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Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of the Response of Four Native to the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast Psammophytes to Simulated Flooding Experiments

Stoyan Vergiev

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/35883

Aims: This study aimed 1) to determine and compare the effects of flooding stress, caused by storms on whole plants of four native to the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast psammophytes and how long their rhizomes can remain viable in sea water; and 2) to investigate post-immersion changes in plant biomass and allocation to above- and below-ground biomass in order to determine and compare their capacity as dune stabilizers.

Methodology: Two simulated flooding experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, whole plants were immersed in sea water for 20 days. Visible morphological changes of leaves, stems and roots are recorded and assessed in 12 parameters. In the second experiment, rhizomes were immersed in sea water, were planted and allow growing for one month before harvesting in order to establish rhizomes viability, biomass and root/shoot ratio.

Results: Conducted flooding experiments established that investigated psammophytes were very tolerant to immersion impact and salt stress. Whole plants stay viable longer than the flood with a maximum duration along the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, and rhizomes were able to regenerate after 30 days in seawater. Statistical analysis of experimental data demonstrates that immersion in sea water increases rhizomes viability, biomass and allocation to root biomass, whereas other factors, such as duration of immersion and temperatures of sea water have not significant effect.

Conclusion: Investigated psammophytes show high tolerance to sea water immersion and high viability during the simulated flooding experiments. Investigated species from family Cyperaceae are less tolerant to water immersion than those from Poaceae. According to growth response, Leymus racemosus subsp. sabulosus demonstrates a high potential to be a key species for dune stabilization, followed by Ammophila arenaria, Carex colchica and Galilea mucronata. All psammophytes could contribute to the protection of coastal sands during storms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cloning and Sequence Comparison of Phytase (Phy) Genes from Aspergillus niger and Bacillus atrophaeus

Fawzi Al-Razem, Bayan Mohammad Adnan Abu Zena, Dalia Abu Issa

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/35856

Aims: To clone phytase genes from prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms and provide partial sequence comparisons between the two systems in relative to their protein functional domains.

Study Design: Gene cloning of Phy genes from Bacillus atrophaeus and Aspergillus niger strain 103 and analysis of their amino acid sequence.

Methodology: Genomic DNA was isolated from microbial prokaryotic and eukaryotic Bacillus atrophaeus and Aspergillus niger strain 103, respectively. Their phytase genes were isolated and cloned, sequenced and translated into amino acid sequences. Their genes were analyzed and compared with their homologues that are available on the GenBank database using appropriated bioinformatics tools. 

Results: This study reports the successful cloning of phytase genes from Bacillus atrophaeus and Aspergillus niger strain 103 and the partial characterization and comparison of their sequences in relative to conserved domains that may affect their enzymatic activities. Both genes possess the required phytase activity domains even though no significant homology exists between the bacterial and fungal Phy genes.

Conclusion: Phytase genes possess a wide spectrum of hydrolyzing enzyme structures that support the required ability of the enzyme to degrade phytate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physiological Reaction of Erythrocytes’ Micro Rheological Features in Newborn Piglets on Unfavourable Environmental Factors

V. I. Maksimov, A. V. Parakhnevich, A. А. Parakhnevich, T. I. Glagoleva, N. V. Kutafina

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/35866

The aim of research is to find out peculiarities of erythrocytes’ micro rheological features in piglets having undergone the impact of the most abundant unfavourable factors of the environment. We observed 78 newborn piglets having undergone the impact of unfavourable environmental factors: 25 – prenatal iron deficiency, 28 – had undergone acute hypoxia at birth and 25 – had undergone super cooling with consequent development of dyspepsia. Control group was composed of 36 healthy newborn piglets. In our research biochemical, hematological and statistical methods of investigation were applied. There was found similar intensity increase of lipids’ peroxidation against the background of comparable weakening of their antioxidant protect ability in blood plasma and erythrocytes of newborn piglets having undergone mentioned above unfavourable environmental factors. Newborn piglets with iron deficiency, after acute hypoxia and super cooling were found to have the rise of similar evidence of reversibly changed (approximately on 45%) and irreversibly changed (nearly in 2 times) erythrocytes’ forms, rise of erythrocytes’ involvement into aggregates on more than 40% and quantity rise of their aggregates on more than 30%. Under the impact of unfavourable environmental factors newborn piglets had activation of lipids’ peroxidation in blood plasma and erythrocytes in the result of comparable weakening of their antioxidant protectability. Newborn piglets, which had undergone the impact of unfavourable environmental factors, had increased the quantity of erythrocytes’ changed forms and strengthening of their ability to aggregation, the degree of which didn’t depend on the character of preceded impact on their bodies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Land Quality Management for Ecotourism Development; Case of Mahallat District

Sharareh Pourebrahim, Solmaz Amoushahi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/35229

This study aimed to evaluate a combination of Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) methods for land quality management in Ecotourism planning for identifying the most important strategies for ecotourism development planning. Mahallat city was chosen as the study area. It is located in the south-eastern of Markazi Province, Iran. In this study, the internal strategic factors (strengths and weaknesses) and external factors (opportunities and threats) were identified. Then, MCDM, especially Analytic Network Process (ANP) and decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) techniques, were used in the matrix to evaluate and prioritize these factors and to develop proposed strategies. Then, using a designed network model, the proposed strategies were weighted and the main strategies of the evaluation matrix were ranked. Research findings revealed that the most effective strategy is an emphasis on nature tourism and eco-tourism development due to natural, historical and cultural attractions as an absorbent factor and tourism development model in order to enhance regional development. Based on the results, this research successfully identified the effective strategies in the framework of weakness and strengths, opportunities and threats and their weights and ranks of criteria by ANP and DEMATEL. Finally, this method helped to make suitable strategies for sustainable development of ecotourism in Mahallat district. Therefore, the study showed that MCDM can be applied to manage land and implement land use programs as a qualitative method.

Open Access Review Article

Drought Effects on Soybean Cultivation - A Review

Cibelle Engels, Fabiana Aparecida Rodrigues, Ademir de Oliveira Ferreira, Thiago Massao Inagaki, Alexandre Lima Nepomuceno

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/35232

The soybean crop is exposed to many adverse environmental conditions; among them, it is the drought stress, which is responsible for great losses on crop yield. The crops productivity improvement may have a limit due stress factors, as noted by its stabilization in the past years in 80% of their theoretical yield potential. These stress factors may be biotic or abiotic, affecting the plants growth and development. Among the abiotic factors, the drought is considered the most devastating, affecting all plants growth and development stages causing huge losses in soybean yield. In the field, such stresses occur simultaneously, limiting the plants growth and development, compromising sustainable agriculture. This review article focused on Drought effects on soybean cultivation. Field studies that indicate the performance of cultivars in different drought patterns are necessary to identify the genotypes response mechanisms. Recent studies in southern Brazil on drought response soybean were generated under greenhouse conditions and fields showing that plants can modulate the metabolism in response to this adverse drought circumstance by targeting different mechanisms, aiming to survival and keep productivity. Studies have shown that cultivars with lower daily water use before flowering, but higher use after flowering had higher grain yield and higher water use efficiency. In the future, since the drought events tend to become more severe and frequent in Brazil and worldwide, the study and obtainment of drought resistant cultivars is necessary.