Open Access Original Research Article

Multiple Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Escherichia coli and Plasmid-mediated Quinolone Resistance Genes

Ugo U. Anayo, Nna E. Okechukwu, Onyemelukwe F. Ngozi, Samson O. Aisida, Canice C. Anyachukwu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2023/v38i230568

Quinolone antibiotics have been commonly used to treat cases of multiple antibiotic resistance. Unfortunately, quinolone antibiotics have so much been resisted by infectious bacterial agents. This study aimed to evaluate the susceptibility of some clinical isolates of E. coli to some commonly used quinolone antibiotics and the determination of the plasmid-encoded quinolone resistance genes.

Our results showed the plasmid quinolone-resistance genes in the following prevalence: qnr genes: qnr S (71.4 %); qnr B (15.4 %); qnr S and B (12.1 %); aac (6) lb-cr (4 %); Efflux genes: oqxA (7.7 %); oqxB (25.3 %); qepA (12.1 %); oqxA and oqxB (5.5 %). We conclude that there is a high frequency of Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolates from clinical samples in South-Eastern Nigeria. These could be responsible for the high incidence of quinolone resistance reported in Enugu. There is a need for whole-genome sequencing to map out all resistance genes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cell-free DNA in Embryo Culture Media as Non-invasive Biomarker of the Quality of Embryo Cleavage

Malak Jamil, Hasnae Debbarh, Hasnaa Jelloul, Amal Kabit, Mohamed Ennaji, Mohamed Zarqaoui, El Mehdi Hissane, Wassym Senhaji, Nourredine Louanjli, Rachida Cadi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 12-18
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2023/v38i230569

Background: The success of in vitro-fertilization (IVF) cycles is determined in large part by the quality of embryo cleavage, which in turn, is dependent on the quality of the embryo culture media (CM). Many factors can influence the quality of embryo CM, one of which is the levels of Cell Free Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Understanding the association between Cell-free DNA levels in embryo CM and the quality of embryo cleavage could help improve the quality of IVF techniques.

Methods: This prospective study was conducted with 96 spent CM from patients undergoing IVF cycle, in order to determine relationships of Cell-free DNA levels in embryo CM with embryo cleavage quality on day 3. After intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), 48 embryos were evaluated on day 3 of their development, according to their cell number. Day 2 and day 3 CM corresponding to each one of the embryos was analyzed, by quantitative PCR, for estimation of Cell-free DNA levels.

Results: The results revealed a significant increase in Cell-free DNA levels on day 2 CM corresponding to 4 to 6 cell embryos compared to those corresponding to 7 to 8 cell embryos (p=0.04).  As for day 3 CM, the results showed no significant difference between the Cell-Free DNA levels in CM of 7-8 and those of 4-6 cell embryos (p=0.4). Also, cell free DNA levels in embryo CM, were significantly higher on day 2 compared to day 3 for both 7-8 and 4-6 cell embryos (p=0.03; p=0.04).  

Conclusion: We conclude that cell-free DNA levels in CM might be associated with delayed embryo cleavage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Forage Supplementation Feeding of Lactating Merino Ewes in Dry Season at the Foothills Agro-ecological Zone in Lesotho

M. L. Ranchobe, O. I. A. Oluremi, N. Kuleile, M. Mahlehla, P. Mosebi, S. Molapo, L. Moea, L. Mochoa, M. Lefoka, M. Mantsoe

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 19-27
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2023/v38i230570

A farmer-participatory research, which lasted for seven weeks, was carried out at Machache, in the Foothills Agro-Ecological Zone of Lesotho to examine the effect of forage based diets supplementary feeding on the performance response and milk quality of lactating ewes during dry lambing season. A total of 270 lactating merino ewes were randomly distributed among four dietary treatments: basal diet (T1) which was the range land pasture used as control, cereal forage based diet (T2), leguminous forage based diet (T3) and mixed forage based diet (T4). The feed value of the supplementary diets T2 (4.70% CP and 9.94MJ/kg ME), T3 (12.31% CP and 10.27 MJ/kg ME), T4 (11.90% CP and 10.47 MJ/kg ME)] was superior to that of the range land pasture T1 (2.80% CP and 8.61MJ/kg ME). Ewes on forage supplemented diets performed significantly (P<0.05) better than the control group in feed intake, live body weight and live weight change. The milk quality evaluation showed that solids-non-fat (SNF), protein and lactose were highly significant (P<0.05) for T3 and T4 than T1 and T2 which had high milk fat. The study revealed that diets T1 and T2 lacked the nutritional capacity to meet the nutrient requirements of lactating ewes as evidenced by slight body weight improvement. It is concluded that supplementary diets T3 (leguminous forage based diet) and T4 (mixed forage based diet) contained adequate nutrients that can meet the requirement of lactating ewes during dry lambing season. This was verified by high voluntary feed intake and good nutrients utilization as resulted by improving of body weight and high milk quality response of lactating ewes.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Bacteriological of Make-up Tools Used in Calabar Metropolis, Cross River State, Nigeria

M. Mbah, S. S. Akpan, G. P. Bebia, E. E. Tangban, E. E. Bassey

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 28-34
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2023/v38i230571

Sharing of make-up tools by multiple users is a possible means of transfer of fungal infections, such as dermatophytoses. With abrasion on the skin, it is possible for HIV, Hepatitis B virus, Spirochaetes and other pathogens to be carried via contaminated make-up tools, from one person to another. Using sterilized swab sticks, surfaces of make-up tools (sponge and brush) were cleansed. Materials deposited on the swab sticks were cultured aerobically on Chocolate and Cysteine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient Agar plates overnight at 37oC. After overnight aerobic incubation, the culture plates were read macroscopically for growth. Bacterial isolates were subjected to microscopic examination using Gram’s staining technique and biochemical tests (e.g. coagulase, catalase, oxidase, and motility). Results showed that the predominant bacterial growths obtained from the make-up tools were Staphylococcus aureus (51.5%), Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (25.8%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.2%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (16.5%). The different genera of bacteria were harvested from make-up brushes (66.2%) and make-up sponges (85.7%). There was no bacterial growth from 33.8% and 14.3% of make-up brushes and make-up sponges respectively. There was no statistical difference in terms of bacterial growth between the two tools (brush and sponge) sampled (P>0.05). This study has shown that there is a moderate possibility for the transfer of bacterial organisms (both skin flora and pathogens) from one person to another, through make-up tools, in our local communities. It is hereby recommended that health education talks should be carried out regularly among beauticians to encourage them to use disposable make-up tools with disinfectants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fisheries and Biology of Otolithes ruber (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) Catch of Small-scale Fisherfolk in San Miguel Bay, Philippines

Emerson L. Bergonio

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 35-51
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2023/v38i230572

Otolithesruber (Bloch & Schneider, 1801) is one of the major fish catches in San Miguel Bay and its processing is a seasonal livelihood among coastal villages. This study documented and described the O. ruber catch of small-scale fisherfolks around the Bay through on-board survey and observation. Fishing trips from 10 September to 19 November 2018 demonstrated that fisherfolks used bottom-set gill nets and commonly explored the middle to the mouth of the Bay off Mercedes and Siruma to catch O. ruber and other species. The analysis of 434 composite fish samples bought from the fishing trips identified 222 female and 212 male fish individuals with TL of 19.14 + 0.11 cm and body weight of 70.76 + 1.46 g. The majority were already mature to spawning stages and gonads had no apparent lesions. The population’s reproductive capacity, based on the presence of numerous spermatocytes and oocytes, was presumed to be realized, but this may fail due to uncontrolled illegal fishing.