Open Access Original Research Article

Glutathione Reductase Encoding Gene (gor) is Associated with Oxidative Stress and Antibiotic Susceptibility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Ammar Abualnoor, Dong H. Kwon

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i1130444

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major causative agent of the hospital- and community-acquired infections. These infections are often antibiotic resistant and difficult to treat. Several intrinsic and acquired resistance mechanisms to antibiotics have reported in P. aeruginosa. Recently, oxidative- stress-scavenging-systems have suggested as a possible intrinsic resistance mechanism to antibiotics because oxidative stresses induced by bactericidal antibiotics contribute to bacterial killing effects. However, this remains controversial such that further clarification is required. Glutathione reductase is a key enzyme in the maintenance of the optimum level of intracellular glutathione-redox potential to ensure normal functioning of cellular processes including the detoxification of oxidative stress. In this study, the role of a glutathione-reductase-encoding gene (gor) in oxidative stress and antibiotic susceptibility was determined in P. aeruginosa. Results showed that a gor-mutant strain was more susceptible to hydrogen peroxide (but not superoxide) than the parental strain and 100% of cells were killed with 0.01% hydrogen peroxide while the parental strain survived at the same concentration of hydrogen peroxide. The gor-mutant strain was also more susceptible to carbenicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline than the parental strain, which was confirmed by bacterial killing-kinetics. These results suggest that the gor gene is associated with oxidative stress and susceptibility to bactericidal as well as bacteriostatic antibiotics and that the oxidative-stress-scavenging-systems may be a possible drug-target for multidrug resistant P. aeruginosa.

Open Access Original Research Article

Induced Breeding of Freshwater Fishes and Cost Benefit Analysis of a Selected Fish Hatchery in Jashore, Bangladesh

Anusree Biswas, Moumita Choudhury, Md. Almamun Farid, M. Aminur Rahman, M. Anisur Rahman

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 15-25
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i1130446

An investigation was carried out to know the induced breeding techniques of some firewater fish species such as rui (Labeo rohita), catla (Catla catla), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), sharpunti (Puntius sarana) and bata (Labeo bata) at Ma Fatima Fish Hatchery in Chanchra, Jashore, Bangladesh. The cost-benefit analysis was also performed on this hatchery for three months from May to July, 2016. The brood fishes purchased from different local sources were used for spawning. The hatchery mainly practiced induced breeding by maintaining proper age and weight of brood stock during spawning. The ranges of fertilization and hatching rates of the experimental fishes were 80.04±1.44 % to 94.35±0.54% and 75.34±3.49% to 88.68±2.76%, respectively. Total spawn production was 960, 862 and 734 kg, and the total revenue income from spawn sell was BDT 2,883,500, 2,355,100 and 1,844,800 (BDT 85 = 1 US$) in May, June and July, respectively. Estimated capital cost was BDT 87,90,000, while the operating costs were BDT 1,810,650; 1,555,105 and 1,267,680 in May, June and July, respectively. The calculated cost-benefit ratios in May, June and July were 1.59, 1.51 and 1.46, respectively. The hatchery got the highest net profit of BDT (Bangladeshi Taka) 1,041,906 in May due to the highest production and higher price of spawn, and the lowest profit of BDT 546,176 was obtained in July. So, May was found to be the peak breeding month of Ma Fatima Hatchery. The estimated cost-benefit ratio indicated that the spawn production through induced breeding techniques was profitable for the hatchery owners.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agromorphological Characterization of a Collection of Senna obtusifolia (L.) in Burkina Faso

Haoua Nacambo, Kiswendsida Romaric Nanema, Boureima Sawadogo, Mahamadou Sawadogo

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 26-35
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i1130447

Aims: Senna obtusifolia (L.) is an important wild herbaceous species for subsaharan Africa population. It is used in human food and traditional medicine to treat several deseases. In Burkina Faso, despite its potentialities, this species is of a little interest in scientific research. The aim of this study is to provide a good knowledge of the genetic diversity of this species.

Study Design: The experimental design used was a randomized Fischer block type with three replications.

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was carried out at Gampéla during 2018 rainy season.

Methodology: Seventy (70) accessions of Senna obtusifolia were used for the evaluation of agromorphological variability. A total of twenty-seven (27) quantitative traits were studied.

Results: The study revealed the existence of a great variability within the studied collection. Among the twenty-one (21) traits used for the analysis of variance (ANOVA), seventeen (17) variables significantly discriminate the accessions. A high heterogeneity was observed for the number of leaflets of the three first leaves and the number of floral pieces. In addition, significant correlations were observed between several variables. Indeed, the number of primary branches was positively correlated with the number of fruits per plant (r = 0.483), the number of grains per plant (r = 0.352) and the leaves biomass (r = 0.279). However, the number of days at flowering (NJF) is negatively correlated with the number of primary branches (r = -0.281). The variability obtained was structured in three groups. The third group is composed of accessions with the best agronomic performance that could be used in future breeding program.

Conclusion: A high agromorphological diversity of Senna obtusifolia was observed and could be used in a breeding program.

Open Access Review Article

Inventory of Animal Contamination by Cyanotoxins in Africa

K. E. Yao, K. J. Coulibaly, D. R. Yao, A. M. Koffi, M. Koné, N. S. Vakou, M. Dosso, V. N’ Douba

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 9-14
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i1130445

This study reviews work on the accumulation of cyanotoxins in fish and various animals in Africa. Microcystins (MC-LR, MC-RR, and MC-YR) appear to be the main contaminating toxin in fish and other animals. In fish, the highest concentration (1917 μ was detected in the whole body of a small species of fish (Rastrineobola argenta) consumed whole by the populations around Lake Victoria. In large species, the intestine (followed by the liver) is the organ that accumulates the most cyanotoxins; up to 3059 ng.g-1 in Algerian common carp. Fish muscle accumulates little or no cyanotoxins in most publications and Oreochromis niloticus, a phytoplanktonophagous species widely consumed by the African populations, remains the most studied species. In other animal species, cases of cyanotoxin mortality were reported in most publications in southern and central Africa and only one publication in North Africa. No study on this subject has been referenced in other parts of Africa.