Open Access Original Research Article

Damping the Impact of Intraspecific Variability of Whorl Growth-rate on the Range of Intraspecific Variation of Adult Shell-size in Gastropods with Determinate Growth: Evidence of a Finely-tuned Regulating Process

Jean Béguinot

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2022/v37i230482

Many species among shelled gastropods – either land snails or marine snails – exhibit determinate growth and, therefore, are expected to implement some regulating process aiming at limiting the impact on the final (adult) shell-size of the (possibly excessive) intraspecific variability in the rate of shell-development. Indeed, a usually more or less limited range of variation is allowed for adult shell-size, in those species having determinate growth. Mollusks are expected to be no exception in this respect and, up to now, the occurrence of such a regulating process has actually been reported systematically, despite a still too limited number of investigations. Yet, the question remained of the ability of this regulatory process to finely adjust the end of the final development of both body and shell (specifically in term of the final number of whorls), so as to limit the variations in adult shell-size, despite the amplitude of intraspecific variability in shell development rate.

I provide here preliminary empirical evidence for such a “finely tuned” regulating process – the strength of which is mirrored by the degree of “Gouldian” negative covariance between whorl growth-rate and the number of whorls at adulthood. As expected, the strength of the regulating process reveals systematically increasing (i) with the amplitude of the intraspecific variability in shell development-rate and (ii) with the narrowness of the range of variation allowed for the adult shell-size (narrowness which depends upon the identity of the particular species under consideration). In addition to the already reported usual occurrence of this regulating process among shelled gastropods, its “finely tuned” character provides here still further evidence as regards its major importance in controlling the species-specific adult body mass, and this even for typically soft-bodied animals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Trace Element Levels and Socio-Demography of Pre-Teen Nigerians with Homozygous Sickle Cell Disorder

K. O. Shittu, F. A. Egbeleke, A. A. Iyanda

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 13-19
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2022/v37i230483

Objectives: Homozygous sickle cell disorder (SCD) children are known to have abnormal anthropometric parameters which mostly have been linked with altered zinc status. Alteration in trace element status which occurs from interaction between essential and non-essential elements has not been well studied in SCD. Therefore, the aim of the study is to relate concentrations of Zn, Cd, and Pb with anthropometric parameters. Moreover, it will be established if correlation (interaction) exists between zinc and these two non-essential elements.

Methods: Twenty-seven SCD patients and 25 age and sex-matched children with hemoglobin genotype HbAA served as test and control groups respectively. Anthropometric parameters and information on demography, dietary zinc status and socio-economic status were obtained. The plasma and red cells obtained from 5 mL of blood were used to determine zinc and heavy metal (Pb, Cd) levels respectively by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Data were analyzed using Student`s t-test, Chi- square test, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. P< 0.05 was considered significant.

Results: There were significant differences in the mean values of mid-upper-arm circumference, weight and BMI. On the other hand, there were no significant differences in mean values of head circumference, height and the trace elements in test and control groups. No association between trace elements and BMI as well as between dietary zinc content and socio-economic status was observed.

Conclusion: the result of the study suggests there is no correlation between the toxic metals and zinc, and it seems that toxic metals play no role in abnormal BMI that is a common feature of SCD.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perception and Practices of COVID-19 in Rural Areas of Southeastern Nigeria: A Community-based Cross-sectional Survey

Emmanuel I. Nnamonu, Ogonna C. Ani, Love C. Okafor, Godwin C. Nwosu, Obiageli A. Okeke, Pauline N. Ikwuegbu, Chukwudi P. Ota, Chukwuemeka F. Egwim, Chukwuemeka L. Agu, Benjamin U. Ononye

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 20-32
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2022/v37i230484

Aims: Despite all efforts made globally by governments of various nations and all concerned agencies through preventative measures, quick testing, isolation, shutting down of societies and economy, the virus still succeeded in spreading through communities perhaps due to the wrong perspective, in addition to surveillance, prevention and management challenges. This study evaluated the perception and practices of covid-19 in rural areas of southeastern Nigeria.

Study Design: The study adopted a community-based cross-sectional survey design that investigated awareness, perspective, surveillance challenges, prevention, management and economic impact in rural settlement areas of south-east, Nigeria.

Place and duration of study: This study was be conducted in rural settlement areas of south-east Nigeria (Abia, Anambra, Ebonyi, Enugu, and Imo states). February – April, 2021.

Methodology: Data was collected by the use of the questionnaire. Five hundred copies were administered per state.

Results: Most participants (2464, 98.6%) heard first of COVID-19 through radio/television (1409, 56.3%), social media (539, 21.5%) and their friends/relatives (418, 16.7%); 1896 (75.8%) believed in the existence of COVID-19 infection. However, the majority in Ebonyi state (309, 61.8%) had their disbelief on the existence of COVID-19. Participants confirmed having knowledge of COVID-19 testing (2319, 92.8%) and isolation centers (2299, 92.0%), however, a major challenge was lack of (1698, 67.9%) or no awareness (550, 22.0%) of masses testing centre in their areas. A few individuals (392, 15.7%) reported having experienced one or two COVID-19 symptoms about 3 months ago. Knowledge on how to prevent contracting COVID-19 is relatively high (66.7%) among the respondents. COVID-19 induced economic burden amongst residents were mainly as a result of the imposition of lockdown to movements and businesses (1098, 43.9%), disruption of studies (959, 38.4%), increased hunger (950, 38.0%), high expenditure (894, 35.8%) and loss of job/income (816, 32.6%).

Conclusion: It is concluded that the majority of the people in southeast Nigeria are aware of the possible existence of Covid-19 in their area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Consumption of Sphenostylis stenocarpa Seed-formulated Diet on Oxidative Stress Biomarkers of Dexamethasone-treated Pregnant Rats

Funmilola Comfort Oladele, Olayinka Anthony Awoyinka, Joy Oluwadamilola Ofeimu, Precious Moyinoluwa Adekanmbi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 33-39
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2022/v37i230485

Aim: The present study tends to examine the effect of consumption of Sphenostylis stenocarpa-formulated diet on oxidative stress biomarkers of dexamethasone-treated pregnant rats.

Methodology: Sphenostylis stenocarpa was obtained locally from a market in Ado Ekiti. They were ground into powder and used to make feed for laboratory animals. Fifteen pregnant female rats were divided into three groups of five. Animals in group A were only fed standard animal feed. This served as the control group. Those in group B were exposed to Sphenostylis stenocarpa-formulated diet + 0.3 mg/kg body weight of dexamethasone, while those in group C were exposed to Sphenostylis stenocarpa-formulated diet. At the end of the eight days treatment, animals were sacrificed and blood sample, liver and kidney were collected.

Results: The results revealed that treatment of animals with dexamethasone significantly increased (P<0.05) the activities of SOD and CAT and the concentration of MDA but decreased the concentration of GSH in plasma, liver homogenate and kidney homogenate respectively when compared with those in animals in the control group as well as those fed with S. stenocarpa-formulated diet only. The result further showed that feeding of animals with S. stenocarpa-formulated diet only had no significant effect on oxidative stress biomarkers investigated when compared with those in the control group.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that exposure of animals to dexamethasone induced oxidative stress in animals while S. stenocarpa-formulated diet possesses the potential to alleviate the effect of oxidative stress generation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Hepatorenal Function of Nigerian Solid Waste Scavengers in Osogbo, Nigeria

ADEBISI Wasiu Niyi, ADEOYE Adebisi Cecilia, OLUDE Solomon Suleiman, AKINDELE Funmilola Bolanle, IYANDA Ayobola Abolape

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 40-46
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2022/v37i230486

Introduction: Both hepatic parenchymal and renal cells are rich in enzymes required for the biotransformation of various exogenous substances, a process that sometimes may result in organ damage. Contact with solid waste will undoubtedly result in high degree of exposure to various harmful substances. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of solid waste scavenging on hepato-renal function.

Material and Methods: Twenty-nine solid waste scavengers and 30 subjects who served as control were used for the study. Serum obtained from 5 mL of blood was utilized to assess hepatic (alanine & aspartate aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, total protein, γ-globulins) and renal (urea, creatinine) functions of each participant. Standard photometric methods were used for all estimations. Data were analyzed using Student’s t-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. P ≤ 0.05 was considered significant.

Results and Discussion: Significant differences were observed for globulins and total proteins in solid waste scavengers compared with control (p<0.05) while other parameters (alanine & aspartate aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, urea) were not significantly different (p>0.05). There was total non-compliance to the use of personal protective equipment. Results of the study revealed that hepatic and renal markers were not significantly different but γ-globulins were significantly higher in solid waste scavengers compared with control group.

Conclusion: Solid waste scavenging in Osogbo is not associated with hepatorenal alteration except that γ-globulin fraction was elevated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening out the Early Matured ‘Boro Rice’ Genotype for Bangladesh Condition Based on their Physico-chemical Characteristics and Yields

Eshath Tahmina, Md. Shahidur Rashid Bhuiyan, Zhumara Khatun, Jasim Uddain

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 47-62
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2022/v37i230487

In Bangladesh conditions, the end of the Boro season begins floods and natural calamities and loses more rice in farmer's fields. If we can select early maturity genotypes for the Boro season, we can harvest our rice from the farmer's field before flooding or any other natural calamities. The study attempted to determine the short duration and high yielding rice genotype for Boro season in Bangladesh amongst the 13 Boro rice F6 lines by contrast with two (2) test varieties. Keeping in view this idea, the output of the genotypes studied, the relationship between different morpho-physio-chemical and yield-contributing characteristics between all the genotypes were investigated there under field and laboratory conditions. Among these 15 lines, G11 line showed better in the most yield contributing parameters. It is therefore concluded that the G11 genotype will be considered an appropriate line for the Boro season in Bangladesh.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Vibrio species in Sea Foods and Water Sources in Cross River State

Tarh, Jacqueline Ebob, B. E. E. Asikong, . Mboto, C. I. Iroegbu Christian Ukwuoma

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 63-78
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2022/v37i230488

In the coastal areas of the world, most Vibrio species have been incriminated as notorious agents causing foodborne, wound and other infections. These pathogens are known to be associated with the consumption of raw or undercooked seafoods or the exposure of wounds to warm seawater.

Aim: Therefore, this research work was designed with the aim of assessing the microbiological quality of the water bodies as well as the seafoods consumed in Cross River State (CRS).

Study Design: The Study was designed using the completely randomized block design and the data was analyzed using of two-way analysis of variance, Generalized Linear Model Univariate analysis. Significant means were separated using the Least significant difference (LSD).

Place and Duration of Study: This study was done in the Department of Microbiology,

University of CRS, Calabar, CRS, Nigeria, between 2016-2019.

Methodology: we evaluated a variety of seafoods viz; crayfish, blue crabs, Periwinkles, apple nails, red lobsters etc. collected from major Beaches, markets and other sale points and water sources (rivers streams sea and gutters) in Calabar, CRS of Nigeria, using standard bacteriological techniques, for the prevalence of Vibrio species.

Results: The mean percentage mean viable cell counts obtained ranged from 1.79±3.45 (seawater)-9.15±4.79CFU/mL (gutter water) and 7.68±7.58 (Blue Crab)- 11.37±4.82 CFU/g (fish) in the Rainy season.  The counts for the Dry season Ranged from 1.79 ±3.42 (Seawater)-8.94± 4.51(gutter water), and 5.83 7.21 CFU/g (apple snail) -12.64 5.95 CFU/g (Fish). The total percentage mean counts obtained were 8.09±6.91 CFU/mL in the Rainy Season to 7.61±6.58 CFU/mL in the dry Season. From both seasons, the overall total mean count was 11.09±5.94 CFU/ml. From the nine locations evaluated in this study, it was observed that the Mean percentage counts for the Northern Senatorial District (NSD) ranged from 2.81± 3.49 (Ogoja)- 3.14 ±4.07CFU/mL (Obudu). For the Central (CSD) the range was from 3.34 ±4.20 (Boki)- 9.89 ±5.15 (Ikom), while for the Southern (SSD) it was from12.01± 6.52 (Akamkpa)- 14.47 ±5.44 (Calabar). The overall Total percentage mean counts from all the three Senatorial Districts was 14.03±4.86 CFU/mL. From the Northern Senatorial District, the total Percentage mean was 3.01±3.77 CFU/mL, 7.05±5.79 CFU/mL from the Central and 13.49± 5.72 CFU/mL from the Southern Senatorial District.  The Vibrio pathotypes isolated include Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) (both O1 and non-O1 serotypes) 1155 (31.61%), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus), 752 (20.58%), Vibrio fluvialis (V. fluvialis) 480 (13.14%), V. vulnificus 473 (12.94%) Vibrio mimicus (V. mimicus) 400 (10.95%) and Other Vibrios 394 (10.78%). Out of the 3654 Vibrio isolates, the greatest number 663±3.31 (18.14%) were from Seawater, while the least 133±.84 (3.64%) were from the Gutter Water. Also, the highest number 1245±2.61 (34.07%) came from Calabar, and the least 102±.65 (2.79%) from Obanlikwu. The NSD had the least number 327 (8.95%), followed by the CSD with 570 (15.59%) and then the SSD with 2757 (75.45%) as the highest number of isolates.

Conclusion: The presence of these pathogenic bacterial species in common seafoods in this area is of great public health concern. It is therefore important that serious emphasis be laid on proper cooking of these seafoods as well as the establishment of regular hygiene surveillance strategies in the state.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Composition of Palm Oil Mill Sludge-Biodegraded Sweet Orange Peel Meal Mixture and Its Effect as Dietary Energy Source on Nutrient Digestibility by Broiler Chickens

O. I. A. Oluremi, K. B. Orga, K. T. Orayaga

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 102-111
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2022/v37i230491

A feeding trial, which lasted for seventy days, was conducted in which palm oil mill sludge and biodegraded sweet orange peel mixture was fed to substitute maize in broiler chicken diet at 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%. Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) fruit peel was fermented by soaking for 48 h in retted cassava waste water (CWW) and sundried, to obtain biodegraded sweet orange peel (BSOP). Palm oil mill effluent was filtered with a 0.30 mm pore plastic mesh sieve, poured into a 0.75 μm pore fine cheesecloth bag and allowed to stand for five hours to produce a paste of palm oil mill sludge (POMS). The POMS was mixed with BSOP in ratio 1:1, sundried, milled to produce a POMS-BSOP mixture. One hundred and eighty day-old Cobb 700 broilers divided into six equal parts, and three replicates of 10 birds each were used. Each part was assigned to one of 6 diets compounded with 0% (T1), 5% (T2), 10% (T3), 15% (T4), 20% (T5) and 25% (T6) of POMS-BSOP mixture. The microbial composition of retted CWW, chemical composition of the POMS-BSOP mixture, and the digestibility of nutrients by the broiler chickens were determined. Isolated from CWW were; Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp., Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli (bacteria), Aspergillus spp. (fungus) and Candidia spp. (yeast). POMS-BSOP was high in energy (4415.69 kcalME/kg), ether extract (41.50%), crude fibre (25.63%) and dry matter (92.28%), moderate in crude protein (6.83%), low in indigestible lignin (4.90% ADL), alkaloid (0.01%), tannin (0.02%), saponin (0.03%), phytate (0.05%), oxalate (0.15%) and flavonoid (0.17%). Dietary treatments significantly (P<0.05) affected digestibility of ether extract and metabolisable energy and crude protein digestibility by broiler chickens. Dietary maize can be replaced at up to 25% with a POMS-BSOP mixture to improve energy digestibility by broiler chickens.

Open Access Review Article

Building Process of Potato Virus Y (PVY) Management on Tobacco Plants in the Northern Vietnam

Nguyen Van Chin, Nguyen Van Van, Tao Ngoc Tuan, Đo Thi Thuy, Phạm Hà Thành

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 79-86
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2022/v37i230489

In recent years, some viral diseases have been increasing in the tobacco-growing regions of Vietnam and causing serious damage to the tobacco yield and quality. If it has no effective control, the viral diseases will injure serious harm in the tobacco field next time. Based on the research results in the prevention of viral diseases from 2016 to 2021, the Vietnam Tobacco Institute has built a process to control Potato Virus Y that harms the tobacco plants in Vietnam. During the experiment and application in tobacco cultivation practice, the process was effective against PVY disease. The application of the process, the disease rate and disease index of PVY were significantly reduced in the tobacco field, contributing to increasing yield, quality, and income for tobacco farmers. The insecticides and antivirus drugs made according to the process have increased their effectiveness, do not harm the growth and development of tobacco plants, little have residues in tobacco production. This process can control many other viral diseases on tobacco plants.

Open Access Review Article

Lycopene - A Review: Chemistry, Source, Health Role, Extraction, Applications

Md. Asaduzzaman

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 87-101
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2022/v37i230490

Lycopene is an unsaturated carotenoid pigment which is acyclic and open chain, of great dietary prominence obtained mainly from colored plant sources. It is a phytochemical which is found mainly in red amaranth, tomatoes, water melon and other plants and fruits mostly red colored which covered various antioxidant which attracted attentions due to its biological properties. Lycopene has critical role in the prevention of tumor and cancer. Various ways can be utilized to identify, extract and purify lycopene from various sources by efficient analytical support. Several analyses have been attended for the extraction and quantification of lycopene in various natural sources such as various red leaf plants and fruits. This review study highlights lycopene as a carotenoid pigment including auspicious nutraceutical implications, and counts the important plant and also microbial sources for its production, and methods to calculate its bioavailability and utilization.