Open Access Short communication

Report on Death of Dwarf Sperm Whale, Kogia sima (Order: Cetacea: Family: Kogiidae) in Vedalai Shore of Mandapam, Gulf of Mannar

Koushik Sadhukhan, C. H. Ramesh, T. Shanmugaraj, M. V. Ramana Murthy, S. Satish

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 37-42
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2022/v37i130475

Aims: Present study aims to highlight an accidental death of a male Dwarf Sperm Whale scientifically known as Kogia sima which found to be as Least Concern (LC) as per IUCN Red List data. Kogia sima represents important higher trophics of marine ecosystem which faced the several threats and conservation need in Gulf of Mannar, India. 

Study Design: The study undertaken during extensive coral reef monitoring survey was carried out in Gulf of Mannar under the CRAM Project of National Centre for Coastal Research (NCCR). The present report emphasize the Morphometric observation of the dead Kogia sima and try to find out possible cause of death by examining in situ investigation.

Place and Duration of Study: The field study was taken in Vedalai Sea shore (N09°15.626’, E79°04.977’) under the Mandapam Union of Ramnathapuram District of Tamil Nadu. The male whale specimen was found on 5th May, 2019 lying dead on the sandy seashore.

Methodology: Animal was photographed and morphological attributes were measured to identify the specimen. Several injuries have been highlighted in the paper which helps in investigating the cause of death.

Results: The Dwarf Sperm Whale was infant and has mild damage on the mouth parts including scuff off skin from the body and severe blood clotting at major part of the right side near to pectoral fin. Death of this infant is not clear but it is assumed that the male infant has lost from his parents and came to the inshore area of Mandapam where it gets stuck with running boat or boulder rocks as this immature whale limits its diving capabilities. The necessary morphological characters and measures have been listed in Table 1.

Conclusion: This unfortunate death clearly indicated that acute information on ecological behavior of Dwarf Sperm Whale is still under data collection stage in India and that previous conservation efforts in country must be reviewed in terms of role of local authorities, live stranded cetaceans and hunting or incidental killing which in future can build a road map for effective action plans to save this marine mammal.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of the Frequency of the Toll-like 2 Gene Polymorphism in Leprosy

Marcos Jessé Abrahão Silva, Everaldina Cordeiro dos Santos, Yan Corrêa Rodrigues, Karla Valéria Batista Lima, Luana Nepomuceno Gondim Costa Lima

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2022/v37i130472

Polymorphisms in genes that are responsible for encoding cytokines and receptors involved in the immune response, such as Toll-like Receptor (TLR) 2 in leprosy, are of great interest for immunogenetic studies. This work aimed to analyze the possible association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), synonymous, rs3804100 of the TLR2 gene with leprosy. The study was conducted in Bacteriology and Mycology section of Evandro Chagas Institute, Brazil between August 2020 and July 2021.The scope of the study consisted of 122 subjects from cities of Goianésia, Rondon, Curionópolis, Altamira, Parauapebas and Redenção of the State of Pará, Brazil. Genotyping was performed by conventional PCR and sequencing in the ABI 3130 Genetic Analyzer (Applied Biosystems®) using primer nucleotides designed by the Primer3Plus program from the genomic region “Homo sapiens toll like receptor 2 (TLR2) transcript variant X6, mRNA”, deposited in GenBank with reference XM_011532216.2. The analyzes were performed based on Fisher's exact test. It was managed in accordance with Helsinki Declaration and the Brazilian National Health Council and with approval of the ethics committee at Evandro Chagas Institute, under opinion number: 3.950.570. No associations between gender and leprosy were possible (P> 0.05). However, associations were observed between age groups, which were significant between those over 46 years old (P=0.004) and the 2nd dose of BCG as a more protective agent between the groups analyzed (P=0.004). For the subjects with the typed genotypes, 68 contacts had T/T genotype and only 4 T/C genotypes, while in multibacillary (MB) group only 1 T/C genotype was found and none in paucibacillary (PB) (P> 0.05). We conclude that there is no association between the TLR2 SNP rs3804100 and leprosy in the Pará population, which still indicates the need for new immunogenetic studies with other genes involved in the immune response and a greater number of polymorphisms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anthelmintic Resistance of Gastrointestinal Strongyles Infecting Sheep in Nziih, West Cameroon

MakamteTchinde Stephanie, Yondo Jeannette, MbogningTayo Gertrude, Mpoame Mbida

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 11-20
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2022/v37i130473

Aims: This study aimed to investigate the levels of efficacy of anthelmintics that were most commonly used in sheep farms in Nziih locality.

Study Design: Longitudinal prospective study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Nziih locality in August 2019 and September 2020.

Methodology: Resistance against Albendazole (12.5 mg/kg) and Ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg) was evaluated using faecal egg count reduction test in naturally occurring gastrointestinal strongyles of sheep in Nziih. A total of 300 young animals were randomly selected from 5 farms in 2019 and in 2020. Faecal samples were collected from each animal on the first day of treatment (D0) and collected again 14 days later (D14). Faecal Egg Counts were performed using the Willis and Mac Master techniques and resistance was declared when faecal egg count reduction (FECR) was less than 95 % and the lower limit of confidence interval (LCI) less than 90%. Pooled faecal samples for each treatment group were set for D0 and D14 to identify resistant strongyles genera by calculating persistent larval rate (PLR).

Results: Resistance against Ivermectin was detected while there was none against Albendazole. Moreover, it was declared only in 2 farms out of the 5 selected. From 2019 to 2020, the status of resistance has shifted from suspicion to resistance for ivermectin and from absence of resistance to suspicion to Albendazole. Resistance was recorded in 2 sites: Pastorale1 (FECR= 85 %, LCI= 42.61 %) and Pastorale 3 (FECR=90.5 %, LCI= 72.26 %) in large flock herds and in farms where sheep were dewormed at least 4 times per year. Trichostrongylus were more persistent than Haemonchus and Oesophagostomum/Chabertia with PLR of 21.22 %, 13.71 %, and 7.40 % respectively.

Conclusion: Anthelmintics must be used correctly in conjunction with farmer education in Nziih.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiogram Profile of Enteric Pathogens Isolated from Fomites in Cross River University of Technology Medical Centre, Calabar, Nigeria

Bassey, Emmanuel Effiong, Tarh, Jacqueline Ebob, Otu, Joseph Ubi, Ekpiken, Ekpiken Solomon

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 21-36
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2022/v37i130474

Background: Healthcare environments are considered as potential reservoirs for pathogenic microorganisms especially those responsible for nosocomial infections. Such microorganisms often present with varying degrees of drugs resistance. This study was aimed at evaluating the Cross River University of Technology (CRUTECH) Medical Center Environment for the presence of pathogenic bacterial contaminants and antibiotics susceptibility profile of such isolates.

Materials and Methodology: A total of 72 swab samples were collected from nineteen frequently touched hospital surfaces and processed using the standard bacteriological procedures. The emergent bacterial colonies were identified using phenotypic and biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of the presumptively identified isolates was carried out using Kirby-Bauer’s method.

Results: Out of 72 swab samples collected, 44 (61.1%) were positive for Enteric bacterial pathogens. The mean viable count ranged from 1.8 x 106 Cfu/cm2 (weighing scales) to 2.41 x 107 Cfu/cm2 (wash sinks). The most prevalent isolate was E. coli (48 of 127, 37.8%) followed by Klebseilla sp (27 of 127, 21.3%), Salmonella sp (19 of 127, 14.9%), Proteus sp (12 of 127, 9.4%), Citrobacter sp (11 of 127, 8.7%), Enterobacter sp (7 of 127, 5.5%) while Shigella sp (3 of 127, 2.4%) was least isolated. Isolates demonstrated high level of susceptibility to Norfloxacin 124 (97.6%), Imipenem 116 (91.3%) and Chloramphenicol 105 (82.7%). Resistance to Erythromycin was 95 (74.8%), Gentamycin 84 (66.1%) and Amikacin 82 (64.6%).

Conclusion: Contamination of healthcare surfaces by multi-drugs resistant pathogens is a potential risk, especially to hospitalized patients and health care workers. Thus, it is therefore imperative that appropriate hygienic measures be implemented to suppress any potential microbial cross-contamination. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Parasitic Contamination of Fresh Bitter Leaf Vegetables - Onugbu (Vernonia amygdalina): A Case Study of Farms in Nimo, Njikoka Local Government Area, Anambra State, Nigeria

O. A. Okeke, N. N. Udemba, N. P. Udeh, C. A. Imakwu, C. C. Nwadike, I. O. Nnatuanya, N. V. Elosiuba, C. C. Egwuagu, P. I. Afoemezie, C. Obudulu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 43-49
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2022/v37i130476

Aim: Vegetables form a major component of the human diet; however, some agricultural practices may put consumers at risk of parasitic infections. There is high consumption of   bitter leaf (Onugbu) in the rural part of Nigeria. They are eaten raw as medicinal herbs by some people. The culture of inadequate or poor washing of vegetables could pose significant and major health threats to the consumers. The aim of the study was to identify some of the parasites that may be attached to the locally consumed edible vegetable Vernonia amygdalina called Onugbu amongst Igbo speaking dialect in south eastern Nigeria.

Study Design: This study is a survey that evaluated the parasitic contamination of bitter leaf grown in selected farms in Nimo in Njikoka Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria. 

Duration: The study lasted for six months

Methodology: V. amygdalina leaf samples were bought directly from the farmers at 300 Naira per rap. The examination of sample was carried out using sedimentation method. Samples weighing 50g were gently washed in normal saline water.  The water used in washing was filtered and centrifuged at 300g to concentrate the parasitic stages and also to avoid damages. The sediments obtained were transferred unto labelled clean slides and examined under the light microscope at x 40 objective lens.

Results: Parasites were detected in all samples collected from the farm. The commonest parasite was Entamoeba histolytica (cyst 45.5%); other parasites seen are Entamoeba coli (cyst 13.6%), B. coli (trophozoite 27.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (ova 9.1%) and Strongyloides stercolaris (larva 4. 6%).

Conclusion and Recommendations: The results provide evidence of contamination of bitter leaves from farms in Nimo in Njikoka Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria with parasites of public health importance.  To avoid infection, humans should wash the leaves of this vegetable with running water or salt and water before it is eating raw.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Mulching on Soil Water Content, Maize Performance and Weed Growth in Dry Land Area of Bangladesh

Mst. Sarmin Akter Ranu, Kamal Uddin Ahamed, Md. Shoriful Islam, Shamim Ara Sumi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 50-58
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2022/v37i130477

Aims: The objectives of the research work were to evaluate the effects of mulching on soil water content, maize performance and weed growth in dry land area of Bangladesh

Study Design: The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications

Place and Duration of Study: Central research field of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka-1207 during November 2019 to April 2020.

Methodology: The experimental field is divided into 3 blocks to represent 3 replications. There are 6 unit plots (each unit plot consists of 3m ´ 2m area) in the experimental farm. Distances of 1 m and 0.5 m are maintained between replication to replication and plots to plots, respectively. Plant to plant and row to row distances are considered to be 0.25 m and 0.75 m, respectively. The treatments are assigned in random plots. The land is ploughed four times followed by laddering to have fine tilth of the soil. The maize cultivars Shuvra and KS-510 are used as plant materials. Fig. 1 represents the six mulch treatments are imposed on the plants: Control (without mulch, CK), water hyacinth dry (10 t/ha, WH), rice straw dry (10 t/ha, RS), black polythene (4m ´ 3m, BP), white polythene (4m ´ 3m, WP), and transparent polythene (4m ´ 3m, TP) (S2). The mulches are applied as per treatment in each plot just after sowing to maintaining an equal thickness throughout the plot. Dried and cleaned mulches are used before applying to the experiment. The significance of the difference among the treatment means were estimated by the MSTAT-C package programme at 5% level of probability.

Results: It is found in the experimental results that the soil water content of the no-mulching treatment is lower as compared to that of the other treatments from 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm soil depths. It is also observed that the RS mulching provides the highest soil water content, leaf area index (LAI), chlorophyll contents, and total biomass. Significant enhancement of maize yield (20.55 ton/ha) is recorded for the rice straw mulching. In contrast, the weed dry weight of 7.45g/m2 is observed in the RS mulching, which is lower than the other treatments.

Conclusions: Therefore, it can be concluded that the RS mulching, compared to other mulching, would be more efficient for maximum utilization of limited water resources, weed suppression as well as to increase the maize yield. The present research approach would be applicable to manage the soil water for enhancing the maize production in dry land area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Activities of Vitamin C and Bi-carbonate Buffers on Hormones Secretion and Serum Metabolites of Heat-stressed Rabbit Buck

K. U. Anoh, E. E. Archibong, E. E. Nsa, E. C. Udoekong, N. P. Jimmy

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 59-68
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2022/v37i130478

Aims: To evaluate the antioxidant activities of vitamin C and bicarbonate buffers on hormones secretion and serum metabolites of heat-stressed rabbit buck.

Methodology: A total of twenty-five (25) Adult rabbit bucks (New Zealand White crosses) of 12 months old were used in this study. The rabbits were randomly allotted into the experimental treatments of five treatment groups with five (5) rabbits per treatment in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The treatment groups consisted of Control, Sodium Bicarbonate (Na2HCO3) and Potassium bicarbonate (KNO3), Vitamin C, and baobab fruit pulp meal (BFPM) as supplements respectively. The experiment lasted for 9 weeks. Temperature humidity of the pen house and thermoregulatory condition of the rabbits were evaluated. Blood samples (5 ml) were collected from the ear vein at 10.00 h from four rabbits chosen randomly from each group of rabbits respectively before and the end of the experiment for serum metabolite, thyroxine and testosterone hormones evaluation.

Results: It was found that Vitamin C and BFPM significantly (P<0.05) reduced thermoregulatory parameters and increased hormonal secretions. The pattern of secretion of serum metabolites was not significantly (P<0.05) consistent.

Conclusion: It was concluded that Vitamin antioxidants were more effective to ameliorate heat stress than bicarbonate buffers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Selenium-yeast on Cognitive Performance on Pregnant Dams Exposed to Noise Stress

Okwute Michael Ochayi, Bond Anyaehie, Eghosa Iyare, DanAzumi Umar Haruna, Andrew E. Ivang

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 69-74
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2022/v37i130479

A total of twelve pregnant Wistar rats were used, and randomly divided into three groups (n=4). Group A (negative control), not exposed to noise stress), group B (1mL/kg of distilled water + 4h /15 days noise stress), group C (0.04 mg/kg) of selenium-yeast + 4 h/15 days noise stress). On day 18 and 19 of gestation cognitive tests were conducted using Y-maze and Novel Object Recognition Test. A significant increase (P ˂ 0.05) was observed in the percentage alternation and discrimination index in group A compared with group B. However, the percentage alternation and DI were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) decreased in group C compared with group B. In conclusion, noise stress induces cognitive deficit, this deficit can be mitigated with the administration of selenium-yeast.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Arsenic (As), Lead (Pb) and Chromium (Cr) Accumulation in Different Organs of Commercially Important Fish Species Collected from Chattogram Coastal Region of Bangladesh.

Afifa Siddiqua, Sk Istiaque Ahmed, Maria Al Mazed, Zannatun Nur Popy, Md. Ashraful Islam, Md. Fahad Bin Quader

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 75-84
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2022/v37i130480

Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether there are any significant toxic effects of the widely exposed metals on different organs (gill, liver, kidney, and muscle) of some commercially important marine fish species (Herpodon nehereus, Pampus chinensis and Hilsa ilisha).

Study Design: The collection of the samples was done from January to March 2018 from Bay of Bengal near Chattogram city of Bangladesh. The study is based on randomly collected samples from the intended sampling sites (Randomized Block Design) to ensure the evenness and unbiases of the collected samples.

Methodology: Analyses were performed for metals such as arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and chromium (Cr) using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). During each month, five individuals each with three replications from the three targeted species were collected, with a total of 135 (45*3) fishes in the study period.

Results: The concentrations of the metals found in the fishes varied in the following ranges: As: 0.029-0.071 ppm, Pb: 0.008-0.083 ppm and Cr: 0.0001-0.03 ppm. The obtained result revealed the highest concentrations of all three metals were recorded in H.nehereus fish. The organ wise lead concentration was recorded highest in kidneys and gills of examined fishes with significant variation in muscles and liver. The scenario depicted quite differently in case of chromium where concentration in gills was found to be the highest with insignificant variation in accumulation in other three organs. In case of Arsenic, kidneys and livers were the most exposed two organs in comparison to significant exposure to muscles and gills. The obtained values of arsenic accumulation were considered critical for human consumption as it was higher than the recommended values stated by WHO and FAO; but the concentration of lead and chromium were found to be safe for human consumption. The values recorded for lead were increasingly approached to the safety values.

Conclusion: So, crucial steps should be taken regarding safety and environmentally friendly discharge of arsenic and lead; high levels of pollution will not only affect aquatic life but will also invite socio-economic disasters.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro Susceptibility Profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Selected Medicinal Plants Obtained from University of Calabar Farm, Nigeria

Iniobong E. Andy, Ekomobong A. Okpo, Christiana E. Ubengama

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 85-91
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2022/v37i130481

Antibiotic resistance represents the greatest challenges to global health. Strategies to curb the menace of antibiotic resistance include researching for new antimicrobials from plants. This study is aimed at determine the in-vitro susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Chromolaena odorata, Jatropha tanjorensis, Ocimum gratissimum, Vernonia amydalina, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Aloe barbadensis obtained within University of Calabar farm. All the test carried out were performed according to standard microbiological procedure. Ethanol was used for extraction of Phytochemicals and were purified using column chromatography. In-vitro susceptibility of selected plants against P. aeruginosa was in the order C. odorata>J. tanjorensis > O. gratissimum > H. sabdariffa >V. amydalina > A. barbadensis (Aloe vera). The result revealed that the leaves of C. odorata had the highest antimicrobial effect against P. aeruginosa. The first column of all the plant extracts showed no antimicrobial activity. MIC of C. odorata, J. tanjorensis, O. gratissimum and H. sabdariffa were observed in 10-7, 10-6, 10-5 and 10-4 dilution respectively. Statistical analysis between the zone of inhibitions and layers of column chromatography was significant (<0.05). Ethanol extract and the third column of Chromolaena odorata, Jatropha tanjorensis, Ocimum gratissimum have great potential antibacterial activity against P.  aeruginosa.