Open Access Original Research Article

Exploiting Genetic Counseling as a Tool for the Analysis of Dissociative Behavior and Sub-normality from Conception to Birth among Maladjusted Blind, Deaf and Dumb Infants

Effiom, Bassey Ekeng, Lucy Obil Arop, Maria Enemeba Ngwu, Florence Banku Obi, Godwin Michael Ubi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2022/v37i630511

This paper analyzes the dissociation behavior of children from pregnancy to birth and resultant sub-normality using genetic counseling in an attempt to mainstream children with birth disabilities and the challenges of the genetic counselor. Genetic counseling is a process of communication to provide information about a genetic condition, or inheritance, and support decision making and adjustment in families with the inheritance gene. It uses children that need special needs, the blind, deaf and dumb. Genetic counseling approach, re-affirmation, care and integration, and confidence-building institutionalized in school and family life remains some of the vital tools needed to support these children using genetic guidance and counseling as the best approach to adjusting the different maladaptive behavior of children. The genetic counseling approach includes information about the implications of testing positive for the genetic disorder, including the psychological impact and other consequences, whether to inform relatives of your intention to test, or not to test and the usual pattern of progression of the sub-normality identified tested for and its potential treatments. Thus, the paper seems to analyze sub-normality as classified within the adequacy of social adaptation. Analysis of dissociation behavior associated with sub mentality shows discouragement, contempt, and neglect from an early age, emotionally and maladjusted social growth. Therefore, the counselor must experience sub-normality by getting involved and clarifying their feeling toward the children with these disabilities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anthelmintic and Antioxidant Activities, Phytochemical Profile and Microscopic Features of Senna alata Collected in the Democratic Republic of Congo

Giresse N. Kasiama, Adam Ikey, Carlos N. Kabengele, Jason T. Kilembe, Etienne N. Matshimba, Juvenal M. Bete, Prudent B. Bahati, Clément L. Inkoto, Paulin K. Mutwale, K. N. Ngbolua, Damien S. T. Tshibangu, Dorothée D. Tshilanda, Pius T. Mpiana

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 28-36
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2022/v37i630513

Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the phytochemical profile of Senna alata LINN using chemical screening in solution and thin-layer chromatography, and to assess the antioxidant and anthelmintic activities of the plant’s aqueous extracts.

Methodology: All the analyses performed in this study were, respectively, done as described by the standard protocols. These were: the microscopic examination of the plant powders performed using a light microscope, the search for secondary metabolites carried out by chemical screening in solution and by thin-layer chromatography, the determination of the secondary metabolites, and the antioxidant activity carried out by UV-visible spectroscopy and the anthelmintic activity performed by dilution in decreasing order of concentration.

Results: Micrographic analysis of the powder of Senna alata revealed the histological elements rich in unicellular covering hairs with a punctate surface and in fragments of palisade parenchyma, with elongated cells. The presence of polyphenols (flavonoids, anthocyanins, tannins, leuco anthocyanins, free quinones), steroids, terpenoids, and iridoids was detected by phytochemical screening in solution and confirmed by thin-layer chromatography. The determination of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, total tannins, and anthocyanins showed that Senna alata contains 254.64 mg EQ/g, 12.3%, 9.5%, and 6.5%, respectively, of these metabolites. The aqueous extract of the leaves of Senna alata showed a good anthelmintic activity after 41 minutes of exposure to 5.00 mg/mL of the extract and the antioxidant activity was reported, of which the value of IC50 (\(\mu\) g/mL) of the extract for the DPPH tests is 91.42  \(\pm\) 15.56.

Conclusion: Histological elements rich in unicellular covering hairs with a punctate surface and in fragments of palisade parenchyma, with elongated cells were revealed in the micrographic analysis of Senna alata. The plant’s leaf methanol extract showed good antioxidant activity, while the anthelmintic activity was demonstrated in its aqueous extract.


Open Access Original Research Article

Length-Weight Relationship and Condition Factor of Twenty Fish Species in Ebrie Lagoon (Aghien-Potou Sectors Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire)

Bedia Aké Théophile, Coulibaly Bakari, N’da Amalan Sylvie, N’douba Valentin

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 45-52
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2022/v37i630515

Aims: This study investigated Length-weight relationships and condition factors of fish species in Ebrie Lagoon (Aghien-Potou sector, Côte d’Ivoire)

Place and Duration of Study: Ebrie Lagoon (Aghien-potou sector) from April 2019 to March 2020.

Methodology: study was conducted during 3 to 4 days continuously in Ebrie Lagoon (Aghien-Potou Sector). Furthermore, monthly fish samples were collected from commercial fishing area at random using gillnets, cast nets, traps, hooks and beach seines.

Results: All Length-Weight regressions were highly significant with the coefficient of determination (r2) ranging from 0.61 in Schilbe mandibularis to 0.90 in Monodactylus sebae and Chrysichthys maurus. An isometric growth was observed for most of species except three of them namely Ethmalosa fimbriata, Pseudotolithus elongatus, and polydactylus quadrifilis. The k values varied from 0.19±0.001 in S. melanotheron to 6.10±0.3 in Monodactylus sebae. The values of b and k denote that the Ebrie lagoon could provide a favourable environment and suitable habitat for the growth of those fish species.

Conclusion: The study provides basic information on length-weight parameters for twenty major fish species collected from Ebrie lagoon (Aghien-Potou sector). Three species namely Ethmalosa fimbriata, Pseudotolithus elongatus and Polydactylus quadrifilis exhibited a trend of positive growth whereas seventeen fish species showed isometric growth. The condition factor k was superior to 1 for 75% of the fish species and inferior to 1 for 25 % of the fish species. These growth trends denote that the lagoon could provide a favourable environment and suitable habitat for the growth of those fish species. Thus it would be interesting to create a protected area near the lagoon in order to ensure the protection of fish species.

Open Access Review Article

Review of the Literature on Oral Cancer: Epidemiology, Management and Evidence-based Traditional Medicine Treatment

Mfutu Mana Charly, Sekele Issouradi Jean-PauI, Koto-Te-Nyiwa Ngbolua, Situakibanza Nani-Tuma Hippolyte, Kamangu Ntambwe Erick, Paul Bobe Alifi, Nzudjom Foche Adelin, Monizi Mawunu, Emmanuel Kitete Mulongo, Tukutuku Musombo Nanou Anne, Pius T. Mpiana, Pakasa Muyulu Nestor

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 15-27
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2022/v37i630512

Oral cavity cancers are part of the upper aerodigestive tract cancers and represent a significant burden worldwide. Its epidemiology varies from country to country with high frequencies in South East Asian countries. Tobacco and alcohol are the main risk factors. Survival of oral cancer is low i.e., less than 40% in the advanced stage (stage III and IV), diagnosis of oral cavity cancer is based on a complete clinical examination of the oral cavity complete with biopsy, bio-markers are an adjunct to screening and diagnosis of oral cavity cancers, surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy are part of the therapeutic armamentarium of oral cancer but also have limitations. Traditional medicine is an important and proven alternative in the treatment and support of patients with oral cavity cancer. Prevention of oral cavity cancers includes not only early detection of precancerous and cancerous lesions but also control of risk factors and education of the population. Surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy are part of the therapeutic strategy of oral cancer treatment but also have limitations. Traditional Medicine is an important and proven alternative in the treatment and support of patients with oral cavity cancer. It is thus desirable to scientifically validate phytochemicals in order to integrate alternative medicine as part of national cancer management strategy. In silico advanced studies on secondary metabolites of medicinal plants traditionally used to treat oral cancer are in progress.

Open Access Review Article

Severe Oligospermia Treatment with Testicular Sperm Using “ICSI”

Mustafa Zakaria, Aya Al-ibraheemi, Wassym Senhaji, Mohammed Ennaji, Noureddine Louanjli, Mohammed Zarqaoui

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 37-44
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2022/v37i630514

Introduction: Assisted reproductive technology has been developed significantly throughout the past few years, particularly diagnosing and treating male infertility. Many studies have been performed showing that Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) is a successful method to attain clinical pregnancy and live birth through impaired spermatozoa characteristics or low sperm count, such as severe oligospermia. Severe oligospermia indicates low sperm count, which in some cases leads to azoospermia. Severe oligospermia can be caused by several factors such as genetics or medication. In search of efficient treatment for couples with Severe oligospermia, numerous retrospective and prospective researches have reported high pregnancy and live birth rates through testicular sperm for men with severe oligospermia and cryptozoospermia with or without high sperm DNA damage. The research showed that the use of testicular sperm in combination with ICSI yielded a high pregnancy rate and live births over another source of sperm, such as ejaculated sperms. Moreover, the use of ICSI in severe oligospermia has shown successful fertilization and pregnancy.

Methods: In search for effective treatment for couples with severe male factor, a number of small retrospective and prospective studies have reported high pregnancy and live birth rates using testicular sperm for men with necrozoospermia, cryptozoospermia and oligozoospermia with or without elevated sperm DNA damage. Although the data suggest that there may be some benefit in performing testicular sperm retrieval (TSR)-ICSI in select groups of non-azoospermic infertile men, there are potential risks involved with TSR. Clinicians should balance these risks prior to the recommendation of TSR-ICSI on the result of a semen analysis or sperm DNA test alone. Careful evaluation and management of male factor infertility is important. The use of TSR-ICSI in the absence of specific sperm DNA defects is still experimental.

Discussion: In 1992 and subsequently, several reports indicated that ICSI was a successful technique to achieve clinical pregnancy and live birth using spermatozoa with severely impaired characteristics. The initial optimism over the ability of ICSI to overcome significant sperm abnormalities was later tempered by the findings of more recent publications suggesting that some sperm deficits may not be as effectively treated with ICSI.

Conclusion: Severe oligospermia indicates low sperm count, which can lead to male infertility; severe oligospermia which can be overcome through ICSI. Genetic factors like microdeletions of the Y chromosome (Yq) can cause severe oligospermia or chemotherapy molecules, affecting the sperm count directly.