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Open Access Data Note

A Taxonomic Revision of Genus Polygonum L. sensu lato (Polygonaceae) for Flora of Iran

Sirous Hassannejad, Soheila Porhaeidar Ghafarbi

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/27339

The genus Polygonum L. sensu lato is revised based on articles, herbarium documents and field observations. In this article, a brief revision of this genus in Iran is presented. It was first described by Rechinger and Schiman-Czeika [1] for flora Iranica and has included up to 53 species. The last revision of this genus has been made by Mozaffarian [2], and the genus Polygonum L. sensu lato is divided into 3 genera (Polygonum L. sensu sticto, Bistorta Adans. and Persicaria Mill.). But in present study, according to our field observations and herbarium materials, the genus Polygonum L. sensu lato has to be separated into 5 different genera including Aconogonon (Meisn.) Rchb., Bistorta (L.) Scop., Fallopia Adans., Persicaria(L.) Mill., and Polygonum L. sensu stricto. The number of species for Polygonum L. sensu lato has been reduced to 25 species. For these 5 genera, new identification keys have been created.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Detection of New Delhi Metallo Beta Lactamase 1 (NDM-1) Producing Bacterial Isolates in Kano- Northwestern Nigeria

S. A. Abdullahi, A. H. Arzai, I. Yusuf, S. M. Adamu, S. Adamu, Y. A. Koki, M. A. Rabi’u, A. M. Abbas

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/33477

New Delhi Metallo Beta Lactamase 1 (NDM-1) is an enzyme with zinc ions at its active site that cleaves the amide bond of β-lactam ring and provides resistance against major classes of β-lactam antibiotics. The molecular detection of NDM-1 producing bacterial isolates from tertiary Hospitals in Kano was investigated. A total of 500 bacterial isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from samples of blood, urine, catheter tip were screened for NDM-1 over a period of 12 months. The isolates were screened preliminarily for carbapenemases using meropenem (10 µg) and imipenem (10 µg) by disc diffusion technique. Isolates of 23 mm and 21 mm for meropenem and imipenem respectively were confirmed by modified Hodge test then EDTA Disc Synergy Test using two meropenem discs, one with MEM (10 µg), and other containing 10 µl of 0.1 M anhydrous EDTA (292 µg) for Metallo Beta Lactamase (MBLs) and finally seventeen MBLs isolates were screened with NDM-1 specific primers by PCR then four PCR positive products were sequenced for blaNDM-1 gene. Of the 500 clinical bacterial isolates screened, 162(32.4%), 43(8.6%) and 4(0.8%) were found to produce carbapenemase, MBLs and NDM-1 respectively. The highest frequency of NDM-1 producers was found among Escherichia coli 3(1.6%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae 1(0.5%). Based on clinical samples, blood (25.0%) was found to have highest prevalence of MBLs followed by catheter tips (21.0%), wound swabs (11.1%) and urine (6.3%). Conclusively, NDM-1 was first detected in Kano, Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Dielectric-barrier Discharge (DBD) Cold Plasma on Water Contaminated Bacteria

Nada S. Razuqi, Fatema S. Muftin, Hamid H. Murbat, Nisreen Kh. Abdalameer

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/34642

Background and Aim: Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) cold plasma has efficient antibacterial activity on bacterial contamination at a short period of time and confirms its potential for routine used in clinical environment biodecontamination as an alternative to conventional disinfectant methods of water treatment.

The goal of this study is to evaluated  in vitro effectiveness  of DBD cold plasma on clinically important opportunistic pathogens that identified from water samples which were: Legionella E.meningosepteca andS. paucimobilis growth and to study DBD effectiveness on survival bacterial cell after  treatment.

Methodology: 100-200 cfu/ml of Seven different environmental bacterial isolates belong to Legionella (4 isolates) E.meningosepteca(one isolate) and S. paucimobilis (two isolates) at  species were subjected to eleven different exposure time of DBD cold plasma treatment rang from 15Sec to 300 Sec, and plated on suitable agar media. Results were quantified by viable count.

Results: It was found that using of different time of DBD plasma against different bacterial species give increase reduction rate until reaching lethal time of each species, this reduction time was species and isolates dependent, that the two L. pneumophila isolates have elimination time  between 90 sec and 120 sec, while, S. paucimobilis two isolates need (75 -120) sec for total reduction and E. meningoseptica need only 45 sec for total destruction. The effect of sub-lethal dose of nonthermal DBD plasma on surviving bacterial cell on some virulence factors was studied for one isolate from each of L. pneumophila and S. paucimobilis. Results show that the ability of isolates for biofilm production was strongly reduced by these two isolates and the ability of tested isolates to produced protease, lipase and acid phosphatase enzymes   were eliminated after exposed to sub-lethal dose of DBD plasma.

Conclusion: Nonthermal DBD plasma is effective in treatment of tested isolates for relatively short exposure time. These activity is strain depending and survival cell after plasma treatment loss it is ability to exhibit some virulence property.  From these investigations, it was proven that the DBD method was an effective and alternative application to conventional disinfectant methods of water treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Multi-locational Screening of Genotypes of Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp] for Resistance to Viral Infection

Essandoh A. Vera, Asare-Bediako Elvis, Asare Tettey Aaron, Kusi Francis, Aboagye Misah Lawrence

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/34547

Viral diseases are an important biotic constraint to cowpea production in sub-Saharan Africa. The use of resistant varieties is the most effective approach in managing viral diseases. In order to identify sources of resistance, thirty two cowpea genotypes were evaluated in field trials at coastal savannah, Sudan savannah and semi-deciduous forest agro-ecological zones of Ghana during 2015 major cropping season. The experiments were laid out in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Viral disease severity was assessed at 8 weeks after planting (WAP) based on 1-5 visual scale (1= no symptom, 5= very severe symptom). All the cowpea genotypes at the various locations showed symptoms of viral diseases but at varying degrees. However, the levels of incidence and severity were generally low and varied significantly (P<0.05) with locations, with forest zone having the highest incidence of 30.79%, and severity score of 1.354 whilst Sudan savanna zone had the lowest incidence of 5.62% and severity score of 1.036. Genotypes Apagbaala, UCC-366, UCC-473, UCC-484, UCC-489, UCC-490, UCC-497, UCC-514 and UCC-523 showed field resistance (mild symptoms) at all three agro-ecological zones. Genotype x location (GXL) interaction effects on mean incidence and severity were however, not significant (P>0.05). Results also showed significant differences among genotypes, locations and GXL interaction effects on plant height, canopy diameter, 100-seed weight and seed yields (P<0.05). Overall mean seed yield at UCC (5.25 t ha-1) was significantly higher than Bunso (1.186 t ha-1) and Bawku (1,188 t ha-1). Therefore genotypes that was resistant to viral infection and also gave high seed yields should be further evaluated and released as a variety for the locations where they performed better.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fruit Morphometric and RAPD Evaluation of Intraspecific Variability in Some Accessions of African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa Hochst. ex. A. Rich. Harms)

J. O. Popoola, B. M. Adebayo, A. E. Adegbite, A. C. Omonhinmin, B. D. Adewale

Annual Research & Review in Biology, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARRB/2017/34264

African Yam Bean (AYB) (Sphenostylis stenocarpa, Hochst. ex A. Rich, Harms) is an indigenous underutilized legume mainly grown in Sub-saharan African as a source of protein. Intraspecific variability studies were carried out on 10 accessions of AYB obtained from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) Ibadan, Nigeria. Fourteen (14) fruit morphometric characters and nine (9) arbitrary RAPD primers were employed for evaluation of genetic intra-specific variability among the accessions. A total of 410 bands were generated with 261 (63.66%) polymorphic bands. There is significant correlation among some reproductive characters; days to 50% flowering, pods per peduncle, number of locules per pod, number of seeds per pod, pod length and seed set percentage. These characters represent good markers of the taxon suitable for breeding and genetic improvement purposes. Morphometric and RAPD cluster analysis using UPGMA resulted in a dendrogram each; with membership similarity ranging from 72% to 93%. Two accessions (TSs56 and TSs94) recorded higher level of similarity index of 93% based on RAPD profiling. The morpho-metric evidences shows inherent stability of AYB across varied eco-geographical settings, which demands further investigation and exploitation. However, the RAPD evidences show that the species have evolved and adapted to distinct geographical setting with a clear Nigeria and Ghana demarcation. This fact can be engaged to guide future studies, germplasm collection, characterization, documentation, utilization and conservation of AYB to boost knowledge and awareness on the genetic diversity and utility of the species.