Open Access Original Research Article

Risk Assessment of Residual Pesticides of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Consumed in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

S. N. Kalu, C. O. Ujowundu, A. A. Emejulu, F. N. Ujowundu, V. A. Onwuliri, T. O. Ukwueze, M. A. Akpaki

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2023/v38i730593

Pesticides are important and necessary in reducing the loss caused by insect infestation on grains. However, its toxicity and persistence in the environment is of health concern. Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) preserved with insecticide are considered to be good for consumption if its content of insecticide is not higher than the maximum residue limits (MRLs). The aim of this research was to quantify the residue of pesticide in four beans samples and determine the health risk associated with consuming these foods by residents of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Pesticides content of beans samples were analyzed using Gas Chromatography (GC). The results of the study showed the presence of 17 different pesticide residues in all samples of beans. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (DDVP) were detected in all samples of beans and at levels above European Union’s (EU's) MRL except in iron beans samples. Glyphosate was detected in all the samples at concentration above EU’s MRL. However, pesticides in Raw iron beans such as carbofuran (0.43±0.03 mg/kg), Endosulphan (0.18±0.01 mg/kg), HCB (0.62±0.10 mg/kg) Profenos (0.55±0.04 mg/kg) and t-nonachlor (0.32±0.00 mg/kg) decreased significantly to 0.23±0.10 mg/kg, 0.09±0.01 mg/kg, 0.31±0.01 mg/kg, 0.38±0.01 mg/kg, and 0.22±0.00 mg/kg respectively in Parboiled iron beans. This indicates reduced Health Risk Index (HRI) to pesticides of parboiled beans samples. Similar results were also recorded in other raw and parboiled beans varieties studied. This calls for the attention of regulatory agencies in foods and food products to effectively monitor the use and application of pesticides on foodstuff and also encourage parboiling before cooking to eat.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ecology and Distribution Pattern of Insectivorous Plant in Sanjay Dubri Tiger Reserve Sidhi, Madhya Pradesh, India

Vivek Kumar Yadav, Diwakar Singh, A. P. Singh, Hemangad Shukla

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 11-16
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2023/v38i730594

Some angiosperm flowering plants of the plant kingdom obtain essential nutrients for themselves by feeding on small arthropods similar to animals; they are called insectivorous or carnivorous plants. These are often found in such places where the soil is acidic, moist land/swamp and lacking nutrients. The presence of several species of insectivorous plants such as Drosera burmannii, Aldrovanda vesiculosa, Nipenthes rajah, Utricularia aurea and Pinguicula vulgeris has been reported in different sites in India. Drosera burmannii, Drosera indica and Utricularia aurea have also been reported in Sanjay Dubri Tiger Reserve Sidhi, Madhya Pradesh. The availability of insectivorous plants will prove helpful in the study of soil diversity, geographical structure, climatic environmental conditions. The presence of the specific plants species to create the special characteristics of the area as well as raise the question in mind to observed the association of specific types of insect species and some associated plant species linkage that are available here.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Green Compost Processed Organic Fertilizer and Chlorella Microalgae Solution on Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, Carotenoid and Proline Content of Tropaeolum majus under Drought Stress

Sasan Mohsenzadeh, Maryam Karmidarenjani, Elham Alsadat Mirahmadinejad, Reza Robati

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 17-27
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2023/v38i730595

Environmental stresses, particularly drought, are the most critical contributors in reducing the growth of plants.  The effect of processed organic fertilizer of green compost and chlorella microalgae solution on chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid and proline content of Tropaeolum majus plant under control and drought conditions were investigated. The experiments were carried out in pot with a completely randomized design with three replicates. Green manure treatment included 0%, 5% and 10% by volume of pots. Chlorella microalgae treatment had two levels in terms of zero cells and 368 million cells in each pot. Drought stress was administered based on a lack of ten-day and seventeen-day irrigation.  After two months, the samples were collected and the relative content of amount of chlorophyll and carotenoids, and amino acid proline were performed. The findings revealed that green compost of 10% alone and together with chlorella microalgae significantly reduced the effects of drought stress at 5% level. Compost with 10% volumetric along with chlorella caused a significant increase in chlorophyll at control and 5% level. Tropaeolum majus plants treated with chlorella algae and 10% green compost showed the greatest levels of proline amino acid under stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in a Vegetable Cultivated in a Conflict Zone

A. I. Yaradua, J. I. Bungudu, L. Shuaibu, A. Nasir, A. Usman, I. H. Kankia, N. U. Matazu, Z. A. Suleiman, A. A. Sada, F. A. Rumah, U. Bello, A. B. Tukur, A. S. Sani, R. G. Lawal, H. K. Matazu, A. K. Sani, Z. G. Kabir, A. I. Yaradua, H. G. Kabir, M. I. Halliru, A. Abbas, M. M. Dalhatu, I. A. Yaradua, M. N. Nasir, F. Mukhtar, M. Hassan, B. Abdullahi, A. Y. Sabiru, I. S. Darma, R. Nasir, M. A. Rawayau, W. Hamisu, A. N. Muhammad

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 28-36
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2023/v38i730596

The health risk to the population from exposure to heavy metals in an area that have witnessed a surge in illegal mining activities, cattle rustling and banditry were evaluated in the current study. Sorel (Hibiscus sabdariffa) leaves sample from Gadirge village, Jibia local Government area, Katsina State, Nigeria was evaluated for the presence of heavy metals using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The health risks of the evaluated heavy metals in the sample to the population were assessed using the Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) and Health Risk Index (HRI)) to assess the possible non-carcinogenic effect and the Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) for the cancer risks. The result of the mean concentration values of the evaluated heavy metals Fe, and Pb from the sample falls above the Maximum Allowable Concentrations (MAC) of heavy metals in leafy vegetables. The concentrations of the other metals including Cu, Zn, Ni, Mn and Cd evaluated in the sample were within the permissible values The result of the Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) associated with the evaluated heavy metals exposure through consumption of the sample for adults and children all were below 1, with exception of the THQ for the heavy metal Fe in the adults and children population and for Mn in the children population that were above 1. The combined health risks for all the metals in the sample for the adults and children population represented as the HRI were above 1, the result of the Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) for both the adult and children population shows that the heavy metal Ni is beyond the threshold of the safety limit for cancer risk. There is a health risk concern from consumption of the vegetable sample as it may add to the disease burden of the population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Knowledge on the Hygiene Practices of Actors in the Sector of “Dèguè”, a Milk-Based Foodstuff Produced and Consumed in Togo: Case of the Municipality of Agoè-Nyivé 1

Kwami Lumo Awaga, Voukey Edo Boula, Mamatchi Mélila, Tètouwalla Awili, Kameni Ludovic Géraud Bonda

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 37-52
DOI: 10.9734/arrb/2023/v38i730597

“Dèguè” is mixture of fermented milk, millet or durum wheat couscous and sugar, which is one of the foods well appreciated in Togo. This study was carried out in view to contribute to the valuation of this milk-based foodstuff produced and consumed in Togo for consumer health safety. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study with an analytical aim, the survey of which took place from April 3 to June 30, 2023 in the municipality of Agoè-Nyivé 1 of the Autonomous District of Greater Lomé. In total, 70 "Dèguè" vendors were surveyed on their level of knowledge of good hygiene practices. The KoboCollect, Epi-info version 7.2. and Excel 2013 softwares allowed the collection and statistical processing of the data. The survey showed a predominance of women (80%) among sellers. They were between 15 and 50 years old with an average age of 30 ± 8.35. Respectively 45% and 36% of sellers declared having received training on Good Hygiene Practices and Good Manufacturing Practices. Only 35.71% of sellers have a good level of knowledge on hygiene practices and among them 48.00% have a secondary level compared to 28.00% with a higher level. Considering the age group, the Chi square test showed that there is no significant difference between the level of knowledge on hygiene practices and the age group (p > 0.05). The results of this study show the need to raise awareness among all the actors involved in the "Dèguè" sector in the municipality of Agoè-Nyivé 1 for an improvement in hygiene and manufacturing practices.