ppm. Available Mn is negatively affected by pH, Ca, and Mg exchangeability. Soil Mn is linearly related to leaf Mn with R2 0.76. The critical values of Mn in leaf and soil for mangosteen plants in Indonesia were 425 ppm and 22 to 24 ppm, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Virus Detection and Production of Virus Free Plant Materials from the Lily by Selecting Basal Filament Flower as Explants

Yanjie Lv, Yajun Dou, Halizeremu Saidahemaiti, Xiangfeng He, Xiangxun Zhao, Wenhe Wang

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 94-103
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i930429

Lilium is a perennial bulbous flower of Lily family Liliaceae, with high ornamental and economic value. However, Lily is vulnerable to virus infection, which seriously affects the yield and quality of Lily, and poses a great threat to the production, sales, especially export of Lily, and has caused huge economic losses to the related industries. Therefore, the research on lily virus removal methods and virus detection technology has important practical significance to improve the ornamental value and economic value of lily.

In this study, the filaments of four susceptible lily varieties,' Valdisole' (A),'Adoration'(LA),' Ice Cube'(OT) and ‘Zantriana’ (O), were used as explants. The filaments of lily were divided into three parts, namely, top, middle, and base. In this paper, the virus detection of tissue culture seedlings induced by lily filaments was carried out by using DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR, and the removal effects of Cucumber mosaic virus,(CMV) and lily symptomless virus (LSV), two common viruses in lily, were explored, and the two detection technologies were compared.

The results showed that the success rate of tissue culture seedlings induced by filament base was the highest, and CMV virus could be basically removed. RT-PCR detection is more sensitive than DAS-ELISA detection, but RT-PCR detection requires higher test conditions and technology. Therefore, appropriate virus detection methods can be selected according to actual conditions and severity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of the Methanolic Extract and the Residual Fraction of the Stem Bark of Daniellia oliveri (Fabaceae)

Mariam Traore, Adjaratou C. Coulibaly, Kadiatou T. Traore, Abdoul G. L. Boly, Esther W. L. M. B. Kabre, Noufou Ouedraogo, Martin Kiendrebeogo, Richard W. Sawadogo

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 104-111
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i930430

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Daniellia oliveri methanolic extract and its fractions in NMRI mice.

Study Design: In vivo acute toxicity, anti-inflammatory and analgesic assays.

Place and Duration of Study: The work was carried out in the Department of Traditional Pharmacopoeia and Pharmacy (MEPHATRA / PH) of the Research Institute for Health Sciences (IRSS) Ouagadougou (Burkina- Faso) between December 2020 and February 2021.

Methodology: The toxicity of the extracts was assessed according to OECD guideline 423 of 2001 at a single dose of 2000 mg / kg body weight. Analgesic effect was evaluated on the number of abdominal contortions induced by the intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid and the anti-inflammatory activity using the Carrageenan anti-edematous test was determined according to Winter.

Results: The results of the acute oral toxicity study in mice showed no clinical signs of toxicity at dose of 2000 mg/kg b.w. The lethal dose (LD50) value estimated to 5000 mg/kg. The extracts reduced edema from the first hour, then by the third hour and maximum inhibition was achieved by the fifth hour after the injection of carrageenan. Extract and methanolic fraction at different doses showed significant inhibition of abdominal contortions in mice in a dose dependent manner. At 200mg the analgesic effect of methanolic fraction and crude extract was 53.70±1.29% and 41.38±1.25% respectively. At 400 mg/kg, the methanolic fraction inhibited carragenaan-induced edema by 85.97±5.67%.

Conclusion: Daniellia oliveri is an important source of anti-inflammatory and analgesic compounds, justifying the use of this plant in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro Testing of Antioxidant, Anti-Parasite Activities, Cytotoxicity, and Chemical Evaluation of Abutilon Pannosum and Cassia Occidentalis Ethanolic Extracts

Ahmed A. Elshikh, Mawahib E. M. ElNour, Hatil H. Elkamali, Ahmed S. Kabbashi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 112-121
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i930431

Aims: The aim of this study to detect Anti-giardia, antioxidant activities, cytotoxicity and evaluated the chemical constituent of ethanolic extracts of Abutilon pannosum and Cassia occidentalis.

Study Design:  Various standard methods were used to detect of bioactivity for ethanolic extracts of plants used in this study.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in the laboratories of microbiology and parasitology and chemistry, the International University of Africa, Khartoum, Sudan, during May 2019.

Methodology: The ethanolic extract of Abutilon pannosum and Cassia occidentalis was used as an anti-giardia and anti-oxidant in-vitro, and toxicity tests were performed using brine shrimp and MTT assay. Also, the compounds of the plants used were detected by the GCMS apparatus.

Results: The ethanolic extracts of Abutilon pannosum showed high Anti-giardia activity (79%) in concentration (500 ppm) after 72 hours, whereas the activity of Cassia occidentalis extract showed (61%). The highest antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Cassia occidentalis was (68.7%), while it was weak in Abutilon pannosum ethanolic extract (45%) by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The results of cytotoxicity revealed that the ethanolic extracts are highly toxic to brine shrimp, but are not toxic to normal cell line (MTT). Chromatographic analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GCMS) showed good separation of compounds. GCMS detected 22 and14 important compounds in Abutilon pannosum and Cassia occidentalis extracts respectively. The common compound in both plant extracts is n-Hexadecanoic acid. This acid was reported as an antioxidant.

Conclusion: This study revealed that the biological activities of Abutilon pannosum extracts showed high activities of Anti-giardia and antioxidants. Non-cytotoxic in the normal cell line was shown. Cassia occidentalis showed high activity of Anti-giardia and weak activity antioxidant.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Toxicity of Pesticides in Catfishes: Reproductive, Haematological and Biochemical Aspects

P. Suchiang

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 47-59
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i930423

This review article focuses on the effect of pesticides on reproductive functions, haematological and biochemical changes in catfishes. Pesticides are chemical substances that are released into the environment to control the populations of harmful pests. Pesticide exposure leads to toxicity in aquatic organisms, including fishes which are particularly sensitive to pesticides. The acute and sublethal concentrations of pesticides in the aquatic environment result in different lethal alterations, including changes in reproductive functions, histology, haematology, proteins, glucose, lipids, enzymes, etc. Pesticides act as endocrine disruptor compounds and have the potential to impair reproductive function in catfishes. Alterations in haematological and biochemical parameters are used as efficient biomarkers in assessing the toxicity of pesticides in fishes.

Open Access Review Article

Overview and Checklist of Parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Braconidae and Figitidae) of Anastrepha Fruit Flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) in the Brazilian Amazon

Maria do Socorro Miranda de Sousa, Jhulie Emille Veloso dos Santos, Dori Edson Nava, Roberto Antonio Zucchi, Ricardo Adaime

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 60-74
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i930426

 Fruit-bearing plants in the Brazilian Amazon are mainly attacked by species of Anastrepha, of which about half are endemic to the region. However, tritrophic relations (fly/plant/parasitoid) have only been established for some 25% of the species of Anastrepha in the region. At present, 11 species of hymenopterous parasitoids (Braconidae and Figitidae) have been recorded in the Brazilian Amazon. Parasitoids in general, especially those of the family Braconidae, stand out as the most effective natural enemies of fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha. Doryctobracon areolatus is the most abundant parasitoid and it is associated with the largest number of Anastrepha species in the region. Some fruiting species, for example Bellucia grossularioides (L.) Triana and Geissospermum argenteum Woodson, have been studied aiming at biological control of fruit flies, because they act as reservoirs or multipliers of fruit fly parasitoids. Although research has advanced significantly in the past 20 years, there is a shortage of studies in nearly all states in the region, due to the huge area of the Brazilian Amazon.