Open Access Original Research Article

Detection of Fusarium solani as a Pathogen Causing Root Rot and Wilt Diseases of Young Olive Trees in Morocco

M. Chliyeh, S. Msairi, A. Ouazzani Touhami, R. Benkirane, A. Douira

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/33744

The cultivation of the olive tree has several problems related to pests and diseases that can cause heavy economic losses by causing the death of trees. Fusarium solani was detected in the olive trees of Sidi Taibi’s nurseries located in the national road between Kénitra and Rabat in spring 2012 and 2013 (1 to 2% of diseased plants). Koch’s postulate was verified in the olive trees variety ‘Picholine Moraine’, inoculated withF. solani. Three months after inoculation of the plants, the extremities of the young buds began to dry out, then the drying became generalized and the roots of the inoculated plants showed rot and detached from the base of the plants. The pathogen was re-isolated from the roots, dried buds, bark and petioles of the leaves of the inoculated plants; the percentage of isolation was 100%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Endomycorrhizal Inoculation on the Young Cork Oak Plants (Quercus suber) Growth

Otman Hamidi, Zouheir Talbi, Mohamed Chliyeh, Amina Ouazzani Touhami, Karima Selmaoui, Rachid Benkirane, Allal Douira

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/33873

Inoculation with endomycorrhizae had a significant effect on the cork oak (Quercus suber) seedlings growth. The average length (55.37 cm) and weight (12.6 g) of the aerial part, the length (41 cm) and weight (26.41 g) of the root system, the rod diameter (0.56 cm) and the leaves number (120) of the plants inoculated with mycorrhizae AM were higher than those of control, respectively, 41.75 cm; 10.1 g; 28.5 cm; 16.75 g; 0.53 cm; 112.75. Frequency (90%) and intensity (71%) of mycorrhization were higher at the root levels of plants inoculated with endomycorrhizae than those of control plants that did not show any mycorrhization.

However, the study of morphological spores criteria of AM fungi isolated from the rhizosphere of plants inoculated with endomycorrhizae made it possible to identify 18 different species (9 species belong to Glomus genus, 4 belong to Acaulospora genus, 2 belong to Scutellospora genus and one to Gigasporagenus, Diversispora genus and Redeckera genus).

Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteriological and Physicochemical Quality of Malabor Hostel Tap Water - University of Calabar, Nigeria

O. A. Mmuoegbulam, I. U. Bassey, A. A. Unimke, E. E. Igwe

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/33920

Tap water samples collected from different halls in Malabor hostel were analyzed for total heterotrophic bacteria count, total and faecal coliform counts using direct plating and membrane filtration methods. Total heterotrophic bacterial counts ranged from 3 to 80 cfu/ml, corresponding to the total heterotrophic bacterial counts obtained from Hall 4 and Hall 9 samples respectively. Total coliform counts ranged from 28 cfu/ml to 126 cfu/ml, corresponding to the total coliform counts obtained from Hall4 and Hall9, respectively. No faecal coliform was detected at 35 – 37°C in all samples even after 72 hours of incubation. Bacterial isolates identified include: Listeria monocytogenes, Erwinia stewartii, Legionella pneumophilia, Carnobacterium gallinarum, Staphylococcus caseolyticus, Enterobacter dissolves, Pseudomonas mallei, Klebsiella pneumonia, Aeromonas media and Lactobacillus sp. Lactobacillus sp. had the highest percentage of occurrence (23%). The physicochemical and heavy metal quality of samples were compared with WHO and SON standards for drinking-water, and results showed that samples were too acidic and contained an unhealthy amount of Aluminum ion (Al3+).

Open Access Original Research Article

Green Tea confers Protection on the Retina in MPTP Mice Model of Parkinson’s Disease

Philemon Dauda Shallie, Koya Aderonke Kanyinsola, Oluwadamilola Faith Shallie, Omowumi Femi-Akinlosotu, Oluwole Ojo Alese, Margaret Olutayo Alese

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/33328

Aim: This study investigated the impact of MPTP induced Parkinson’s disease (PD) and the protective and/or curative effects of green tea on the retina.

Study Design: Twenty-five adult male mice (Mus musculus) weighing between 20-30 grams were used for this study. The mice were randomly placed into five groups of five mice each: A (Control; mice pellets), B (1Methyl -4-phenyl-2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) 10 mg/kg, IP), C (MPTP + Green tea (GT); 300 mg/kg GT orally), D (GT + MPTP), E (GT; 300 mg/kg).

Methodology: At the end of the experimental protocols, the eyes were excised weighed and processed to determine the neurotransmitter [Dopamine, Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) and calcium ion (CA2+)] levels in the retina spectrophotometrically and histology of the retina using Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stain.

Results: The results showed significant (P<0.005) reduction in the relative eye to body weight and increase in the retinal diameter in the MPTP group when compared with the control. Whereas treatments with green tea did not significantly (P<0.005) increase the relative eye to body weight but intake of green tea alone does, while the retinal diameter is significantly reduced by pre-treatment with green tea. The concentration of Calcium was significantly increased by MPTP and significantly reduced by green tea intake, whereas only the green tea alone and green tea co-treated groups significantly increased dopamine levels.

Conclusion: From our results we can preliminary conclude that green tea conferred protection on the retina against the adverse effects of MPTP in mice model of Parkinson’s disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Breed Effects on Nutritive Value, Carcass and Non-carcass Components of Spent Hens of Nigeria Region

Fajemilehin Samuel Oladipo Kolawole

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/26900

A study was carried out to determine the nutritive value, carcass and non-carcass characteristics of spent hens of Brown Nera exotic strain and the Normal-Feathered local hens in Nigeria with a view to ascertaining their suitability for consumption.

Twenty numbers of day old chicks each of local and exotic stocks were procured and kept intensively. The two breeds were offered the same feed with starter diet containing 2880 Kcal ME/kg and 186 g/kg of crude protein for the first 2 months; grower diet with 2970 KcalME/kg and 178g/kg crude protein for the next 3 months and layer diet with 2800 KcalME/kg and 178g/kg crude protein from onset of lay to the end of the experiment. At 72 weeks of age, 10 birds from each group were slaughtered, scalded in hot water, plucked and eviscerated. The plucked, eviscerated, carcass, cut-up parts - head, neck, drumstick, thigh, back, breast, wing shank and the non-carcass - heart, gizzard, lungs, liver, spleen, proventiculus, small intestine and abdominal fat weights were determined and expressed as percentages of the live weight.

The blood, plucked, eviscerated, carcass, breast, back, thigh, drumstick, neck, head, shank, gizzard, heart, lung, liver, spleen, proventiculus and intestinal weights were higher (p<0.05) in the local chicken and rest were higher in the exotic breed. Crude protein content of the thigh, liver and breast were higher (p<0.05) in the exotic breed; the cholesterol content higher (p<0.05) in the local breed and the rest were similar (p>0.05) between them.

The spent hens’ major muscles had similar nutritional value to commercial broiler meat except that it has higher fat content but lower cholesterol which might probably confer health promoting benefits on spent hen meat.