Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Physico-chemical Parameters of Soils in Fallowing Farmlands and Pit Toilet Environments as it Affects the Abundance of Geohelminthes in Emohua Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria

Owhoeli Ovutor, Imafidor Helen, Grace D. B. Awi-waadu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/31546

Background: This study was conducted to determine the effects of physico-chemical parameters of soils in environments used for open defecation on the abundance of geohelminths in Emohua, Rivers State, South South, Nigeria.

Methods: A total of 720 soil samples were collected randomly from soils found in fallowing farmlands used for open defaecation and around pit toilet environments in Mgbuitanwo, Isiodu, and Rumuche Communities in Emohua local Government Area of Rivers State. Two hundred and forty samples were collected randomly from each of the communities between the months of January- June 2013 and 2014 respectively. The samples were analysed for temperature, pH, and organic content and Centrifugal flotation method was used to examine the samples for geohelminths.                                                                                                                   

Results: Evaluation after two variations gave an average of 198(55%) of the soil samples as positive for geohelminths as follows; 16(4.4%), 131(36.3%) and 51(14.1%) for clayey, loamy and sandy soils respectively. This was statistically significant (p<.05). Results also showed soil temperature mean 27.2°C ± 5.2 S.D, soil  pH mean 6.3 ± 2.5 S.D and soil organic matter mean 12.7% ± 3.6 S.D, clay soil mean 16 ± 4 S.D, loam soil mean 115.5 ± 10.7 S.D and sandy soil mean 47.5 ± 6.9. The geohelminths recovered from the samples were 293 as follows; Clayey: 25(8.5%), Loamy: 189(64.5%) and Sandy: 76(26%). Ascaris lumbricoides 92(31.4%), Trichurisspp. 55(19.5%), Ancylostoma duodenale 38(12.9%), Strongyloidies spp. 12(4%), Entrobius spp. 10(3.4%), Trichostrongylus spp. 5(1.6%), Schistosoma mansoni 2(0.6%), Meloidogyne spp. 48(16.4%), Radopholus spp. 1(0.3%), Aphelencoidies spp. 1(0.3%), Bayliascaris spp. 5(1.7%), Toxocara spp. 21(7.2%) and Ancylostomacanis 2(0.6%).

Conclusion: Due to the presence of human, plant and animal infecting geohelminths in the area, the Government should reintroduce sanitary inspection of our environments to check the indiscriminate and unhygienic disposal of human waste.

Open Access Original Research Article

Flaxseed Oil Effectively Reduces the Risk of Development of Atherosclerosis in Rats Fed on High Cholesterol Diet

Zeinab Y. Ali, Mohammad El-Yamany, Muhammad Tawfeeq, Marwa Y. Elhariry, Hanan H. Ahmad

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/34617

Background: The quantity and type of dietary fatty acids play an important role in the risk development of cardiovascular disease.

Aims: The current study was designed to investigate fatty acid profile of flaxseed oil (FO)  and assessment the possible cardiovascular protective potentials of FO on Sprague-Dawley rats fed on high cholesterol diet (HCD) for 12 weeks and explores the possible mechanism of action.

Methodology: Fatty acid profile of FO was investigated by Gas Chromatography- Flame Ionization Detector (GC/FID). Animals were divided randomly into equal five groups as follows: Group 1: fed on the basal diet and served as control group. Group 2: fed on HCD for 12 weeks. Group 3-4: fed on HCD along with FO at two doses of 270 and 540 mg/Kg b.w/day, respectively. Group 5: fed on HCD and received a human equivalent dose of rosuvastatin, approved drug that slow plaque buildup in arteries.

Results: GC/FID analysis revealed that FO has a unique and healthy fatty acid profile with 67.4 percent as α-linolenic acid (ALA), giving a very favorable omega-6:omega-3 ratio‎ of 0.147:1. HCD is effective in triggering hyperlipidemia with elevation of serum myocardial diagnostic enzymes, and enhancement of myocardial inflammatory response and alteration in the redox state. However, daily co-administration of FO at two doses and HCD for 12 weeks significantly preserved all these biochemical changes in dose dependent manner. The histopathology examination of the aortic tissue was in parallel with the biochemical results. This beneficial cardioprotective effect was more pronounced in rosuvastatin followed by FO at a dose of 540 mg/Kg/day, which equivalent to human recommended doses of 6 g of flaxseed oil containing 4.04 g of ALA supplements per day. Histological examination of aortic tissues supports our biochemical results.

Conclusion: Flaxseed oil enriched with ALA, an omega-3 fatty acid effectively reduces the risk development of atherosclerosis in a dose dependent manner in rats through anti-inflammatory mechanism. Further studies still needed to standardize the flaxseed oil to justify its use in a suitable pharmaceutical form to choose the appropriate dose for human.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Propagation of Oreocallis grandiflora (Lam.) R. Br., A Medicinal Threatened Plant

Percy Olivera-Gonzales, Edson M. Yldefonzo, Elder M. Mestanza, Carmen Tamariz-Angeles

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/34724

Aims: To promote the conservation and biotechnology approach of Oreocallis grandiflora, a promising wild, medicinal and agroforestry Peruvian plant, a methodology for its in vitro propagation was performed.

Study Design:  Disinfection and germination of seed, followed by shoot multiplication and rooting using in vitro techniques.

Place and Duration of Study: Follicles were collected in Yupa - Huaraz (9°30'26.76"S, 77°28'21.33"W) and the experimental procedure was done between January 2013 and December 2016.

Methodology: Follicles with different colors were disinfected with ethanol 70% at different times, and seeds were place on basic culture medium composed by ½ Murashige and Skoog, sucrose (30 g·L-1) and phytagel (3 g·L-1), at pH 5.7. Shoot induction was performed using N6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) at 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 mg·L-1. For root induction, α-naphthalenacetic acid (NAA) or gibberellic acid (GA3) at 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 mg·L-1 were used.

Results: Disinfection of follicles at 15 and 20 min. of 70% ethanol were successful at 100%, and all seed germinated without addition of any growth regulator. The best shoot induction treatments were 3.0 and 4.0 mg·L-1 of BAP at 60 days of PGR exposition. For the root development PGR supplement was not necessary, but GAimproved rooting percentage and explants growth while NAA induced callusing.

Conclusion: This is the first report of in vitro propagation of O. grandiflora, and provides important results to promote its domestication, ex situ conservation, and biotechnological applications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Water Binding Capacity, pH, Chemical Composition and Microstructure of Livestock Meat and Poultry

Eleonora Okuskhanova, Maksim Rebezov, Zhanibek Yessimbekov, Anuarbek Suychinov, Natalya Semenova, Yaroslav Rebezov, Olga Gorelik, Oksana Zinina

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/34413

This paper shows the results of analysis of chemical composition, water binding capacity, pH and microstructure of maral meat, goat meat, lamb, and turkey meat. From the analysis, the high content of protein and ash is observed in turkey meat, fat prevails in lamb, and less amount in maral meat and goat meat. pH value lies between 5.7 (turkey white meat) and 6.4 (goat meat). Low value of water binding capacity is detected in turkey meat (58.2% in red meat, 59.2% in white meat) and high value – in maral meat 79.57%. The morphology and microstructure of meat have some differences in position and diameter of muscle fibers. Micrographic investigation shows that the largest diameter of muscle fibers was observed in turkey white meat (46.58 µm) and the smallest – in muscle tissue of lamb (29.92 µm). Obtained results will be useful for further processing and developing meat products.

Open Access Original Research Article

Lipid Peroxidation and Enzymatic Antioxidants among Breast Cancer Women of African Descent in Sokoto, Nigeria

M. H. Yeldu, A. Jibrin, A. A. Ngaski, M. B. Bashir, A. S. Mainasara, B. Sani, I. Z. Wasagu, G. Aminu

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/34672

Aims: To assess lipid peroxidation and enzymatic antioxidants in breast cancer patients attending Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto-Nigeria.

Study Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in which patients with confirmed cases of breast cancer and age-and gender-matched apparently healthy individuals were studied.

Place and Duration of Study: Breast Cancer Clinic, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto and Department of Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, between January, 2015 and December, 2015.

Methodology: We included forty six (46) each of breast cancer women and controls (age range 20 to ≥70 years). Demographic and anthropometric data were obtained using questionnaires administered to each breast cancer patient and control. Serum activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione Peroxidase (GPX) and serum concentration of malondialdehyde were estimated using standard techniques.

Results: Result indicated significantly (p<0.001) lower serum activities of SOD (1.52±0.03 U/ml), CAT (1.57±0.09 U/ml) and GPX (10.25±0.29 nmol/min/ml), while MDA (21.07±0.93 µl) is significantly (p<0.001) higher in breast cancer patients compared with controls (3.54±0.06 U/ml, 5.85±0.10 U/ml, 24.53±0.17 nmol/min/ml and 8.88±0.66 µl respectively). With the exception of serum SOD which is significantly (p<0.001) lower as the cancer progresses from stage I to IV, serum activities of CAT, GPX and concentration of MDA were not significantly (p>0.05) different between the stages of the breast cancer. Serum SOD (1.47±0.04 U/ml), CAT (1.39±0.10 U/ml) and GPX (9.53±0.23 nmol /min/ml) were significantly (p<0.05, p<0.01 and p<0.001 respectively) lower, while MDA did not differ significantly (p>0.05) among the breast cancer patients on therapy compared with those not on therapy (1.62±0.07 U/ml, 1.99±0.17 U/ml and 12.07±0.54 nmol/min/ml respectively).

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that, the breast cancer patients are oxidatively stressed as evidenced by the lower serum activities of antioxidant enzymes and higher malondialdehyde concentration. It is recommended that, breast cancer patients be supplemented with antioxidants in order to prevent the oxidative onslaught by free radicals.