Open Access Short communication

The Effect of Water Extract of Zataria multiflora on Microvascular Permeability in Streptozocin Induced Diabetic Rats

Gholamreza Sepehri, Masoomeh khazaee, Mohammad Khaksari, Ahmad Gholamhoseinian Najar

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3119-3127
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9463

Objectives: The present investigation was aimed to study the effect of water extract of Zataria multiflora (Z. multiflora) on microvascular permeability in streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.
Place and Duration of Study: Physiology Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran, between June, 2011 and June 2012.
Materials and Methods: diabetes was induced in rats by administration of STZ (55 mg/kg, i.p.). Z. multiflora (1000mg/kg/d) and glibenclamide (5mg/kg) were administered by intragastric gavage for 8 weeks after the induction of diabetes. Control, vehicle and STZ_induced diabetes groups received the same volume of distilled water as Z. multiflora treated group. The fasting body weight, blood glucose level and glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were estimated at the start of experiments and at the end of every 2 week for 8 weeks. Microvascular permeability was evaluated by the evans blue test and water content measurement, 8 weeks after the induction of diabetes.
Results: Z. multiflora caused a significant reduction in extravasated evans blue concentration (31.4±0.8µg/100mg) in STZ diabetics vs 12.3±0.7µg/100mg in Z. multiflora treated diabetic rats), (P< .001) as an indicator of microvascular permeability. However, Z. multiflora had no significant effect on water content percentage (80.2±0.1%) compared to STZ diabetic rats (81.4±0.5%). Also Z. multiflora administration caused a significant decrease in blood glucose level (P=.05), HbA1c level (P<.001) and body weight loss (P=.01) in STZ diabetic rats.
Conclusion: this study showed that Z. multiflora reduced microvascular permeability in STZ diabetic rats. The underlying mechanism(s) is not determined yet, but the H1-receptor inhibition, antioxidant and/anti-inflammatory effect of Z. multiflora may be involved in its benefit effects on STZ- induced diabetes.

Open Access Minireview Article

Bioremediation: Step towards Improving Human Welfare

Parminder Kaur, Leena Parihar

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3150-3164
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9914

The term “bioremediation” refers to the process by which toxic contaminants such as xenobiotics are reduced into non-toxic by-products (carbon dioxide and water or organic acids and methane) with the help of biological agents. Most of the organisms’ especially human beings are continuously compromising their health with environmental contamination, which is increasing rapidly because of increasing population, industrialization and urbanization. Due to scarcity of resources and simultaneous advances in Science and Technology- human beings have started to exploit more natural resources thereby causing damage to the environment. An ideal solution to get rid of environmental contamination is through Bioremediation has become the most effective innovative low cost technology to come along that uses biological systems for the treatment of polluted environment. This technology includes both in situ (occurs at the site of contamination) and ex-situ (contaminant is taken out of the site of contamination and treated somewhere else) strategies. This paper provides an overview on environmental problems related to xenobiotics control strategies, its limitations and varieties of approaches of bioremediation.

Open Access Original Research Article

From therapeutic Electrotherapy to Electroceuticals: Formats, Applications and Prospects of Electrostimulation

Manousos E. Kambouris, Zoi Zagoriti, George Lagoumintzis, Konstantinos Poulas

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3054-3070
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/10563

Introduction: Electrical modalities awere used therapeutically since the 18th century till 1900s to reemerge after World War II and to come to prominence after the 80s. Applications include wound healing of injured/molested/burnt tissues, pain management, exercise enhancement, cardiac arrest management, and hearing enhancement.
Modus Operanti: Electrostimulation acts by generating currents and voltages similar to innate ones in cell/tissue/organs. Electrosensitive moieties of the cell membrane are excited and signals transduced to regulate gene expression and metabolism, while provoking vectored movement by orienting the cytoskeleton.
Therapeutic Applications: The highly diversified applications of electrostimulation created the notion of "electroceuticals". Conductive applications use electrodes to transmitting current; inductive applications use fields to induce currents in the tissues. Different forms and kinds of field and current combine with temporal parameters to create a multitude of modalities, as do the material of the electrodes. Last come the treated ailments. At present the focus is toonwound healing, in burns, sports or other traumatic injuries and ulcers due to underlying disease.
Microbiological parameters: Electrostimulation affects microflora both in biotechnological and clinical contexts. Different electrodes and forms of electrostimulation seem to affect differently Gram (-) and Gram (+) bacteria; the effect on biofilms and yeasts is encouraging for treatinghospital infections as is the combination with biochemical compounds.
Wireless Microcurrent Stimulation: A new modality, free of conductive approaches' drawbacks (electrochemical instability, risk of infection and electric burns, pain/irritation). It uses charged air molecules to create very low intensity current, of the level of single-digit microAmperes, thus being well-tolerated.
Conclusion: Electroceuticals become very sophisticated and diversified and should be viewed in terms of electrodynamics and electrokinetics, so as to be properly integrated in modern therapeutic schemes either as a supplement or as an alternative to biochemical compounds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Effect of Allium akaka Herbal Extract on Planktonic and Biofilm Cells of Pathogen Bacteria in Laboratory Conditions

Salehi Mitra, Navidi Maryam, Hatami Zeinab

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3087-3095
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9844

Aims: Antimicrobial effect of Allium akaka herbal extracton the formation of biofilm and colonization of clinical and food-born pathogens are important in this research.
Study Design: In the recent years, traditional medicine and identification of herbs have been highly addressed due to the problems arising from consumption of chemical drugs and bacterial resistance to the antibiotics in planktonic and biofilm modes. Allium (with the scientific name Allium akaka) contains sulfide and sulfur compounds with strong antimicrobial effects.
Place and Duration of Study: Islamic Azad University of North Tehran Branch Laboratory, between February 2012 and May 2013.
Methodology: Efforts have been made in this research to study the inhibitory effect of Allium ethanol extract on Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium bacteria using disk diffusion and macro dilution methods (concentrations 62.50, 125, 250 and 500 mg lit-1). Also in this experimental research, the effects of different concentrations of Allium extract on biofilm formation bacterial and S. aureus and S. typhimurium pathogenic bacteria were studied using micro-titer method.
Results: The best effect of extract was for S. typhimurium bacterium which was estimated at 125mg lit-1. The lowest dilution for Allium herbal extracts that impeded the formation of biofilm in both S. aureus and S. typhimurium bacteria included a dilution of the 0.55 gr ml-1 within the first 24 hours and had lower effects on non-formation of biofilm within the next 48 and 72 hours.
Conclusion: The present study shows that ethanol extract of A. akaka has antibacterial activity against S. aureus and S. typhimurium bacteria also the ability to diminish the biofilm formation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Turmeric Rhizome Powder and Oil Sources on Performance, Immune System and Bone Characteristics in Pre and Post Heat Stressed Broiler Chickens

Seyyed Javad Hosseini-Vashan, Abolghasem Golian, Akbar Yaghobfar

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3096-3107
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/10068

Aims: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary Turmeric Rhizome powder (TRP) as a natural antioxidant and soybean (SO), canola oil (CO) and tallow (T) on performance, immune system, relative weight of organs and bone quality in 28d and post heat stressed broilers.
Study Design: The experiment was done in completely randomized design with 3×3 factorial arrangement.
Place and Duration of Study: Sample: Department of Animal Science, between July 2010 and September 2011.
Methodology: 792 day-old broilers were randomly allotted to a 3×3 factorial arrangement with three levels of TRP (0, 0.4 and 0.8%) and three oil sources of canola and soybean oil and tallow. Heat stress (33±1ºC) was applied from 10:30 to 15:30 of every day for all birds from 28-42d.
Results: Diets did not affect feed consumption, production index (PI), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and energy efficiency ratio (EER) of birds at 28d and AHS. Higher BW and lower FCR were observed in broilers fed SO and CO as compared to those fed tallow in PHS. The heat stressed birds fed diet contained 8g/kg TRP have higher BW and lower FCR as compared to those fed 4g/kg TRP diet. The antibody production against SRBC, IgG and IgM were not affected by dietary treatments. The diaphysis diameters, thickness of lateral and medial walls and medullary canal diameter and abdominal fat were altered by dietary inclusion of TRP or oils in heat stressed chickens.
Conclusion: Inclusion of oils and supplementation of TRP to diet may affect performance, relative weight of abdominal fat and heart and bone characteristics of broilers reared under heat stress condition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma and Gold Nanoparticles on Cell Viability

Zhohreh Shahmirani, Shiva Irani, Seyed Mohammad Atyabi, Shahriar Mirpour, Sasan Shadpour, Mahmood Ghorannevis, Morteza Daliri Joupari

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3108-3118
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/7419

Aims: Cell culture can be used to study of cell proliferation, viability and apoptosis. Purposeful treatment by cold atmospheric plasma is a new approach in cell culture system. Plasma is an ionized gas that has reactive and energetic particles and can be produced by different methods in the laboratory. Nanoparticles have many applications in biology and medicine. In this study we investigated about plasma jet and gold nanoparticle synergy on L929 fibroblast cells viability.
Study Design: The plasma jet consists of a pyrex nozzle tube as an insulating shield (ID=2 mm and OD=4mm). The power supply produces 10 KV high voltage pulses with a frequency of 6 kHz and 30 microsecond pulse width.
Place and Duration of Study: Biotechnology engineering Center, Department of biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University between June 2012 and May 2013.
Methodology: In this study, the plasma jet was employed. Gold nanoparticles produced through Strohoff methods; size and charges were measured by zetasizer. Cell cytotoxicity and cell viability was shown by MTT assay.
Results: The results showed that the cell proliferation has been increased by using of cold atmospheric plasma and gold nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles and cold plasma alone did not have effect on L929 cells proliferation.
Conclusion: It seems that the cell viability has been enhanced by synergistic combination of nanotechnology and plasma technology in cell culture systems.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparison of Species Diversity in Two 1-ha Plots at Tekai Tembeling Forest Reserve, Pahang, Malaysia

Norhajar Eswani, Kamziah Abd Kudus, M. Nazre, A. G. Awang Noor

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3128-3138
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/6058

Aims: The effects of commercial logging on tree species diversity in the Tekai Tembeling Forest Reserve (TTFR), Jerantut, Pahang is unknown. This article is focus on inventory of two forest plots having one ha area of each.
Study Design: This study based on inventory conducted within the forest area.
Place and Duration of Study: Tekai Tembeling Forest Reserve (TTFR), Pahang, Malaysia between 2008 and 2010.
Methodology: 100 quadrats of 10mx10m were established in each plot. Hundred percent inventory was applied to collect the data which were analyzed using Ecological Methodology Software to calculate species diversity, richness and composition. Accordingly, species richness, species composition, evenness and species dominance were compared between two plots.
Results: Altogether 34226 individuals were found in both plots which were belonging to 950 species under 321 genera and 107 plant families. Remarkably, 700 species were found in plot 2 while it was only 520 in plot 1. However, plot 1 comprised more stems than plot 2. The importance value index (IVI) value was found to be highest for Shorea curtisii among species group in plot 1 but in case of plot 2 it was highest for Knema hookeriana. So it can be concluded that these species were dominant species. In this study, individuals was all of the plants collected during inventory including trees, shrub, climbers, palm and so on while stand density only represent the number of plant with dbh at least 5cm. Total stand density and basal area were 1310 plants ha-1 and 27.52 m2 ha-1 respectively in plot 1 while they were 316 plants ha-1 and 9.50m2 ha-1 respectively in plot 2. Notably, Euphorbiaceae was the most diverse which was followed by Dipterocarpaceae plant family in both plots.
Conclusions: Species diversity in Plot 2 was more diverse compared to Plot 1. However Plot 1 was more dense than Plot 2 with 18752 individual trees compared to 15459 in Plot 2.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of ThinPrep® and Conventional Preparations for Peritoneal and Pleural Cytology Smears

Nasar Yousuf Alwahaibi, Nasra Said Alnoumani, Usha Rani Bai

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3139-3149
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/10078

Aims: To compare the performance of ThinPrep® 5000 processor with the conventional method of preparing pleural and peritoneal smears as well as to study the possibility of replacement of the conventional method with ThinPrep® 5000 system.
Methodology: Forty-one samples of serous fluid comprising 17 pleural fluids and 24 peritoneal fluids, were analyzed. Smears were prepared using ThinPrep® 5000 and conventional methods. All the slides were stained by the Pap method.
Results: 98% of all cases showed monolayer architecture with minimal overlapping using ThinPrep® 5000 method. However, 73% of cells, prepared by conventional method, were either crowded, overlapped or both. In addition, the cytomorphology of cells prepared by ThinPrep® 5000 method was better preserved (61%) than those with conventional method (41%). However, conventional smears were cellular in 73% of the cases whereas with ThinPrep® 5000 method, high cellularity was only seen in 2%.
Conclusion: The findings of this study support the use of ThinPrep® 5000 system in the diagnosis of pleural and peritoneal samples.

Open Access Review Article

Symbiogenesis Driven Biogenesis

Javeed Hussain, Guangyuan He, Guangxiao Yang

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3037-3053
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/9881

Only seven major endosymbiotic consortia, between the phagotrophic host and respiratory or photosynthetic bacteria, have been identified which were chosen by the processes of symbiogenesis. Symbiogenesis exploited every bit of these consortia and consequently produced a stunning diversity and complexity of eukaryotic life on this planet. Based on an extensive synthesis of literature, this study contemplates the working of symbiogenesis, spanning a time period of around 2 billion years, and its fruits for the eukaryotic world. Endosymbiosis effectively started with perfection in phagotrophy in the ancestors of eukaryotic cells. Phagotrophic internalisation of bacteria produced the chances of endosymbiosis. The rest of the work was accomplished by symbiogenesis. To sustain the respective form of symbiosis, it shuffled, rearranged, and invented new molecular assemblies and remarkably established import and export of proteins across the membranes. This transformation in protein import convened transfer of hereditary information from the symbiont into the host nucleus. Another important role which this process played in the eukaryotic cells is enrichment of cellular heredity in context of membranes. It integrated together the membrane compliments from both members of the endosymbiotic consortia.

Open Access Review Article

Terrestrial Animal- and Plant-Based Ingredients as Alternative Protein and Lipid Sources in the Diets for Juvenile Groupers: Current Status and Future Perspectives

Leong-Seng Lim, Annita Seok-Kian Yong, Rossita Shapawi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 3071-3086
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2014/10963

The Epinephelinae groupers are strict carnivorous species. They are widely cultured in the Asia Pacific region as a result of high demand and market price especially in the live reed food fish trade. Groupers are commonly raised in net cages and fed with the unsustainable low value fish. Although this feeding practice has been gradually improved by using formulated diets, the production cost of these diets is high due to the increasing prices of fish meal and fish oil. In order to find sustainable replacements for these expensive commodities, research has been conducted to evaluate alternative ingredients effects on fish growth performances and immune function. This review covers different types of alternative ingredients tested on several species of juvenile grouper. In general, animal protein sources were able to replace fish meal at higher inclusion levels than plant protein sources. Lowered digestibility, deficiency in essential nutrients, and reduced palatability are major challenges in using alternative ingredients in grouper feeds.