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Open Access Short Research Article

The Mechanism of Action of Rhizobacteria Enterobacter nimipressuralis 32-3 on the Mineral Nutrition and Productivity of Soybean

L. A. Chaikovskaya, M. I. Baranskaya

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/33934

The aim of the research was to study the mechanism of action of soil rhizobacteria E.  nimipressuralis 32-3 on the elements of mineral nutrition of soybean (сontent of N and Р2О5  in shoot, productivity of plants), qualitative and quantitative content of phytohormones in cultural liquid of this strain. Pot experiments were carried out in greenhouse during two seasons (2014 and 2015) to evaluate the influence of the strain Enterobacter nimipressuralis 32-3 on the  growth, productivity of soybean (cultivar Krepysh) and accumulation Р2О5, total N in shoot. The results revealed that pre sowing seed inoculated by E. nimipressuralis 32-3 increased the content of N and P2O5 in shoot of soybean by 28-46% and 12-14% respectively compared to the control (against control accordingly). It was established that improvement of mineral nutrition of plants with inoculation contributed to increasing their productivity and height. So, biomass of dry shoot soybean increased by 30% and 14% against control, amount of beans on the plants with inoculation exceeded control dates by 64-70%. It was showed that the height of plants with inoculation increased by 15-17% compared to the control. The determination of quantitative (methods of thin-layer chromatography) compound of phytohormones, which are produced by E. nimipressuralis 32-3 was carried out in the experiments. It has been established that in the cultural liquid of this strаin there are physiologically active substances of phytohormones: auxin, gibberellins and cytokinin line.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Olive Oil By-products: Antioxidant Activity, Its Ability to Reduce Aflatoxigenic Fungi Hazard and Its Aflatoxins

Adel G. Abdel-Razek, A. Noah Badr, Mohamed G. Shehata

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/35065

The Aim: The aim of this study is to explore a new application for turning low value byproducts to value added bioactive components using a simple technique.

Study Design: The large amounts of byproducts resulted had an environmentally harmful; the phenolic components were extracted using aqueous isopropanol from olive leaves and pomace.

Place and Duration of Study: samples were analysed in laboratories of Fats and Oils Department, Toxicology and Food Contaminants; National Research Centre; and in Department of Food Technology, City of Scientific Research and Technological Application during season of 2016.

Methodology: A novel extraction method was used to recover the remaining active components from olive processing wastes (OPWS) either from pomace or leaves. The oil residues re-extracted from dried pomace using n-hexane; collected as pomace olive oil.

Results: Although the OPWS considered as a harmful environmental byproduct; OPWs extracts showed a highly contents of polyphenols along with antioxidant activity, the best results recorded in pomace olive extract (POE), it had a good character to reduce toxigenic fungal growth and mycotoxins. Antimicrobial property, MIC and MFC of polar and non-polar extracts were determined.

Conclusions: It showed a better antimicrobial character in conformity with its total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidant activities. The olive pomace extract showed a high content of bioactive components. The extracts had anti-mycotic properties against 4 types of toxigenic fungi, and anti-mycotoxigenic characters that showed a high ability of the olive pomace extracts either on fungal inhibition or reducing aflatoxin ratio.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphological Characterization and Relationship between Morphometric Parameters and Standard Length Barbus altianalis (Boulenger, 1904) Populations in Lake Victoria Drainage Basin, Kenya

Emily Jepyegon Chemoiwa, Romulus Abila, Elizabeth Wanjiku Njenga, James Barasa

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/31984

Aim: To provide data on external morphology of Barbus altianalis from four major rivers in Lake Victoria watershed, determine whether there are significant morphometric differences between sub-populations from the rivers of the catchment area examined and to determine relationship between morphometric parameters and standard length (SL).

Methods and Results: Morphometric analysis was carried out in the study. Based on 21 morphometric characters, Barbus altianalis populations from four Lake Victoria catchment rivers Nzoia, Yala, Nyando and Sondu-Miriu were morphologically characterised based on 21 morphometric parameters. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed separation of Rivers Yala from Nzoia, Nyando, and Sondu-Miriu populations. Factor loadings established that 11 characters were morphologically informative. PCA1 accounted for 43.25% of the variation while PCA2 accounted for 19.44% of the variation. Mann-Whitney U Test (α=0.05) indicated lack of significanct difference in morphological characteristics between Sondu-Miriu and Nyando, but significant intra-specific morphological difference between all the other pairs of rivers. All external parameters except 4 showed positive relationship with standard length (SL). Our results suggests presence of intra-specific morphometric variation between the four populations and corroborate findings based on mitochondrial DNA analysis.

Conclusion: Morphological characterization reveal intra specific variation in Barbus altianalis in the Lake Victoria catchment and suggests the existence of river specific morphs, a possible adaptation to changes in the catchment. This could also provide evidence of long term existence of migratory as well as riverine sedentary populations of the species within Lake Victoria basin (LVB).

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Experimental Development of Arterial Hypertension and Dyslipidemia on Intravascular Activity of Rats’ Platelets

I. A. Skoryatina, S. Yu Zavalishina

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/33758

Great interest is shown by researchers to functional and rheological features of basic regular blood elements. Platelets are among them and take the most active part in hemostasis at rather wide-spread nowadays cardio-vascular and metabolic diseases. The aim is to analyze dynamics’ strengthening of platelets' intravascular activity of rats in conditions of experimental consequent development of arterial hypertension and dyslipidemia. The study used 68 male-rats of Vistar line at the age of 2.5-3 months. Control group was composed of 33 animals. Experimental animals (35 rats) were developed at first – arterial hypertension (usage of cardioangiol pathogenic diet for 2 weeks and impact of cold at the end) and then - dyslipidemia (application of rich in calories diet at lowering of motor activity). The rats from experimental group were examined 5 times during the research. The rats from control group were examined twice - at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. While examining experimental and control rats we applied biochemical, hematological and statistical methods of investigation. At consequent arterial hypertension and dyslipidemia development experimental rats had gradual strengthening of lipids' peroxidation processes in plasma (acylhydroperoxides increased in 2.1 times) and platelets (acyl hydroperoxides increased in 1.4 times). Already at arterial hypertension development rats' blood was noted to have lowering of discocytes' quantity on 5.9%, deepening during the further dyslipidemia development on 7.4% more, and reaching 24.6±0.13%. This process was accompanied by gradual increase of activated platelets' sum on 75.7% during the whole period of investigation. The number of small, middle and large platelet aggregates, freely circulating in blood during modeling of double pathology, gradually increased in 2.8 times and in 10.3 times, respectively. Control rats had stable normal level of relevant biochemical and hematological characteristics. Subsequent development of at first arterial hypertension and then – dyslipidemia in rats gradually weakened their antioxidant protection of blood plasma and platelets and strengthened POL processes in them. It also strengthened lipids' peroxidation in them. Developing abnormalities gradually strengthened intravascular platelets' activity and their aggregative ability in experimental animals. The created model allowed tracking the earliest symptoms of strengthening of platelets’ intravascular activity against the background of AH and dyslipidemia development.

Open Access Review Article

A Review - Biology, Aquaculture and Medical Use of Seahorse, Hippocampus spp

Yuan Yuan Zhang, Bo-Mi Ryu, Zhong-Ji Qian

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/34152

Seahorse has been used as medicine in Asian countries such as China, Korea, Japan and Vietnam for thousands of years. However, in western countries, the ecology of seahorse has been a focus of attention of many researchers for years. The seahorse aquaculture is popular with aqua farm worldwide for the sake of the increased demand of seahorse. This review described the biology, aquaculture and medical use of seahorse. To present the ecology and highlight the role of seahorse in traditional medicine and biomedical properties, this article based on the information collected from scientific literatures from Elsevier, Wiley, Science direct and CNKI.