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Open Access Original Research Article

Lead-induced Oxidative Stress and Chemoprotective Role of Dietary Supplements on Wistar Albino Rats

C. O. Ujowundu, G. N. Okwu, J. J. Achilike, L. A. Nwaogu, A. C. Ene, C. I. Iheme

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/33167

The heavy metal lead (Pb) is a common environmental pollutant with widespread distribution, and oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of its toxicity. The ameliorative effect of nutritional contents of palm oil and cod liver oil (dietary supplements) following exposure to sublethal concentration of Pb on adult Wistar albino rats was studied. Toxicity was induced by administering intraperitoneally, 30 mg/kg body weight of lead acetate at alternate days for 21 days. Groups treated with supplements received daily oral dose of 2.5 ml palm oil or cod liver oil or 1.25 ml palm oil and 1.25 ml cod liver oil (synergy). Increased activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, decreased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and increased concentrations of total bilirubin and lipid peroxidation product were observed in Pb exposed rats without nutritional supplement treatment. However, these negative oxidative states were ameliorated in rats by the concomitant administration of nutritional supplements, singly and in combination. Furthermore, non-significant changes were observed in the haematological parameters determined. These observations indicate potential therapeutic benefits in the use of palm oil and cod liver oil in the management of lead-induced toxicity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Public Attitudes toward Monitor Lizards (Reptilia: Varanidae): A Conservation Challenge in the Human-dominated Ecosystems of Bangladesh

K. M. Mijanur Rahman, Ilgizar Iliazovic Rakhimov, M. Monirul H. Khan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/33970

The present study investigated the public attitudes toward monitor lizards in the human-dominated ecosystems of sub-tropical Bangladesh. In this regard, a total of 100 participants between the age of 15-65 were randomly selected from five different parts (20 participants from each part) of Bangladesh. Based on participants’ opinion, Varanus bengalensis is mostly known (58±2.20) and Varanus salvator is the least known (22±3.48) species among three monitor lizard species found in Bangladesh. Surprisingly, most of the participants (77±0.50) mentioned that monitor lizards are snakes. Though all the monitor lizards found in Bangladesh are non-venomous, a significant proportion (63±1.53) of the participants believe that monitor lizards are venomous and can attack and bite people. The participants' viewpoint throughout the country regarding the above-mentioned issues, however, were somewhat similar (χ2 test, p> 0.05). Despite their negative perception, most of the participants (71±1.27) agreed that monitor lizards play vital role in our ecosystems. The populations of monitor lizards are declining day by day at an alarming rate. Most of the participants (32±0.50) mentioned that retribution killing is the primary cause of the decline of monitor lizards. The highest proportion (56±1.35) of participants believe that there are no alternatives of awareness raising among local residents if we are to conserve monitor lizards in their natural environment that is shared by people.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biometric Relationships and Evaluation of the Density of Tagelus angulatus Gray, 1847 (Mollusca, Solecurtidae) on the West African Coasts in Three Villages of the Community Protected Area of Urok, Guinea-Bissau

Malick Diouf, Alioune Faye, Aissa Regala, Nathalie Cadot, Elhadji Malick Fall, Charlotte Karibuhoye

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/33652

Aims: This study aimed to examin the biometric relationships, size frequencies and density of Tagelus angulatus in the Community Marine Protected Area of the Bijagós Islands of Guinea Bissau.

Methodology: Sampling was carried out in three villages (Formosa, Nago and TChediã) of the Community Marine Protected Area. A total of 1596 individuals were collected. On each mudflat, four random transects 30 m apart and oriented from the shore to the sea were established. On each transect, individuals of Tagelus angulatus were collected on 6 plots of 1mthat were separated by 10 m.

Results: The length of the individuals sampled ranged from 12 mm to 69 mm in all three of the villages studied with an average length of 48.65 ± 9.53 mm and a main mode equal to 53 mm. The results showed a positive allometry. The length and width of the species are also strongly correlated. The mean density for all three villages was 16.63 individuals.

Conclusion: Management of the shellfish industry generally requires the knowledge and use of biometric relationships to translate data collected in the field into indicators that can be used for the development of management plans. This study provided knowledges on biometric relationships and density of Tagelus angulatus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Toxicity Assessment of Synthetic Pyrethroids (Lambda Cyhalothrin) on the Liver and Kidney Organs of Male Wistar Rats

O. O. Fadina, F. I. Oshoke, O. O. Fayinminnu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/31906

Aims: Humans and animals are occasionally and unintentionally exposed to lethal and sub lethal doses of pesticides stemming from its various uses to control pests both in agriculture, homes, gardens and public health. The use of pyrethroid products has grown and continues to grow due to the suspension of some organophosphorus and organochloride products. This current study evaluated the toxic effects of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) on hematological and histopathological changes in the liver and kidney organs of rats after sub chronic exposure.

Study Design: Completely randomized design (CRD) with 5 treatments replicated 5 times.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Crop Protection and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Ibadan, Nigeria, between July and August, 2015.

Methodology: Twenty-five 7-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to five groups. The control (group 1) received distilled water, while experimental groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 received by gavage 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg body weight, respectively LCT over a period of five weeks. Hematological and histopathological studies were carried out on the blood and organs of interest, respectively on termination of the experiment.

Results: There was a dose-related reduction of white blood cell count from 3.25±0.22 (control) to 3.00±0.62 (100 mg/kg), and severity in alteration of the micro anatomy of the liver and kidney with increase in LCT concentration in the treated animals. The results showed necrosis and vacuolar changes in the hepatocytes and congestion of interstitial blood vessels. Also observed was a significant change in the body weight of the wistar rats after the 5th week of treatment with an average weight of 198 kg,196 kg, 194 kg, 186 kg, 160 kg for control, 25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg, 75 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg treatment respectively.

Conclusion: lambda-cyhalothrin is highly toxic (even at the lowest dose in this experiment) and may cause cell damage, organ failure, anaemic conditions and reduce immunity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Tagetes patula

Deepshikha Kushwaha, Yashodhara Verma

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/34349

In present study, the preliminary screening of Tagetes patula contains many phytochemicals. These phytochemicals are able to reduce the oxidative stress in living organisms under adverse conditions. T. patula contains high ratio category of polyphenolic compounds such as phenol and flavonoids. Antioxidant activity of extracts was expressed as percentage of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radicals inhibition and IC50 values (μg/mL) ranged from 11.86 to 16.06%. The total phenolic content ranged from 30.26 to 80.08 mg/g of dry weight of extract, expressed as gallic acid equivalents. The total flavonoid concentration varied from 30.00 to 65.00 mg/g, expressed as quercetin equivalents. In this study, phenolic content was quite higher in leaves as compared to flavonoids in flowers. The objective of this study to determined the antioxidant activity of Tagetes patula.