Open Access Original Research Article

Sensory Stability of Maize Grains Preserved by a Triple Packing System and Biopesticides (Leaves of Lippia multiflora Moldenke and Hyptis suaveolens Poit)

N’Dri Kouakou Félix, Henri Marius Biego, Sidibe Daouda, Konan Ysidor, Adama Coulibaly

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2023/v38i630588

The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensory stability of maize grains preserved in a triple bagging system with or without plant biopesticides (leaves of Lippia multiflora and Hyptis suaveolens), using a three-factor central composite design (CCD).

The first CCD factor consisted of 6 observation periods, namely: 0; 1; 4.5; 9.5; 14.5 and 18 months. The second factor was the type of treatment, which consisted of 1 control batch with polypropylene bags (WB) and 9 experimental batches, including 1 in a triple bag with no biopesticides (TS0) and eight (8) additional batches containing ratios and/or combinations of biopesticides (TS1 to TS8). Finally, the third factor concerns the combination of two biopesticides, with the percentage (%) of Lippia multiflora as the reference.

The samples were stored at room temperature for 18 months and periodically removed from storage for descriptive sensory analysis. All samples showed significant differences in sensory attributes initially and after storage. Intensity scores for negative sensory attributes such as musty and rancid aromas and acidic and astringent flavors increased during storage. After 18 months of storage, samples stored in a triple bagging system without biopesticides showed the highest intensity scores for rancid, moldy, acidic, and astringent flavors. These scores were 7.33±0.35; 6±1.67; 3.57±1.15; 4.38±1.57 respectively. However, samples preserved in triple bagging systems with biopesticides showed the lowest intensity scores for these negative attributes (4.5±0.8; 3.2±0.6; 2.18±1.73 and 1.96±0.67, respectively). In addition, the intensity scores for color, sweetness, and corn aroma decreased for all samples. Samples stored in triple bagging systems showed the smallest decrease at the end of storage for these positive attributes (5.67±1.21 for color, 5.66±1.5 for sweetness, and 5.25±1.47 for corn aroma).

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbiological Assessment of Indoor Air Quality in Selected Patient Wards at a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria

Sylvanus Akpak Upula, Ibiang Arikpo Oka, Uchenna Eze Ije

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 19-29
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2023/v38i630589

Aims: Patients are at higher risk of nosocomial infections from pathogenic microbes contaminating the indoor air of hospitals. This study evaluated selected patient wards at University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH), for bacterial and fungal contaminants. The study also determined the microbial contamination level when compared to recommended sanitary standards.

Methodology: To determine microbial load, petri-plate gravitational settling method was used. The set-ups were exposed for one hour (at morning and noon) for passive sampling onto growth media plates, in accordance with the 1/1/1 scheme as stipulated by the index of microbial air contamination standard. Petri-plates were subsequently covered with lids and placed in a cold box. Samples were then transported to the laboratory for further evaluation. Sampling was performed in duplicates within three months, and further analysis were conducted based on standard protocols. Mean counts of bacteria and fungi was recorded and expressed as colony forming units (CFU/m3).

Results: Microbial counts in all wards surveyed ranged from ‘intermediate’ to ‘high’ when compared to the sanitary standards of the European Commission for non-industrial premises. However, the counts were within the WHO acceptable sanitary standard (<1000 CFU/m3). Eleven bacterial genera and seven fungal genera were identified. Isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus (18.3%), CoNS (6.7%), Bacillus sp (13.3%), Streptococcus spp (6.7%), Corynebacterium sp (1.7%), and Micrococcus sp (1.7%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15%), Escherichia coli (10%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (10%), Acinetobacter baumannii (8.3%), Salmonella sp (5%) and Enterobacter sp (3.3%). Conversely, isolated fungal contaminants were A. niger (25.9%), A. flavus (20.4%), Penicillium sp (16.7%), Candida sp (9.3%), Rhizopus sp (3.7%), Mucor sp (7.4%), Cladosporium sp (14.8%), and Fusarium sp (1.9%).

Conclusion: Regular monitoring of indoor air quality in health-care settings is encouraged to effectively guide infection prevention and control strategies and to limit nosocomial infections occurrence.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Different Root Inducing Agents on Cutting Propagation of Tea (Camellia sinensis)

Vidanapathirana N. P., Rifnas L. M., Sumanasekara H. H. N.

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 30-37
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2023/v38i630590

Aims: In commercial cultivations, vegetative propagation through rooting of cuttings is common, and IBA- based rooting hormone is often used. However, due to the need for non-chemical alternatives in organic cultivations, organic rooting substances have become increasingly important. Hence considering this, an experiment was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of different root-inducing agents on the propagation of tea cuttings.

Study Design:  The experimental units were arranged in a completely randomized design.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted in a special project nursery belonging to TSHDA (Tea Small Holding Development Authority) in Beralapanathara GN division of Pasgoda divisional secretariat in Matara, Sri Lanka.

Methodology: The nodal cuttings were pre-treated with six different root-inducing agents including water (control), Aloe vera gel, coconut water, honey charcoal mixture, potato juice and rooting hormone (0.3% IBA). Each treatment was replicated four times with 20 cuttings in each. Cuttings' survival percentage, rooting percentage, the number of roots, root length and fresh and dry weights of the roots were evaluated during three phases as 2nd, 4th and 6th week. The data were statistically analyzed using SAS statistical package and treatment means were compared using DMRT at 5% significance level.

Results: The results revealed that there were significant differences between the treatments on cutting performances. The cuttings treated with rooting hormone showed the highest values in rooting percentage (55.8%), sprouting percentage (72.3%), during the 4th week and root length (2.1cm) and root dry weight (0.254g) during the 6th week. Moreover, coconut water and Aloe vera gel showed no significant higher values in most of the measured variables compared to the rooting hormone.

Conclusion: Therefore, it can be concluded that coconut water and Aloe vera gel can be considered alternative rooting substances to the chemical-based rooting hormone for organic tea cultivations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Prevalence of Oxis Contact in Primary Maxillary and Mandibular Teeth: A Retrospective Cohort Study

Sonal Gupta, Asmita Das, Abhinandan Patra, Antra Saket

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 38-43
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2023/v38i630591

Aim: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate four different types of OXIS contact areas (open [O], point [X], straight [I], and curved [S]) in primary teeth using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) among 3- to 9-year-old children.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed using cone-beam computed tomography images of children, available from January 1, 2022, to July 31, 2023 in Mathura district showing the presence of caries-free contact area between primary right maxillary and mandibular 1st and 2nd molar. In this study, 65 selected contacts using OXIS criteria from the occluso-cervical and axial view at coronal level using CBCT.

Result: Based on the shapes observed, the results showed four distinct types of contact regions between the primary molars, namely, O type, X type, I type, and S type; hence, the suggested categorization is known as OXIS. I type was the most prevalent pattern in the maxilla (47.06%), while O type was the most prevalent pattern in the mandible (50%).

Conclusion: There are four types of intact interproximal contact areas between primary molars, which can be evaluated in three dimensions. These types are O, X, I and S. In maxilla, pattern was

I > O > X > S whereas in mandible pattern was O > X > I = S.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Planting Date on Growing Degree Units, Grain Yield and Growth Traits of Some Egyptian Yellow Maize Inbred Lines

Khalifa, K. I., M. S. Abd El-Latif, H. A. A. Mohamed, M. M. D. Darwish, A. K. Mostafa, N. A. Hasan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 44-54
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2023/v38i630592

This study was conducted in 2021 to study the impact of planting date on maize inbred lines and determine their accumulated growing degree units (GDU).The experiment was held at three agriculture research stations (Gemmeiza, Ismaelia and Sids) with RCBD of four replications. It was planned to provide also some insights to optimize maize production and mitigate the impact of climatic changes to all researchers in the scientific community. Three planting dates i.e. April 20th (early), May20th (optimal) and June 20th (moderately late) were applied to investigate their effect on number of days to 50% tasselling and silking, plant height and grain yield of 16 Egyptian yellow maize inbred lines. In addition, to determine accumulated growing degree units (GDU) from planting to 50% silking. Results revealed highly significant differences among tested inbreds for all studied traits at the three planting dates indicating presence of genetic diversity among tested inbreds. Also, the same trend was found for differences among locations and inbreds x location indicating climatic variability among the three testing locations and that inbreds behaved differently at different locations due to differences in climatic conditions among locations and also genetic diversity among inbreds. Number of days to 50% tasselling and silking was reduced from April to June planting as a result of increased temperatures during plant development. Longest plant heights were obtained in April planting as a result of prolonged vegetative growth due to cool - moderate temperatures prevailing at early vegetative growth. Grain yield of all tested inbreds was reduced, with few exceptions, in June 20th planting as a result of high temperatures prevailing at time of tasselling and silking which resulted in pollen, stigma or fertilization abortion and caused poor seed setting. Highest yield of studied inbreds was obtained at Gemmeize location in April 20th planting and it is recommended as a suitable production location for inbreds.  Inbred Sakha 3 was the best performing under variable planting dates. Also, inbreds Sakha 1, Sakha 11, Gz 639 and Gm 1021 performed well on certain planting dates. Determination of accumulated growing degree units for tested inbreds revealed big variation among them as a result of genetic diversity of inbreds and matched well with variation present in their silking dates and specified earliness or lateness of tested inbreds. Results of GDU would help in expectation of timing for many agricultural practices such beginning of detasselling process and harvest time in hybrid breeding programs.