Open Access Original Research Article

Gene Expression Endpoints Following Subchronic Thiamethoxam Exposure in Adult Male Rabbits

Ahmed R. Elsawasany, Alexander A. Deltsov, Osama S. El Okle, Omnia I. El Euony, Sergey V. Pozyabin, Konstantin S. Ostrenko

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2022/v37i330492

Aim: to investigate the sub chronic toxicity of thiamethoxam on some parameters of reproductive performance in adult male rabbits including gene expression of LDH-C4, FSHβ and LHβ and GnRHR.

Method: sixteen adult male Chinchilla rabbits were divided into two equal groups. Animals in the first group were treated orally with TMX at dose of 250 mg/kg body weight for 90 days. The second group was served as control.

Result: Obtained results showed that TMX increased the relative weight of some reproductive organs including testis and prostate. Hormonal analysis revealed that, TMX induced a significant elevation in the serum testosterone level, while the concentrations of FSH and LH hormones did not exhibit any alterations between treated and control groups. In addition, LDH-C4, FSHβ and LHβ and GnRHR genes were down regulated in TMX treated group.

Conclusion: Administration of thiamethoxam for 90 days in male rabbits induced a noticeable adverse effect on serum testosterone level and down regulated genes related to male rabbit reproductive performance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Direct Evidence for Intracellular Homeostasis in Mammalian Cells: Insulin-independent Glucose Metabolisms

Kenji Sorimachi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 10-19
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2022/v37i330493

In our previous study, carbonates, NaHCO3 and Na2CO3, influence glucose metabolism in vitro, using Py-3Y1-S2 rat fibroblast cells, and these compounds accelerate significantly glucose consumption. In the present study, the effects of the carbonates on glucose metabolism were examined to determine whether these effects are universal among different cell lines, VERO green monkey kidney cells, TE-13 human esophageal cancer cells, and HepG2 human cells.  Glucose was completely converted to lactate, which disappeared gradually from the culture medium. However, the disappearance of lactate from the medium was independent of carbonates. The present study clarified that NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 directly regulate glucose metabolism among different cell lines via an insulin-independent pathway, that is, intracellular homeostasis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and in vitro Antibacterial Activity of the Aqueous Extract of Phyllanthus niruri L. from Kasaï Oriental in DR Congo

M. M. Musuasua, O. N. Kabena, L. K. Kalanda, B. G. M. Kangudia, D. B. Mutembue, D. M. Y. Masens, P. T. Mpiana

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 20-30
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2022/v37i330494

Objectives: The aim of this work is to carry out a phytochemical study and to evaluate in vitro antibacterial potential of the aqueous extract of Phyllanthus niruri, a plant traditionally used in Kasai Oriental (DR Congo) against various bacteriosis and non-bacterial diseases.

Study Design: P. niruri, was selected from a list resulting from an ethnobotanical survey carried out in Kasai Oriental because of the number of citations and recipes involving it, the level of preference of the species as well as the diversity of diseases treated and the plebiscite of its effectiveness by local traditional healers. To contribute to the enhancement of this plant traditionally used against various bacteriosis and to confirm its potential antibacterial power, it was subjected to phytochemical screening and its aqueous extract was tested in vitro on bacterial strains.

Place and Duration of the Study: The period of this research went from December 2017 to February 2018. The analyzes were carried out at the physico-chemical and microbiological analysis laboratories of the Congolese Control Office of Mbujimayi (DR Congo) and at the Biology and Chemistry laboratories of the ISP Mbujimayi.

Methodology: The chemical groups of the bioactive substances were sought using the classic methods of characterization in solution by precipitation, coloring and foam reactions. The diameters of the zones of inhibition, MICs and CMBs of the aqueous extract of this plant were determined in vitro against 20 bacterial strains subjected to the test.

Results: P. niruri contains various bioactive chemical groups. Its aqueous extract showed antibacterial activity in vitro against several of 20 tested bacterial strains. According to the MICs and CMBs, the inhibitory action spectrum covers 12 bacterial strains out of the 20 tested.

Conclusion: The results found confirm that P. niruri has antibacterial principles and a therapeutic potential by the presence of several bioactive substances and the inhibitory power of its aqueous extract on some bacterial strains tested.

Open Access Original Research Article

Selection of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Cocoa and Cassava Fermentation as Potential Probiotic for Pathogenic Microorganisms Control in Poultry Farming

Eric Essoh Akpa, Christelle Suzanne Djoman, Bernadette Gblossi Goualié, Ouattara Hadja Djeneba, Lamine Samagassi, Delphine Yevi N’Guessan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 31-40
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2022/v37i330495

Aims: The overuse of antibiotics in animal farming sector is leading to an increase drug resistant bacteria rate. This situation makes it difficult to treat pathologies in both humans and animals. The aim of this study was to assess some probiotic profiles of lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from cocoa fermentation and traditional cassava ferment for possible use as potentially probiotic strains for the monitoring of pathogenic microorganisms in poultry farming.

Methodology: Thus, a total of 267 lactic acid bacteria strains were tested for analysis of the antibacterial activity against the growth capacity of Salmonella and E. coli isolates. Probiotic properties of Lactic acid bacteria were consisted of acidification capacity, resistance to acid shock and to salt bile containing in culture medium and capacity to produce proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes.

Results: Among them, 25 strains have induced the high bacterial growth inhibition against these pathogenic bacteria with inhibition zone diameters ranged from 9 to 27 mm. Among these strains, 20 isolates showed high resistance to acid shock at pH ≥ 4 and six strains were able to grow at pH 3.5 with survival rate range from 30 % to 89 %. Moreover, six of these strains, including four isolates of Lactobacillus plantarum (T1GB8, T11AB17, LAB26, LAB 127), one strain of Leuconostoc mesenteroides (T0AB9) and one isolate of Enterococcus facium (LAB18), have shown capacity to growth with 1 % of bile salts in the medium. Even better, these strains exhibited capacity to produce proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes with halo around the well diameters reached 29 mm for some strains.

Conclusion: This study shows the possibility of use probiotics lactic acids bacteria as antibiotics alternative in poultry sector to reduce some avian pathologies affecting the poultry sector in Côte d'Ivoire.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth Performance of Albino Rats Orally Administered with Honey from Apis mellifera adansonii and Refined Sugar at Varying Levels

B. U. Ononye, C. R. Kalu, T. E. Okeke, C. E. Akunne, K. C. Onyewuchi, K. P. Okafor, C. A. Chidi, K. M. Ugonkwo, O. C. Ekwebene, C. A. Okoli, A. U. Akpan, V. O. Offor, D. E. Oboho

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 41-48
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2022/v37i330496

The purpose of this research was to find out the growth performance of albino rats orally administered with honey from Apis mellifera adansonii and refined granulated sugar at varying quantities. Twenty-five (25) healthy albino rats used in the study were grouped into five treatments based on the dose of natural honey and granulated sugar as follow: T1 (1.02g of honey kg BW), T2 (1.40g of honey kg BW), T3 (1.02g of granulated sugar kg BW), and T4 (1.40g of granulated sugar kg BW). However, rats in T5 were not administered honey and refined granulated sugar hence served as the control. The data on fructose and micronutrients concentrations of natural honey and refined sugar as well as data on the weight gain and feed intake of the albino rats were determined after 28 days. According to the findings of this study, the fructose concentration was higher in natural honey (195.78mg/ml) while refined sugar (30.225mg/ml) recorded the least value. Also, copper (0.15ppm) and manganese (0.05ppm) had the highest mean concentration in natural honey, while iron (0.04ppm) and zinc (0.07ppm) were higher in refined sugar. The study's findings revealed that the highest feed intake by albino rat was recorded in T1 (148.16g) while T5 (140.27g) had the least. There were no significant differences in albino rat feed intake among the five treatments (p>0.05). The highest weight gain was recorded by the albino rat in T1 (69.84g) while T5 (32.28g) had the least. There were no significant differences in the weight gain of the albino rats among the five treatments. This study's findings led to the conclusion that the doses of natural honey used did not significantly increase the weight gain of albino rats.