Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Metarhizium anisopliae on Different Group Size of Coptotermes heimi

Ambash Riaz, Khalid Z. Rasib, Shahid Raza

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/33932

Coptotermes heimi is a destructive subterranean termite species commonly found on the Indian subcontinent. Environmental concerns of chemical insecticides usage forced scientist to concentrate on alternative methods. Metarhizium anisopliae is observed to have pathogenic effects against various arthropods. This study focused on the interaction of M. anisopliae with C. heimi to check its virulence against the termites. Specific spore concentration of M. anisopliae (1.1×107conidia/ml) was applied on different group sizes of termites to check if termite population has any effect on its mortality. Results showed that with the increase of group size of termites, mortality rate decreases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile of Bacteria Isolated from Drinking Water Sources in Amai Kingdom, Delta State, Nigeria

Gideon I. Ogu, Inamul Hasan Madar, Alexander A. Olueh, Iftikhar Aslam Tayubi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/34326

Aims: To investigate the susceptibility profile of bacterial isolates from hand dug wells and borehole waters within the Amai Kingdom, in Ukwuani Local Government Area of Delta State.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Novena University, between April 2016 and November 2016.

Methodology: A total of 30 boreholes and 30 well water samples were randomly sourced using sterile tightly locked plastic containers and transported to the laboratory within 2 hours. The water samples were cultured using spread plate method and the pure bacterial isolates tested for susceptibility to some commercial antibiotic discs using the Kirby-Bauer method.

Results: Bacteria were isolated respectively from 50% and 100% of the borehole and well water samples collected. A total of 45 bacterial isolates, distributed among the genera Staphylococcus (6.7%), Bacillus (10.0%), Escherichia (16.7%), Pseudomonas (11.7%) Enterobacter (8.3%), Proteus (10.0%), and Klebsiella(11.7%), was encountered. Majority of the isolates were sensitive to Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, Ciprofloxacin, Ceftriaxone, Gentamicin, Ofloxacin, and resistant to Ampicillin, Cotrimoxazole and Tetracycline. Bacillus sp  (56%) was more resistant (p=.05) than S. aureus (33%), while the most resistant Gram-negative bacteria was Pseudomonas sp. (54%), followed by both E. coli (44%) and Klebsiella sp (44%), and both Proteus sp., (33%) and Enterobacter sp. (33%). Drug resistance was observed in at least three of the tested antibiotic disks.

Conclusion: Findings from this study suggest that the drinking water sources in the Amai Kingdom are bacteriologically poor, with multiple-drug resistant bacteria, and thus of public health importance. Public education on dangers associated with indiscriminate dumping of waste and drug abuse is strongly recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Oxidative Damage and Reproductive Toxicity Associated with Antouka Super® in Male Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica): The Protective Effects of Hydroethanolic Leaves Extract of Persea americana

Ngoumtsop Victor Herman, Ngoula Ferdinand, Ngouateu Kenfack Omer Bebe, Kenfack Augustave, Nguemmogne Tamdem Ghislaine, Mutwedu Valence, Tchoffo Herve, Azafack Kana Dorice, Deutcheu Nienga Sorelle, Manjeli Yacouba

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/34098

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective role of hydroethanolic leaves extract of The present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective role of Hydroethanolic leaves Persea americana (HEPA) against reproductive toxicity induced by Antouka Super® (AS) in male Japanese quail. The study was carried out in the Teaching and Research Farm of University of Dschang between February and May 2016. Forty (40) immature male Japanese quails (28 days old), were divided into five groups of 8 birds each and subjected to the following treatments: Group 1, birds receiving 10 ml/kg b.w of distilled water (negative control group (CO-); Group 2, birds receiving 75 mg of AS/kg (positive control group (CO+). while groups 3, 4 and 5 were administered 50, 100 and 200 mg/ kg b.w of HEPA respectively together with AS at 75 mg/kg. All the test solutions were orally administered once a day for 60 days using an endogastric canule. Dissection of the vas deferent was performed to obtain spermatozoa. The protective effects of HEPA on the organ weights, serum hormones, oxidative stress biomarkers, sperm characteristics and histology changes in the testes were evaluated. Results revealed that exposure to AS significantly (p<0.05) decreased reproductive organ weights (testes, epididymis and vas deferens); the levels of testicular proteins and of serum hormones (LH, FSH and Testosterone). This insecticide also significantly (p<0.05) decreased sperm characteristics (mobility, viability and density) and fertility indices (percentage of fertile eggs, hatching rate and chick survival rate after hatching), and increased the sperm abnormalities (minor and major) and the embryonic and post-embryonic mortality rate. In addition, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), total peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) significantly (p<0.05) decreased in the testes of AS treated quails. While the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) significantly (p<0.05) increased compared with the values recorded in the negative control group birds. Histopathological examination of the testes of AS treated quails revealed testicular lesions characterized by moderate to severe degenerative changes of seminiferous tubules and incomplete spermatogenesis. Administration of HEPA to treated birds alleviates the reproductive toxicity and testicular oxidative damage induced by AS. Thus, exposure of male Japanese quails to AS induce oxidative stress and impairment on the reproductive parameters. These effects can be mitigated by the administration of HEPA.

Open Access Original Research Article

Serum Level of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, Triiodothyronine, Thyroxin and Weight Rate in Caucasian Pit Viper (Viperidae: Gloydius Halys Caucasicus) of Iran during Different Seasons

Saeedeh Fani, Qulam Hussein Vaezi, Fatemeh Todehdehghan

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/33828

In this research, concentration of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4) and their relationship with body weight in Caucasian viper have been studied. The female Caucasian pitviper (n=26) were collected from Lar in Tehran province, the animal's body weight and length, and serum TSH, T3 and T4 levels were measured by electrochemiluminescence method during autumn, winter and summer in year 2014. The results showed T3 hormone concentration in autumn was 0.74± 0.06 nmol/Lt that was higher than its level in winter, 0.46± 0.8 nmol/Lt (P≥0.05) and no significant different with its concentration in summer 0.76 ± 0.05 nmol/Lt. The concentration of T4 hormone in autumn, 0.84±0.28 nmol/Lt was higher than winter 0.76±0.033 nmol/Lt (P≥0.19) and also summer 0.64 ±0.018 nmol/Lt (P≥0.001). TSH concentration was 0.005 nmol/Lt in autumn; reach to 0.013±0.008 nmol/Lt in winter and again 0.005 nmol/Lt in summer that shows relative increase in winter (P≥0.05). Mean body length and weight of female Caucasian vipers were 47.50±0.69 cm and 50.80±2.53 gram in autumn and 34.33±2.33 cm, 43.33±2.40 gram in winter and 51.64±1.26 cm and 64.78±3.47 gram in summer, respectively. This is indicated that Caucasian vipers' body weight is decreased in winter could be because of body fat consumption, inaccessibility to food and beginning of reduction of nutritional activity at the end of autumn compare to summer that may result to lower body weight in winter. Concentration of T3 and TSH hormone is decreased in summer and increased in winter. It seems by decreasing temperature in winter serum concentration of TSH is increased and viper`s body weight reduced (Fat consumption) to provide required energy and heat for Iranian Caucasian viper survival. So, seasonal and temperature variation has significant effect on Iran Caucasian viper`s thyroid hormones that is important for animal maintenance. Although further study is needed.

Open Access Original Research Article

P53 Expression in Response to Equigan Induced Testicular Injury and Oxidative Stress in Male Rat and the Possible Prophylactic Effect of Star Anise Extracts

Thanaa A. El-Masry, Nora H. Al-Shaalan, Ehab Tousson, Kadreya El-Morshedy, Areej Al-Ghadeer

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/34318

Objectives: Equigan is an anabolic androgenic steroid that developed for veterinary use to improve the food producing animal growth rate through promoting protein synthesis and muscle growth. The current study aimed to investigate the possible prophylactic effect of star anise extracts (SAE) response of to Equigan induced testicular injury, oxidative stress, P53 expression in male rats.

Materials and Methods: Forty adult male rats were equally divided into four groups. 1st Control group, while 2nd group were rats receive orally SAE for 12 weeks. 3rd group include rats that injected intramuscularly with Equigan for 12 weeks while 4th group were co-treated group where rats injected with Equigan and SAE for 12 weeks.

Results: Testis sections in Equigan treated rat induced abnormal arrangement of spermatogenesis cycles; disturbance and decrease in the spermatogenic cells, many of a syncytial cells were detected with marked decrease in sperms numbers and moderate depleted and degenerated Leydig cells. Testicular immunohistochemical observation after Equigan intramuscular injections showed a significant increase of the apoptotic protein p53. Co-administration of SAE with Equigan improved the testicular injury and P53 alternations.

Conclusions: SAE could scavenge free radicals and produce beneficial effects against Equigan damage in testis and P53 alternations.