Open Access Minireview Article

Advancements in Genetic Diversity and Genome Characteristics of Durians (Durio spp.)

Tran Gia Huy, Nguyen Kim Hoan, Nguyen Pham Anh Thi, Do Tan Khang

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 12-23
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2023/v38i530584

Durian is one of the important fruit crops in Southeast Asia with its unique flavor and important economic benefits. Breeding programs have produced hundreds of different cultivars of durian. These cultivars are classified mainly by fruit and flower characteristics, which cannot be observed at the vegetative stage. Therefore, molecular biology is a powerful tool to approach and explore the genetic characteristics of durians. Many studies based on barcoded DNA and molecular markers have been conducted and valuable data have been exploited. Thanks to the advancement of sequencing technology, the plastid genome and the whole genome were sequenced in some durian cultivars. The data revealed reliable data on the structure and function of several genes. This review aims to update recent studies on the durian genome attributes and potential applications in the conservation of germplasm, authentication, and exploration of the gene structure and function of this specialty plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Kinetics Approach on the Evolution of the Nutritive Properties, Antinutritonal Factors and Free Radical Scavenging Capacity of DPPH during Germination of Two Local Legume Varieties (Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata)

Mariame Cissé, Ginette G. Doué, Wilfried K. Yao, Thierry L. Zoué

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2023/v38i530583

Aims: To improve the processes of pre-treatment of legumes for their nutritional valorization.

Study Design:  Original research.

Place and Duration of Study: This study took place at the Laboratory of Biotechnology, Agriculture and Valorization of Biological Resources, Félix Houphouët-Boigny University between February and July 2022.

Methodology: Red beans and cowpeas purchased on the local market of Adjamé were subjected, after unitary operation of sorting and washing, to a two-factor design of experiment:  seed/water ratio and the soaking time, in order to identify the ideal ratio and soaking time to well reduce phytates. Seeds resulting from this pre-treatment were germinated for 72 h and some key nutrient and functional parameters were evaluated.

Results: The ratio 8/9 and soaking time of 18 hours allowed a maximum reduction of 62 and 66.6% of phytate and 72.83 and 67.48% of tanins in cowpea and red beans, respectively. Protein content of these 72 hours germinated pre-treated seeds decreased very slightly and finally remained at high level of 22.02 and 23.13 g/100 g for cowpea and red bean, while reducing sugar levels increased significantly throughout germination to a maximum of 8.19 and 8.13 mg/100 g. Regarding functional and antioxidant properties, a maximum increase in total polyphenols (49.08  and 68.314 mg/100 g) and total flavonoids (13.75 and 39.67 mg/100 g) was observed after 48 h of germination for cowpea and red beans, respectively. Furthermore, this improvement in phenolic content led to a significant improvement in the free radical scavenging capacity of DPPH of 24.50 and 46.38 %. It should also be noted that the germinated red bean showed better nutritional value than the germinated cowpea.

Conclusion: This approach of pre-processing germinated legumes at seed-to-water ratio of 8/9 soaked for 18 hours, providing functional foods with guaranteed nutritional value, appears to be a way to improve local diets.

Open Access Original Research Article

olf413 Gene Controls Taste Recognition, Preference and Feeding Activity in Drosophila melanogaster

Ravindrakumar Ramya, Baragur Venkatanarayanasetty Shyamala

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 24-31
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2023/v38i530585

Recognition and responsiveness to food taste becomes a crucial event in foraging and feeding behaviour of an organism. Adjusting the feeding behaviour through a sophisticated and robust taste system is critical to fulfil their nutritional needs and facilitate its survival in environment. Palatability of food sources depends on the sensory and motor cues provided by the brain, in co-ordination with the other body systems to enable decisive feeding. Drosophila melanogaster is an apt model organism to decipher these behavioural paradigms. Octopamine a neurotransmitter, is required in regulation of feeding behavioural responses. olf413, a paralogue of T\(\beta\)H, is a gene predicted for its involvement in octopamine biosynthesis. The biological function of this gene is yet to be unravelled. Here we propose this gene function in taste recognition, food preference and feeding activity. We test the olf413 loss of function mutants for food preference between two fruit extracts using CAFE and horizontal box methods. In our study we have used olf413 gene disruption strain, olf413MI02014 homozygous and in transheterozygous condition with another allele isolated in our lab, olf413SG1.1. The results show that olf413 mutants display a severe phenotype in feeding behaviour and there is an allele specific phenotypic distinction between the two strains. Thus implying that olf413 gene function is required for taste recognition, starvation driven initiation and execution of feeding behaviour of the flies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Short-term Effects of Garlic-Based Diets on mRNA Expression of Angiotensinogen, Angiotensin-1 Converting Enzyme, and Atrial Natriuretic Peptide in Cyclosporine-Induced Prehypertensive Rats

Oluwadamilare Oluwaseun Ajayi, Olubunmi Bolanle Ajayi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 32-42
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2023/v38i530586

The short-term effects of garlic, Allium sativum L., on the mRNA expression of angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensinogen (AGT), and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in cyclosporine-induced prehypertensive rats were investigated in this work. Seven (7) groups of animals totaling n=7 were created. Prehypertensive (induced with 25mg/kg cyclosporine) and normal rats were given 10% and 20% diets based on garlic for 7 days. Alteration of Na+ and K+ levels, increased systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and ACE, AGT & ANP mRNA expressions were all associated with cyclosporin-induced prehypertension. In rats placed on garlic-based diets, these effects were reversed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Composition, Diversity, and Value of Ecological Importance in Andean Grassland Ecosystems according to the Altitudinal Gradient in the Huacracocha Micro-Watershed, Peru

Raúl M. Yaranga, Samuel E. Pizarro, Deyvis Cano, Fernan C. Chanamé, Javier A. Orellana

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 43-56
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2023/v38i530587

Aims: determine the composition and floristic diversity, the similarity between sites based on the distribution of species in the altitudinal gradient, and determine the value of ecological importance, in Andean grassland ecosystems.

Study Design: Original research.

Place and Duration of Study: This study took place in the Huacracocha micro-watershed in the Central Highlands of Peru, during the rainy season (January - March 2022).

Methodology: The agrostological evaluation points were determined taking into account twelve sites of interest were determined, located from the lowest part of the micro-watershed (4091.8 masl) to the part with the highest vegetation cover (4512.27 masl), the agrostological reading process at each evaluation site was carried out using the radial transect method with the line and intercept point technique.

Results: We observed the presence of the presence of 78 vascular species, included in 51 genus and 21 families, was found. The dominance of certain species characterized the type of grassland vegetation, and at least 3 species determined the similarity between sites. The alpha diversity index was low, and the value of ecological importance ranged between 0.0062 and 0.2194.

Conclusion: It was concluded that the Andean grassland ecosystems are constituted by a complex community of grasslands based on numerous floristic families, genus, and species, likewise, the dominance of species among the shared sites characterizes the vegetation type, and the diversity index and the IVI determine the complex structural characteristics with great biodiversity.