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Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Bast Fibres of the Stem of Carica papaya L. for Application as Reinforcing Material in Green Composites

Andreas Kempe, Anne Göhre, Thea Lautenschläger, André Rudolf, Michaela Eder, Christoph Neinhuis

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 245-252
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/15407

Aims: The production of green composites based on natural fibres is rising with regard to increasing environmental problems and declining fossil raw materials. Bast fibres of papaya (Carica papaya L.) accumulate on plantations at a large scale but remain an unused resource. The characterisation of the bast allows a first evaluation of the potential of papaya-fibres for use in composites.
Study Design: Material testing.
Place and Duration of Study: Institute for Botany, Technische Universität Dresden and Fraunhofer Institute for Nondestructive Testing Dresden (IZFP-D), 2011 and 2013.
Methodology: The anatomic structure of fibre cells and the microfibril angle of the cell walls were determined as well as a chemical analysis to determine the proportion of cellulose, lignin and hemicelluloses of the fibre cells. In addition, samples of fibres were subjected to static uniaxial tension tests revealing Young's modulus, tensile strength and breaking strain at different plant ages and of two origins.
Results: Fibres of a two-year-old plant exhibited a Young's modulus of 10.7 GPa, a tensile strength of 101 MPa and a breaking strain of 1.2%, on average. Fibres from six-months-old plants, grown under greenhouse conditions had a mean Young's modulus of 4.4 GPa, tensile strength of 49 MPa and a breaking strain of 1.4%. Having one of the lowest fibre densities with ca. 0.85 g/cm³, papaya fibres exhibit noteworthy specific mechanical properties among all studied natural fibers.
Conclusion: These data allow us a first estimation for a potentail use in green composites as reinforcing material.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotic and Heavy Metal Resistance of Aeromonas spp. Isolated from Diseased Red Hybrid Tilapia (Oreochromis sp.)

Lee Seong Wei, M. T. Mustakim, I. Noor Azlina, A. K. Zulhisyam, M. N. An’amt, Wendy Wee, N. M. Huang

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 264-269
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/15035

A total of 300 bacterial isolates of Aeromonas spp. were isolated from diseased Red Hybrid Tilapia, Oreochromis sp. All the bacterial isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility against 16 types of antibiotics by using disk diffusion method. The antibiotics tested in this study were nalidixic acid (30 µg/disk), oxolinic acid (2 µg/disk), compound sulphonamides (300 µg/disk), doxycycline (30 µg/disk), tetracycline (30 µg/disk), novobiocin (30 µg/disk), chloramphenicol (30 µg/disk), kanamycin (30 µg/disk), sulphamethoxazole (25 µg/disk), flumequine (30 µg/disk), erythromycin (15 µg/disk), ampicillin (10 µg/disk), spiramycin (100 µg/disk), oxytetracycline (30 µg/disk), amoxycillin (25 µg/disk) and fosfomycin (50 µg/disk). Heavy metal resistance pattern of the present bacterial isolates against mercury (Hg2+), chromium (Cr6+), copper (Cu2+) and Zinc (Zn2+) was also determined by using two fold agar dilution method. The results of the present study showed the percentage of antibiotic sensitivity of the present bacterial isolates ranged from 22.5% to 100% in which most of the present bacteria isolates were not sensitive to ampicillin. On the other hand, all the bacteria isolates were sensitive to nalidixic acid, flumequine and oxytetracycline. Overall, the total of sensitive case was reported as 75.5%, whereas antibiotic resistance and intermediate sensitive case was recorded as 19.0% and 5.5%, respectively. Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) value was recorded at 0.01. The MAR value indicated that the sampled fish were not highly exposed to the tested antibiotics. Low resistance activity of the present bacterial isolates to the tested heavy metals (Cr6+: 35.8%, Zn2+: 5.5%, Cu2+: 25% and Hg2+: 30%) revealed that low exposure of the tested heavy metals to the sampled fish.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Phosphorus and Organic Manure Levels on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa)

Seyed Hossein Mahmoodi Nezhad Dezfully, Reza Isvandi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 270-277
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/14705

To evaluate the effects of phosphorus and organic matter on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of tuberose cv. Double (Polianthes tuberosa L.) an the experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Center in Safiabad, in year 2011 and 2012 cropping seasons. It was a factorial laid out in randomized block design with 12 treatment combinations and 3 replications. The first factor was different levels of phosphorus; P1=0, P2=75, P3=150 and P4= 225 in kg P2O5 ha-1 from triple super phosphate and the second factor consisted of different levels of organic manure; OM1=0, OM2=20 and OM3=40 ton ha-1. Results showed that phosphorus fertilizer had significant (at the 5% level) effect on leaf phosphorus content and the best treatment was application of 75 kg P2O5 ha-1 but it had no significant effect on the other parameters. Effect organic manure on stem length was significant at 5% level (the best treatment was application of 20 ton organic manure ha-1) and its effects on leaf phosphorus and bulb weight were significant at 1% level so the best treatments were application of 20 and 40 ton organic manure ha-1, respectively. Interactive effects of phosphorus and organic manure were significant on some parameters. found, P4OM2 treatment (225 kg P2O5 ha-1 and 20 ton organic matter ha-1) was the appropriate treatment for optimal growth of stem length, number of florets, P2OM2 treatment (75 kg P2O5 ha-1 and 20 ton organic matter ha-1) was the appropriate treatment for optimal growth of spike length and stem diameter. P3OM2 treatment (150 kg P2O5 ha-1 and 20 ton organic matter ha-1) was the appropriate treatment for optimal growth of number and weight of bulbs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gallbladder Expression of Metallothionein I/II in Cholecystolithiasis. A Pilot Study

Harry Grbas, Hrvoje Jakovac, Dražen KovaÄ, Biserka Radošević-Stašić

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 278-287
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/15587

Aims: To investigate the expression of metallothioneins (MTs) and free zinc content in gallbladderassociated with cholecystolithiasis.
Study Design: Gallbladder tissue samples were obtained from patients, subjected to laparoscopic cholecystectomy, owing to the cholecystolithiasis, verified by hematological examination and by ultrasonography. Operations were performed in clinical stable phase of gallstone disease.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Surgery, Clinical Hospital Center, Departments of Physiology and Immunology and Department of Pathology, Medical Faculty, University of Rijeka, between June 2011 and June 2012.
Methodology: In 25 collected gallbladders the degree of inflammation was classified as subacute (SA) or chronic cholecystitis (CC), according to the standard pathohistological analysis and intensity of NF-KB expression. The tissue expression of MT-I/II isoforms and free zinc content were visualized by immunohistochemistry, using the monoclonal anti-MT I+II antibodies and zinc fluorophore-Zinquin. The cell-based staining quantification was performed by Cell F v3.1 software.
Results: The data have shown that in 20 patients out of 25 patients the gallstones induced the CC with upregulation of NF-KB in gallbladder epithelium, as well as that high inflammation was followed by overexpression MTs and accumulation of Zn. in 15 and 12 out of 20 patients, respectively. Furthermore, histomorphometric analysis revealed that the average grey values for MT I/II in CC arose from 49.8 +/- 3.3 (in SC) to 195.4 +/- 15.5 (in epithelial cells) and from 62.3 +/- 21.0 to 194.8 +/- 20.1 (in stromal cells) (P<0.01). Similarly, average values for zinc ions increased from 25.6+/- 7.4 (in SC) to 118.8 +/- 5.7 (in epithelial cells). Besides,in areas of high inflammation several CD3+ cells were found in contact with MT+ epithelial, endothelial and monocyte-like cells.
Conclusion: The data point to high local activation of MT/zinc network in chronic cholecystitis associated by gallstones, emphasizing its regulatory functions in inflammatory environment.

Open Access Review Article

A Quantum Mechanical Aspect of Enzyme Action: Enzymes as Information Driven Quantal Measurement Engines

András Balázs

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 215-233
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/14298

In this introductory paper we overview existing approaches to enzyme – catalysed reactions. From the Michaelis – Menten kinetics to quantum scatterings several models are considered. We try to introduce our ”information – driven measurement engines” (an other model of enzyme action) in relation to existent theories. We conclude that our approach is a special type of quantum mechanical treatment of enzyme catalysed reactions, in its nascent form. It is, we suppose, stands more in relation to a hypothetical gas – phase scattering, maybe even resonance scattering, as a one – dimensional vacuum energy – dependent motion along the reaction path. We are aware that at this time, no realistic gas – phase scattering is available in the area, and our approach is thus similarly hypothetical. Still, it might provide a fresh view on enzyme – catalysed reactions, utilising a somewhat unusual Hamiltonian second – order tensor operator formalism. During arriving at our goal, we give some more extensive review devoted to current catalyzed and uncatalized reaction investigations, of a pure chemical and biochemical nature, exploring both experimental and theoretical procedures.

Open Access Review Article

The systematic Review of Quinolones Resistance of Escherichia coli Isolated from Urinary Tract Infections in Iran over the Last Ten Years (2001-2011)

Alisha Akya, Farid Najafi, Nasrollah Sohrabi, Siavash Vaziri, Faizolah Mansouri, Mohsen Azizi, Farideh Akbarzadeh

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 234-244
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/12676

Aims: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one the most common bacterial infection and Escherichia coli (E. coli) has been isolated from the majority of UTI cases. On the other hand, the rate of UTIs caused by quinolones resistant E. coli is increasing worldwide. We aimed to perform a systematic review of quinolones resistance of E. coli isolated from urinary tract infections in Iran over last ten years.
Methodology: In this study the data of 53 cross-sectional studies from 2001 to 2011 on quinolones resistance of E. coli isolated from UTIs in 22 cities of Iran was collected. The data was statistical analyzed using SPSS version 18 and Stata software.
Results: Of 53 studies, 44, 41, 8 and 6 studies tested ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin and ofloxacin, respectively. Majority of studies, 31(58.5%), was done on out-patients. For susceptibility testing of isolates, 49 and 4 of studies used disk diffusion and E test method, respectively. Forty six of studies (86.8%) used mid-stream urinesample, while the rest used other methods for sampling including catheter, suprapubic aspiration and urine bag. Overall resistance for nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin were 42.3%, 28.2%, 48.5% and 24.1%, respectively. The results of most studies were significantly heterogenic (P<0.001).
Conclusion: Results indicated the resistance to quinolones including ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and nalidixic acid is quite high. Given the increased resistance to these drugs, urine culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing are essential for the treatment of UTIs.

Open Access Review Article

Linking Induction and Transrepression of PPARβ/δ with Cellular Function

Noelia Perez-Diaz, Louise Mackenzie

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 253-263
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2015/15064

Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors and members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. PPARβ/δ is ubiquitously expressed and has a central role in homeostasis, and has been suggested as a therapeutic target for a number of metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. This important nuclear receptor controls transcription under different modes of molecular activity which directly control the cellular function and fate of tissues. This complex activity of induction and transrepression of gene expression (with and without exogenous ligands) is poorly understood and yet understanding this molecular control through novel drug development would led to control over a key molecular switch in all cells. This review outlines the main molecular mechanisms of PPARβ/δ, and links the modes of activity to the signalling pathways in inflammation, proliferation and senescence, with the goal to understand how this will translate into novel drug design to control the PPARβ/δ molecular switch.