Open Access Systematic Review Article

Bioinformatics Analysis of LDLR Gene Mutation that Shed a New Light on Red Yeast Rice Monacolin K Treatment – Systematic Review

Hassan Sadek Darwish, Hajer Almamri, Ray Barazie, Mohammed Mustafa

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 44-51
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2022/v37i730521

Background: Hypercholesteremia is the major cause of cardiovascular diseases. It results from elevated cholesterol levels in the blood. LDL cholesterol is removed from the circulation by using the LDL receptor. Red mold rice or red yeast rice is produced by fermentation of the Monascus Purpureus yeast on rice. Many researchers suggest that the active component in Red Yeast Rice (monacolin k) serves as a treatment for hypercholesteremic patients.

Methods: By using NCBI databases, specifically GenBank to analyze DNA sequence and mRNA sequence of LDLR gene. GenBank file format was helpful to extract an accession number of the gene, number of amino acids, exons, and length of nucleotides. FASTA format was also useful to retrieve the nucleotide sequence and get the function of the protein. BLAST was used to compare the protein product of the LDLR gene between humans and pan paniscus (pygmy chimpanzee).

Results: In accession number NC_000019, the number of amino acids in protein product is 44389 bp, and the number of exons found is 18. On the other hand, the gene is located in chromosome 19. The function of LDLR gene is to control the production of LDL receptor where the low-density lipoprotein particles attach to it and are taken into the cell ending up in the lysosome where the protein is degraded and cholesterol is made which will inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase that controls the production of cholesterol. Finally, many organisms have the same gene like dogs, cows, mice, rats, zebrafish, and frogs.

Conclusion: Mutation in the LDLR gene causing high level of cholesterol in the blood especially LDL (Low-density Lipoprotein). Monacolin k that found in red yeast rice (RYR) is safe and natural alternative treatment for hypercholesteremic patients by lowering the cholesterol level in the blood.

Open Access Original Research Article

Localization and Distribution of Two Invasive Alien Species Eichhornia crassipes and Echinocloa pyramidalis in the Pool Malebo Eco-region, Democratic Republic of the Congo

Mukendi Tshibangu Michael, Koto-Te-Nyiwa Ngbolua, Mbale Kunzi Henri, Menga Munkolo Pisco, Lukoki Luyeye Félicien

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2022/v37i730516

Aim: To study the distribution of two invasive alien plants and associated plants as well as their distribution in the Malebo Pool eco-region.

Methodology: The study was carried out by direct observation by circulating on a motorized canoe. Plant samples were randomly harvested (n=6) in August 2020 depends on the sites. Plant species identification was performed on the field, and those species of which the identification was difficult, were brought to the laboratory for proper identification according to APG III.

Results: 19 species, including two Pteridophytes and 17 Angiosperms, belonging to 19 families and 12 orders were identified. The site of Molondo was the most diversified with 15 plant species, followed respectively by the sites of Mipongo (13 species), Japon (12 species) and Kingabwa (07 species). The plant species Ludwigia abyssinica A. Rich., Ipomoea aquatica Forsk, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart), Pistia stratiotes L, Echinochloa pyramidalis (Lam) and Salvinia molesta D.S. Mitchell were present in all four prospected sites. E. pyramidalis and E. crassipes constitute a serious threat for the environment and are source of erosion/loss of aquatic biodiversity. Physiologically, these species form a mono-specific carpet and eliminate native or autochthonous species of aquatic flora.

Conclusions and Suggestions: The invasion of alien species is a consequence of human activities and a concern, as it affects all sectors of society. These plants can alter, disrupt, and degrade many ecosystem services like the disturbing of habitats and the alteration of the environmental and biological conditions around them. They can also reduce light and diversity of native aquatic plant species. Controlling invasive alien species is thus a challenge for the Congolese society. Political decision-makers are therefore invited to take appropriate measures for managing and protecting the local aquatic flora and valorize the invasive plants as potential medicinal       remedy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ethyl Acetate Extract of Helicteres hirsuta Suppresses MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cell Mobility

Tru Van Nguyen, Luong Thi Tran, Huong Ho Thi, Ho Manh Tuong, Van Hong Nguyen, Van Hanh Nguyen, Thuy Thi Bich Le

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 10-17
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2022/v37i730517

Objective: To investigate the anticancer activity of Helicteres hirsuta (H. hirsute) extract against a breast cancer cell line- MCF7.

Methods: H. hirsute was extracted in absolute methanol. Further, the crude extract was further partitioned in n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The total phenolic and flavonoid content were determined by using spectroscopic methods with gallic acid and quercetin standard compounds, respectively. Anticancer activities of H. hirsuta extract was elucidated by MTT, wound headling, and transwell invasion assays.

Results: Total phenolic compounds in H. hirsute extracts reached 22.07 ± 2.54, 58.57 5.54 and 235.56 ± 7.54 mg GAE/g in each n hexan, chloroform, ethyl acetate fractions, respectively. Whereas the ethyl acetate fraction showed the greatest phenolic contents with 235.56 ± 7.54 mg GAE/g. Moreover, the flavonoid contents of H. hirsute extracts reached 5.76 ± 0.94, 9.25 ± 1.84 and 19.37 ± 2.57 mg quercetin equivalent/g in each n hexan, chloroform, ethyl acetate fractions, respectively, in which, the ethyl acetate fraction also showed the highest amounts of flavonoid contents. Further, the ethyl acetate of H. hirsute significantly decreased the viability of breast cancer MCF7 cells after 48 h treatment with IC50 value of 95 ± 2.54 \(\mu g/mL\) compared to control. In addition, the ethyl acetate extract of H. hirsute suppressed the invasion and migration of MCF7 cell lines in a dose-dependent manner at non-toxic concentrations.

Conclusions: The ethyl acetate of H. hirsute suppressed the growth and motility of breast cancer MCF7 cells.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Repellency of Selected Plants to Adult Anopheles gambiea complex (Gilles) in the Laboratory

K. O. Ajelara, A.O. Alafia, A. A. Denloye, O. S. Matanmi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 18-24
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2022/v37i730518

Aims: The study evaluated the repellency effects of some tropical plants and shrubs found in semi- rural communities of Badagry Area of Lagos state; which are acclaimed to have the potentials of repelling mosquitoes from human dwellings. The repellency effects of Moringa oleifera, Morinda lucida, Magnifera indica and Phyllanthus muellerianus to adult Anopheles gambiea was evaluated in the Laboratory.

Study Design: The study was carried out at Central Research Laboratory of Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria and Central Research Laboratory of University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria. Powdered of dried test plants were prepared and admix with coconut husk as inert, different concentrations were rubbed on the forearm of volunteers and repellency to blood starved female Anopheles mosquitoes was observed.

Methodology: Test plants were collected from Badagry area of Lagos State, they were identified at University of Lagos Herbarium and given numbers. They were dried between 10 and 14 days at temperature of 25-27oC and powdered. Different concentrations of the powder mixed with powdered coconut husk was used to treat volunteers forearms and they were exposed to 0-2 two day old adult unfed mosquitoes in an aluminum glass cage fitted with net as arm entrance and repellency was observed for a period of 180 minutes, with landing counts taken every 30 minutes. The test plants were also subjected to qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis at University of Lagos Central Research Laboratory.

Results: Results showed that all test plants were able to repel Anopheles mosquitoes in the study, repellency was shown in descending order Moringa oleifera with 88%, Magnifera indica 83%, Phyllantus muellerianuss 80% and Morinda lucida 72%. There was no statistical significance in percentage repellency at 95% CL. The result of phytochemical screening of the test plants showed that only M .indica indicated presence of saponing (36.99%). While M.oleifera has highest phenol content (45.6%3), Alkaloid (38.68%), steroid (24.89%) and Tannin (33.19%). Flavonoid and reducing sugar quantity was highest in M. indica (39.39%) and (55.18%) respectively.

Conclusion: The plants were able to show repellency to Anopheles gambiae a nuisance malaria vector of serious medical importance. These plants are available in all tropical areas of Africa, they can therefore be used to prevent nuisance and painful mosquito bites which could be a sustainable way to prevent mosquito vectored diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Environmental Variables on Fish Distribution in the Flooded Swamp Forest of the Lake Tumba Micro-basin on the Mbandaka- Research Center in Ecology and Forestry of Mabali (CREF Mabali) Road Axis in Bikoro, Equateur Province (DR Congo)

Adrien Boika Mondzoi Ndinga, Willy Lusasi Swana, Camille Nsimanda Ipey, Victor Pwema Kiamfu, Dieudonné Musibono Eyul’anki

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 25-43
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2022/v37i730520

Background and Objective: The majority of aquatic ecosystems in the Democratic Republic of Congo are highly anthropized, which could negatively influence biodiversity. The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of environmental variables on fish distribution in the flooded swamp forest of the Lake Tumba micro-basin on the Mbandaka- Research Center in Ecology and Forestry of Mabali road.

Study Area: This study took place in ponds, swamps, marigots and small streams in relation to Lake Tumba in the flooded forest zone of the Mbandaka-Mabali road axis in the territory of Bikoro, Equateur Province in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Methods: Fish were collected using different fishing techniques and gears. Physico-chemical parameters were sampled using a multi-parameter Combo pH probe of the brand Hanna pH/ORP/EC/DO N° HI 9828, dissolved oxygen was measured using the Brand Voltcraft DO-100 oximeter and depth was determined using a graduated board. Several ecological indices of fish communities were determined as well as Hierarchical Ascending and Principal Component Classification analyses.

Results: Twenty-two fish species belonging to ten orders, thirteen families and fifteen genera were identified. The average values of the abiotic variables show that the waters of the study area are characterized by low values of physico-chemical parameters within the ranges compatible with the survival of the local fish fauna. The canonical correspondence analyses reveal that five environmental variables (temperature, depth, dissolved oxygen, sandy bottom and sandy-muddy or gravelly bottom) would explain the abundance and distribution of fourteen fish species in the Longonye site. In contrast, turbidity, conductivity, pH, muddy bottom, and bottom littered with plant debris influenced the abundance and distribution of eight fish species at the Hongo, Ilungu, Lotende and Membe sites. Scoop fishing, stump removal, and the use of ichthyotoxic plants were the main anthropogenic activities that could compromise the fish fauna in the study area.

Conclusion and Outlook: Promoting sustainable local fishing methods would help preserve the fish fauna studied and limit the deterioration of fish habitats.