Open Access Short Research Article

Improved Decipherment of the Protein Database of Human Proteins in the PDMD (Protein-Direct-Microsequencing-Deciphering) Method

Kou Hayakawa

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 47-49
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2022/v37i430501

Human proteins seem to be processed by Human serum biotinidase, and Human excreted proteins seem to be handled with by Human serum biotinidase and Human Chymotrypsin A. Therefore, we must improve PDMD method by using these new findings. Protein determination is performed by the highly sensitive HPLC-SEC-photometric method at UV 210 nm; i.e., c.a. 200-fold sensitive than Lowry’s method. Human proteins are found to be not metabolized at membrane inserted portions. Membrane and Hydrophobic proteins of Humans are defined as the precipitable proteins at 100,000 x g for 90 min at 4 C, and have hydrophobicities larger than 0.515.

Open Access Short Research Article

Atmospheric Pressure Change Measurement: An Observational Case Study

Kuat Oshakbayev, Gulnara Bedelbayeva, Meruyert Gazaliyeva, Attila Tordai

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 50-55
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2022/v37i430503

Introduction: The aim of the study was to show atmospheric pressure change by indirect measurement in hermetically closed vessels during four years follow-up.

Methods: Study design: an observational case study. In hermetically sealed elastic bottles with different liquids were measured differences in liquid and air volumes from baseline to four years follow-up period. Physical law of buoyancy was used to measure in each bottles liquid and air (above the liquid) volumes.

Results: Volumes of liquid and air in all bottles were decreased after the follow-up period to 14.38±2.40 and 36.25±3.37 ml, respectively. Air volumes in comparison to liquid volumes decreased more than two times significantly (P=0.0007) after follow-up period.

Conclusions: Thus, atmospheric pressure increased for the last four-year follow-up period. Further investigations are needed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ethno-botanical Survey and Chemical Study of Medicinal Plants Traditionally used to Treat Anemia in Yakoma Territory (Nord Ubangi), Democratic Republic of the Congo

Samy Ngunde-Te-Ngunde, Kabengele N. Carlos, Emmanuel Moke Lengbiye, Jason Thambwe Kilembe, Jean-Aimé Mbanga Lokebo, Dorothée D. Tshilanda, Nadège Kabamba Ngombe, Pius T. Mpiana, Jeff Iteku Bekomo, Koto-Te-Nyiwa Ngbolua

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2022/v37i430498

Aims of the Study: To identify plant species traditionally used to treat anemia in Yakoma territory and to evaluate their chemical composition.

Place and Duration: Yakoma Territory (survey) and University of Kinshasa (Phytochemical study), from August and October 2019.

Methods: Ethnobotanical survey according to the "snowball" sampling technique among traditional healers (based on the free consent of the respondents), chemical analyses of plant materials (chemical screening, TLC, phytomarkers content, minerals composition) according to standard methods. ED-XRF was used for mineral analysis. Microsoft Excel version 2010, Origin version 8.5 Pro and IBM SPSS statistics version 20 software packages were used for data processing and analysis.

Results and Discussion: The survey showed that 18 plant species are traditionally used by Ngbandi traditional healers to treat anemia in Yakoma territory. They belong to 16 families and 17 genera. The most used organs are the leaves (68.4%) and the roots (10.5%). Decoction and infusion are the most used mode of preparation (33.3% each), followed by cooking (22.2%) and maceration (11.1%). The oral route (77.8%) is the most used mode of administration followed by the enema (16.7%) and the anal route (5.6%). Morphological types consist of herbs and trees                  (33.3% each) and shrubs and lianas (16.7% each). The biotope types consist of forest                         plants (44.4%), cultivated plants/Crops (38.9%), marshy ground plants (11.1%) and ruderal plants (5.6%). These plants belonging to five biological types: erected therophytes (44.4%), mesophanerophytes (27.8%), microphanerophytes and climbing phanerophytes (11.1% each) and lianescent phanerophytes (5.56%). These anti-anemic plant species are mostly Pantropical and Afro-tropical (39% of species each) followed by Guineo-Congolese (17% of species) and American (5%). Chemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthocyanins, flavonoids, anthraquinones and terpenoids and various minerals including iron, zinc, copper, calcium, magnesium and manganese.

Conclusion: In the current state of knowledge, the survey of anemic plants from this part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo is reported for the first time.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anopheles gambiae Larval Development and Toxicity’s Reduction of Conventional Agriculture Insecticides in the Laboratory Conditions

Henri Gabriel Tsila, Alvine Larissa Meyabeme Elono, Patrick Akono Ntonga, Timoléon Tchuinkam, Mpoame Mbida

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 20-29
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2022/v37i430499

Background: Vector control of Malaria is mainly made by using impregnated bed nets and insecticides pulverizations indoor or/and outdoor. Besides, appearance and development of resistance’s phenomenon among mosquito populations to insecticides, constitute a significant obstacle this fighting.

Aims: To highlighting a neutralization phenomenon of three insecticides (methyl-parathion, dimethoate and cypermethrin) during development of the Anopheles gambiae s.s. larvae.

Methodology: Two setups followed one after the other were designed. In setup 1, four concentrations (with four replicates each) were freshly prepared and independently received a first batch of 100 first instars An. gambiae s.s. After emergence of adults from this first batch, the same test media were simply filtered and received a second batch of first instars larvae to make setup 2. Three endpoints were measured in this study: the duration of larval phase, the larval mortality, and the size of adults.

Results: The development duration and mortality of larvae decreased significantly at setup 2 with cypermethrin and methyl-parathion. Thus, the duration of larval stage decreased from 10.18 days at setup 1 to 7.84 days at setup 2 for 0.010 µg/l (highest concentration) with cypermethrin and from 10.20 days at setup 1 to 8.27 days at setup 2 for 0.144 µg/l (highest concentration) with methyl-parathion. The larval mortality dropped from 79.32 % at setup 1 to 12.00 % at setup 2 for the highest concentration of cypermethrin and from 76.42 % at setup 1 to 12.50 % at setup 2 for the highest concentration of methyl-parathion. While adults size significantly increased in setup 2. For males, wing’s length increased from 3.28 mm at setup 1 to 3.49 mm at setup 2 for the highest concentration of cypermethrin, from 3.31 mm at setup 1 to 3.49 mm at setup 2 for the highest concentration of methyl-parathion. In female, wing’s length increased from 3.52 mm at setup 1 to 3.68 mm at setup 2 for the highest concentration of cypermethrin, from 3.49 mm at setup 1 to 3.68 mm at setup 2 for the highest concentration of methyl-parathion.

Conclusion: This work shows that mosquito larvae, especially An. gambiae are able to modify breeding medium to improve its fitness during their development.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Universal Key to Rationally Select Which, Among Nonparametric Species Richness Estimators, Performs Best According to Each Particular Incomplete Sampling

Jean Béguinot

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 30-46
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2022/v37i430500

Since most samplings of local species communities are bound to remain substantially incomplete for practical reasons, a wide variety of nonparametric estimators of the number of unrecorded species have been proposed over the past fifty years. Unfortunately, the distinct formulations of each of these estimators naturally lead to substantially divergent estimates. The will to try to select, in each case, the estimator expected to be the more accurate has long been carried out only on a purely empirical, even arbitrary, basis (as is evident from the extensive consultation of much of the past literature on estimating species richness of incompletely sampled communities). So that extrapolating the true species richness of a community from its incomplete survey has long remained quite unsatisfactory. Indeed, the definition of a truly rational procedure for selecting the most accurate (least-biased) estimator actually requires a solidly established theoretical framework, involving to conform, as best as possible, to the general mathematical characteristics of the Species Accumulation Function. Accordingly, unveiling, first of all, these mathematical characteristics of the Species Accumulation Function was a decisive step forward in this perspective. Thereby making it now possible to propose an objective key to rationally select the one, within the series of various estimators, which, depending on each particular sampling, happens to be the least biased in this particular case, thus providing the most accurate estimate of the number of still unrecorded species. And, consequently, making it possible, now, to deliver the best estimate of the true species richness of a local community, despite its being incompletely surveyed.